Skip to main content
Internet Archive's 25th Anniversary Logo

Full text of "Coexisting on Earth Homo sapiens Quagmire"

See other formats


Coexisting on Earth Homo sapiens Quagmire 

by: Michael C. Clark 

©2018 Michael C. Clark 

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, distributed, stored in a retrieval system, or 
transmitted in any form or by any means whatsoever, including photocopying, recording, or other electronic or 
mechanical methods without the prior written permission of the author, except in the case of brief quotations 
embodied in critical reviews, references in other literary works, and certain other noncommercial educational 
uses permitted by copyright law through fair use. 

Published in the United States of America 

First Edition 


ALoganapithecus Production 
www. coexistingonearth. com 

This Book is Dedicated to: 

Maya Rain and all the children of the world, for it is the children that are the 
future, and this is what will truly change the world in a positive way. 

and to 

Loganapithecus, who was not my dog, but a companero that found me through fate. 



Homo sapiens Lost Connection with Nature and the Aftermath 


Homo sapiens Excessive Footprint 

Homo sapiens Depredation of Earth 

Denial of Global Warming and other Environmental Issues 

Frankenstein Science and Attempting to Play God 


The Conservation of Earth 


The Future 


Going Back to Nature and Coexisting on Earth 



Having explored and been fascinated with nature since childhood in the bayous of Louisiana and the deserts of 
Arizona, 1 have always asked questions like, why don’t more Homo sapiens see the beauty and perfection in the 
natural world? Why are Homo sapiens so immersed in civilization searching for something that is right in front 
of them in nature? Why are Homo sapiens so ruthlessly destroying the Earth? In 2010,1 escaped the thralldoms 
of society and set off with my companero to explore the ecosystems of the western United States. 1 bought a 
video camera and began filming the nature 1 was encountering, but not in the traditional nature documentary 
sense of focusing on sensationalism and death while only filming one species. Instead, 1 filmed in cinema-verite 
style and shot everything, florae, faunae, weather, landscapes, geology, and even Homo sapiens depredations, in 
short everything 1 encountered. 1 did not bait, wait, or specifically seek out species, 1 simply explored and filmed 
what 1 discovered while hiking on foot. 

Between July 2010 and November 2012, we explored 33 ecosystems in 11 western states filming more than 
20,000 shots to ultimately produce 70 hours of documentary film. During those 2 years in the wilds of nature I 
contemplated much about not only nature, but about the civilized world 1 had left behind, and when we came out 
of the wilds of nature to resupply every few weeks 1 felt even more disconnected with society and that 1 had no 
real place in it. 1 could not understand how or why all this nature was just ignored by most and why so many 
were destroying the planet while so few were trying to preserve and study it. Eventually, I purchased a very 
remote property in the Chihuahuan desert of southwest Texas, where 1 set up an 18’ x 12’ cotton canvas tent with 
poles made from sotol and lived in a canyon for 2 years having very little contact with the outside world. It was 
about as close as one could get in today’s United States to that of the world which Henry David Thoreau, John 
Muir, and other eccentric outcasts of that era experienced, and the one which 1 had longed for all my life. It is 
remote in every sense of the word, 10 miles north of the Mexico border, the nearest neighbor was several miles 
away, the nearest town was a 45-minute drive away, the nearest hospital 100 miles away, and the nearest 
Walmart 250 miles away. There is no light pollution, and on a clear night one can see the Milky Way Galaxy 
with the naked eye, one of the last places in the continental United States where this is still possible. 

It was here after 15 years that my companero lived out his last days, and it was here that we finally made our 
home, coexisting in the wilds of nature making a very small footprint living naturally as we had done all along 
while on expedition. I finally edited all the nature footage shot on expedition combined with the footage which 
was shot while exploring the Chihuahuan desert ecosystem over 2 years and distributed it freely online. All the while still contemplating about civilization and the continuous depredation 
of Earth, and so, I began writing what eventually became the contents of this book. It was not originally intended 
to be a book, but more answers to my questions. Did I find any answers? I like to think so, and although there are 
many answers, my overall conclusion is that most Homo Sapiens have lost their connection with nature. 

Reading this book, one may think it negative or pessimistic and that it is too critical of Homo sapiens. Some may 
have not yet evolved enough intellectually, spiritually, or morally and will most likely not agree with many of the 
points made in this book. Others will undoubtedly find some things in this book offensive to their way of life and 
will disagree with some of the points made, but as the adage goes, you can have your own opinion but not your 
own facts. Scientific facts are not lies but the truth. Hippocrates remarked, 

“There are, in effect, two things: to know and to believe one knows. To know is science. To believe one knows is ignorance.” 

Opinions do not change the facts which are within this book, nor do they alter the reality which surrounds you 
and the rest of the world right now, the reality which so many are oblivious to. The truth can sometimes hurt, 
especially to the ignorant and closeminded which do not see the reality of the world, and thus they are even more 
so reluctant to change. I can only say this to those individuals, examine the information presented in this book, 
thoroughly examine the references quoted, and perhaps you too will come to similar conclusions and ask some 
of the same questions which are in this book. You can show Homo sapiens reality through education and access 
to the scientific truth, but unfortunately you can't make them believe it, this they must do on their own with 
reason. Thomas Paine wrote, 

"The most formidable weapon against errors of every kind is reason." 

Many are bom into a world of lies and misconceptions, and if one wants to find out the truth they must seek it 
out on their own, too few fortunate individuals are exposed to the truth early on in life, if at all. Everyone surely 
knows of some type of social and environmental issues on Earth, and they may even be affected directly, but I 
would postulate that very few know the entire scope of what is covered in this book. My hope is that the reader 
will come away with a different perspective on the issues covered in this book, as I don’t think most realize the 
vastness and more importantly the severity of the issues, much less the true history of civilization. Many of the 
issues which are discussed in this book are u nk nown to most, they receive little to no news coverage by most of 
the mainstream news media, most politicians are not focused on solving these issues, and they are rarely if ever 
spoken about during the daily conversations of most average citizens. If the issues remain unknown to most, and 
there is no political and public discourse about these issues they will most likely take far longer to solve. 

Many of the issues in the world today are caused from the majority of Homo sapiens lacking even a basic respect 
for Earth because they have no true connection with nature, being imprudent and having no forethought about 
what their negative actions will do, lack of basic environmental education, too much focus on materialism and 
greed, corrupt governments which are heavily influenced by polluting corporations, and environmental laws not 
being stringent enough or not being enforced at all. When Homo sapiens are not affected directly by an issue, 
they often do not know, and thus they do not care as it is out of sight and out of mind. Many individuals are not 
scientifically minded and do very little scientific reading, which results in much of society being extremely 
ignorant about critical scientific issues affecting the environment and society itself. 

The CIA World Factbook states, 

“The Intelligence Cycle is the process by which infonnation is acquired, converted into intelligence, and made available to 

policymakers. Information is raw data from any source, data that may be fragmentary, contradictory, unreliable, ambiguous, 

deceptive, or wrong. Intelligence is infomiation that has been collected, integrated, evaluated, analyzed, and interpreted. 

Finished intelligence is the final product of the Intelligence Cycle ready to be delivered to the policymaker. 

The three types of finished intelligence are: basic, current, and estimative. Basic intelligence provides the fundamental and 
factual reference material on a country or issue. Current intelligence reports on new developments. Estimative intelligence 
judges probable outcomes. The three are mutually supportive: basic intelligence is the foundation on which the other two are 
constructed; current intelligence continually updates the inventory of knowledge; and estimative intelligence revises overall 
interpretations of country and issue prospects for guidance of basic and current intelligence. The World Factbook, The 
President's Daily Brief, and the National Intelligence Estimates are examples of the three types of finished intelligence.” 

I have attempted to follow this intelligence standard in writing this book and have gathered the latest data from 
the most reliable and reputable sources, and when applicable ensuring the data is from scientific sources that 
have directly observed and analyzed the subject, rather than an extremist or alarmist writer which has 
manipulated and exaggerated the data. There appears to be widespread exaggeration of statistical data regarding 
environmental and social issues by some non-profit organizations in what 1 can only imagine is their attempt to 
gain support by exasperating the issues, these sources have been eliminated entirely. It is very important to check 
all the facts on a subject before making any decisions, judgments, or speculations as there are many sources 
which glamorize facts in an attempt to make them sound even more spectacular than they really are. For 
instance, if someone were to say that some 200 flora and fauna species go extinct every year, it initially sounds 
like a very large number, but if one were to compare this number with the total number of identified and 
catalogued flora and fauna species, which is 1,200,000 the 200 number seems rather small. At this rate in 100 
years 20,000 species would go extinct or 1.6%, which is a relatively small percentage of species. That is not to 
say that this number is not concerning, nor does it mean that nothing should be done to correct it, but it should 
not the focal point and it should be put into context with other data like the total number of species, is the species 
rare and there have never been more than 100 living on Earth at any given time, and ultimately what is causing 
the extinction. 

When noted, some information in this book was sourced from Wikipedia and has not yet been verified, thus the 
information is ambiguous raw data and there may be some inaccuracies in this data, it is not finished 
intelligence. Many of the statistics in this book are only for the United States and not the world as none are 
available in many instances, and therefore the actual totals are most likely far greater when contemplating the 
issues on a global scale. Some of the issues are even greater in 3 rd world countries, as they are so far behind the 
western world in conservation, recycling, education, etc. Some facts and even estimates are unavailable, or the 
data is extremely old. It makes one also wonder why so much important data is limited or hard to find in the age 
of information, why doesn’t the government publish data, even if it’s estimative intelligence, on every 
environmental and social issue for each year from the last 100 years? 1 have refrained from using number words 
like trillion, billion, or million when giving a statistic, as 1 feel number words such as these do not emphasize the 
reality and actual scale of things. Large number words seem to have become common place and are interpreted 
as just meaning allot and the reality of the actual number is not seen, 1,000,000,000,000 or trillion, 13 characters 
turns to 8, the word literally shrinks the size of the actual number and it has less impact, especially when 
attempting to visualize facts regarding subjects like population, pollution, death, etc. 

1 was told when 1 was a kid, like so many others, that 1 asked too many questions and that 1 should accept some 
things simply for what they are. 1 would not accept this, and so 1 asked even more questions as 1 still do to this 
day. Some questions are simply unanswerable but are asked more to put the subject matter or amount of 
something into perspective, (e.g. How much oil has been used since it was discovered thousands of years ago? 
How much environmental damage has been done to Earth from all the oil ever extracted?) These types of 
questions are impossible to answer accurately or even estimate, but one could surmise that it is an enormous 
amount and that it has done allot of environmental damage. Other questions are self-explanatory and are simply 
asked to convey or emphasize a point. And some questions are unknowable at this stage but should be asked as 
they will be relevant in the future. This book by far does not cover every issue or all of Homo sapiens 
depredations, there are simply too many, not to mention some of which are not even known to anyone but those 
committing the destructive act. I have attempted to keep the composition of facts in this book intact by quoting 
the sources in exact detail in order to be as meticulous as possible. Anyone can reference any of the resources 
listed in the bibliography for additional information, and some sources can also be contacted with further 

About the cover photo: This image was taken on our last expedition of Series 4, the ‘El Rio De Las Animas 
Perdidas En Purgatorio Expedition ’ in Colorado during November 2012. It was the last day of the expedition, 
winter was setting in, and the mornings were cold. We had just arisen from our chilly slumber when a vehicle 
arrived near our camp, and two males exited the vehicle with rifles entering the brush. About 30 minutes later we 
heard a gunshot, and then the loud yelping of a canine agonizing. About 10 minutes later the two men came back 
to their vehicle at which time 1 approached them, the canine endlessly yelping in the background. The first thing 
they did was anxiously boast about their recent murder in asking, “Did you hear us shoot we got one!” 1 
responded, “1 hear a coyote yelping that sounds as though you shot it and left it to suffer and die.” Their excuse 
was that it deserved to suffer, that it was a filthy disgusting animal that should be extinct. They proceeded to 
explain how it was legal to kill coyotes, and although no one had asked them, they had taken up the task of 
killing coyotes on the weekends to help keep population numbers in check, and as an added bonus they got to 
kill coyotes for sport. They drove off with the coyote was still yelping in agony. 

Over the next hour 1 heard several other coyotes in the distance calling, but to no avail, their companion would 
never answer their calls as it had been ruthlessly and senselessly murdered. About 20 minutes later, once the 
other coyotes had found their fallen pack member, they let out horrendous, violent, angry yelping noises that 
lasted some 10 minutes. As anthropomorphic as it may sound, it was as if they knew that their fellow species 
member had been murdered like so many others before it. 1 tracked where the two men had been ultimately 
leading me to the body of the dead coyote. During my two and a half years of filming the Western North 
American Ecosystems 1 always wanted to get footage of a coyote, which is quite difficult in the wild as they are 
very elusive and nocturnal. This was the only picture that 1 ever took of a coyote, and to me personally, it is a 
perfect representation of the quagmire Homo sapiens have with coexisting on Earth. 

About the first edition: 1 have contacted numerous publishers and am told the traditional publishing process is a 
slow one and that it could take up to a year or more to release the book, if at all. This book has not been 
proofread by an editor or anyone else, my forte is not writing, and I can be extremely long-winded at times. So, 
if the reader would be so kind as to forgive the author in advance for the grammatical errors and the unordered 
bibliography. Although the book is not complete in this sense, 1 am releasing the book, as is, with the errors 
intact, as 1 feel, due to the subject matter being discussed it is imperative to release now. This book is a work in 
progress, and there will no doubt be revised editions in the future which will contain grammatical corrections as 
well as additional statistical information. But the data and message of the book, as is, will be clear to most if they 
can simply look past the grammatical errors and focus more on the message being discussed. Not to justify these 
errors in any way, but other authors are notorious for having used bad grammar, (e.g. Charles Dickens for using 
run-on sentences, E.E. Cummings for not capitalizing words, H. L. Mencken for incomplete sentences, William 
Faulkner for starting a sentence with a conjunction, Jane Austen for using double negatives, William 
Shakespeare for ending a sentence with a preposition, and more recently E. L. James's ‘Fifty Shades of Grey ’ 
also contained numerous grammatical errors) 


Homo sapiens Lost Connection with Nature and the Aftermath 

Agriculture and the Origins of Modern Civilization 

‘It's not a perfect world’ is an axiom that most Homo sapiens would not argue with, but the Earth was nearly 
perfect, from a perspective of nature and the ecosystems which other biota inhabit, and this time was not in the 
too distant past. A relatively perfect, balanced, and flawless system with few depredations done by Homo 
sapiens, mainly the extinction of some large fauna species during the Pleistocene era caused by overhunting and 
destruction of habitat, which coincided with Homo sapiens colonization of Australia, New Zealand, North 
America, and Madagascar. (635) Homo and their closely related extinct relatives coexisted on Earth in very small 
numbers perfectly for some 8,000,000 or more years, but over the last 10,000 years, Homo sapiens have 
gradually lost a vital natural connection and respect for Earth, but more especially towards the florae and faunae 
which also inhabit the planet. This sudden and devastating change began around the time when mass agriculture 
was started resulting in the development of civilizations, and eventually led to, among other things, religions, 
governments, money, corporations, and a plethora of social issues. 

When mass agriculture was started around 10,000 years ago, it resulted in an abundant surplus of food, this 
quickly led to the establishment of villages, towns, city-states, and ultimately countries. This power over the 
masses with food and eventually other necessities in life, led to social hierarchies based on wealth which have 
persisted and had a negative impact not only on society, but also on the Earth as well. With agriculture, the world 
began to organize and thrive in many aspects, yet it was also the start of many negative social traits like the self¬ 
seclusion mentality, xenophobia, and nationalism. Eventually over time, social immoralities evolved not only 
within some societies themselves, but also towards other outside different societies as well, many of which still 
plague some present-day societies, (e.g. war, discrimination, racism, murder, rape, social classes, greed, slavery, 
assimilation of indigenous Homo sapiens, etc.) 

Around 300 years ago, when commercial agriculture overtook subsistence fanning with monoculture, this was 
quite possibly one of the most defining moments which helped in creating a very dilapidated future for the life 
sustaining food sources Homo sapiens consume. That is to say, it propelled Homo sapiens greed and tyranny to 
an entirely new realm, in the fact that food is a necessity and once a species is dependent on a source of readily 
available food it becomes far less independent. One can plainly see an example of this in domesticated animals 
and more especially in the dog. This commercialization of agriculture also changed the type and quality of the 
food being consumed which resulted in a range of health issues and chronic diseases of affluence which most 
western societies are currently experiencing, some at epidemic proportions, (e.g. obesity, diabetes, high blood 
pressure, cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, strokes, various cancers, etc.) 

Over the last 300 years more and more Homo sapiens have moved to civilization where all the necessities of life 
are readily available, in 2017 an estimated 50% of the 7,300,000,000 Homo sapiens living on Earth dwell in an 
urban area. (106) As a result, there has been less individual dependency on nature for sustenance, which has also 
led to less interaction with nature, (e.g. gathering food, firewood, water, etc.) Not having to rely on nature for 
daily sustenance and thus not interacting with nature on a daily basis also helped to make many Homo sapiens 
less respectful towards Earth, as it seems meaningless to be a good steward of Earth or to even care about how 
civilization has depredated the Earth and continues to ever more increasingly. What took Earth 4,500,000,000 
years to evolve into, Homo sapiens depredations over a very short period have either altered or completely 
destroyed forever. 

Most modern-day agriculture is unsustainable because of the negative and unnatural methods being used. (e.g. 
genetic modification, monoculture, synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, etc.) Some companies even go so far as to 
transport bees thousands of miles to pollinate their agricultural crops. Others attempt to change the landscape or 
practice agriculture under near impossible environmental conditions wasting precious resources. Ward 
Chesworth wrote, 

“In addition, it must be recognized that agriculture as practiced from the start, has never been sustainable. It has always 
resulted in a drawdown of the natural capital of the Earth to the degree that human beings have become a dominating 
geological force on the planetary surface, and the long-tenn persistence of human civilization has become problematical. In 
the words of Angus Martin (1975): 'How many millennia of deforestation, dust stonns and soil erosion has it taken for us to 
realize that our agricultural methodology has had serious flaws in it from the start.'” (12) 

If society would not have gone down the path of greed and tyranny started by the surplus of food could a more 
utopian world have developed? Even today there seems to be social, moral, or other issues affecting an even 
more abundant food surplus. The Green Revolution helped to produce higher yielding crops in less time and 
ultimately a food surplus, and yet there is a food distribution problem and some Homo sapiens are starving to 
death as a result. Whether it be self-inflicted from war, greed, environmental depredations, or civilization's 
expansionist tendencies, the entire history of Homo sapiens has been one in which millions continue to die from 
easily preventable causes, and in essence these deaths are a result of nothing more than a dysfunctional society. 
One might think that in modem society, with all the social, scientific, and technological advancements which 
have been made up until this point, that the basic necessities to live, (e.g. water, food, medicine, shelter, 
education, restroom access, etc.) would be available to every citizen of Earth at no monetary cost, and that they 
would also be of the highest quality. When a society begins to seek extreme financial profits from the necessities 
of life, and some Homo sapiens are living in poverty with limited or no access to these necessities, there has 
been a serious moral deterioration within that society. 

Homo sapiens Current Food Consumption 

Current food quality and availability is now mainly controlled by a few commercial food and agricultural related 
companies, and the mergers and takeovers have only continued. Dow Chemical and DuPont merged in 2017, and 
Bayer’s proposed takeover of Monsanto in 2016 which is expected to be finalized in 2018, are the most recent 
monopolies to emerge. Chinese investors have also spent $91,000,000,000 over the last 10 years purchasing 
nearly 300 foreign companies involved in food, agriculture, or chemicals. (429) These commercial food and 
agricultural related companies heavily influence agricultural, food, health, and other related government policies. 
And now with food libel laws having recently been passed in 13 U.S. states any person or group that makes 
disparaging comments about food products could potentially be sued by the food manufacturer or processor 
simple for being a critic. 

The March 2016 National Geographic Magazine, noted that out of the 30,000 known edible plants on Earth, only 
7,000 are cultivated or collected for food, and only 30 of these are staple crops which feed most Homo sapiens. 

In the United States, the U.S. farm bill and other government legislation has allowed for the subsidization of 
com, soy, wheat, and rice making these four main sources of processed unhealthy foods cheap, while healthy 
fruits and vegetables have little to no subsidization at all. These government subsidies are used to create 
environmentally destructive, inexpensive, unhealthy foods loaded in fat, salt, and sugar. Can't the commercial 
food and agricultural industries in an eco-friendly manner produce inexpensive, plentiful, healthy, all-natural 
organic fruits and vegetables using these same subsidies, and if so, why aren't they? History has proven that food 
can be healthy and that it, along with all other living necessities can be created from natural biodegradable 
sources, which can be grown in abundance very inexpensively and in an eco-friendly manner. So why isn't it still 
being done today as was done for thousands of years before? 

Most of the food available today is highly-refined, has additives, is genetically modified, and from an extremely 
unhealthy food source containing little natural nutritional value. Many of the foods available to consumers have 
traveled hundreds even thousands of miles across the globe from the source requiring chemical additives or other 
unnatural processes to maintain it edibility. The food today that has been highly-refined is loaded with additional 
artificial ingredients, flavor enhancers, preservatives, and is fortified or enriched with added nutrients. Sodium is 
added excessively to most all foods in the form of iodized salt, sea salt, or other artificially created sodium-based 
ingredients like sodium bicarbonate, sodium aluminum phosphate, sodium stearoyl lactylate, etc. Homo sapiens 
ingest vast quantities of iodized salt which has been enriched with inorganic compounds like potassium iodate, 
potassium iodide, sodium iodate, or sodium iodide. Can consumers not get enough from consuming beans, 
strawberries, cranberries, potatoes, or other fruits and vegetables which are naturally rich in iodine? As the food 

is processed a host of other mostly artificial ingredients are added to enhance flavor, aesthetic appeal, and help 
with preservation. As a result of all the processing, nutritional value is lost and the foods are then fortified or 
enriched with things like whey, gluten, niacin, iron, thiamin, vitamin C, etc. to add back the lost nutrition. Sugar 
substitutes like aspartame and other artificial sweeteners are also added to many food items in an attempt to 
market them as healthier. High fructose com syrup is added to many foods as a sugar substitute and vast 
quantities are consumed in the form of soda and other so called 'junkfoods'. The U.S. Food and Drug 
Administration monitors the levels of about 800 contaminants and nutrients contained in consumer foods. Foods 
have nutrition fact labels and the ingredients listed, so why then isn't every contaminant also listed with another 
label entitled 'accumulated hidden toxins ’? If every contaminant and the possible side-effects were also listed 
would most consumers just ignore the warning as so many do with alcohol and tobacco? Would Homo sapiens 
have less contaminated food and be healthier if they became involved directly in their food production by having 
a small garden, versus depending entirely on the food system which corporations have set up based mainly 
around profits and not nutrition? 

Often, food is erroneously marketed with misleading words like nutritional, healthy, fat-free, sugar-free, 
ecological, eco-friendly, or natural, when in fact it is some of the most disgusting, unhealthy, and unnatural food 
available. Some companies even display misleading images showing something that looks healthy, yet the final 
product is nothing like the image used to advertise the product. Why is it legal for food companies and 
restaurants to advertise picture-perfect food on a food product label, product packaging, menu, or in commercial 
advertisements, when in fact the final product being consumed is nowhere near the one being advertised, and is 
far different in reality, is this not false advertising? Why do consumers continue to buy into this picture-perfect 
food lie? 

In most grocery stores, foods that are preservative free, additive free, low-sodium, non-GMO, vegan friendly, 
and organic are becoming more mainstream, but a wide selection is very difficult to find, and one must often 
resort to a specialty store like Whole Foods, Trader Joe's, another local vegan grocery store, cultural or regional 
markets or stores, or a farmers’ market. Many times, it also costs far more than unhealthy food which is created 
to sell more and marketed to sell to all, thus making it impossible for some consumers to afford healthy vegan 
food. Vegan and eco-friendly products cost far less to manufacture, but as demand for vegan and eco-friendly 
products has increased often with little competition, some vegan food companies are engaged in price gouging. 

If companies did less price gouging on vegan and eco-friendly products would there be far more consumers 
using them? If the pricing issue is partially due to manufacturing costs being so high, would this decrease if 
vegan and other eco-friendly products became mainstream? Why would a consumer, especially if they are on a 
very fixed income with such a limited budget, choose a vegan or other eco-friendly product if it costs twice as 

One could hypothesize that food sources of the not too distant past tasted purer and natural and were perhaps 
even more nutritional than today's food. Could this be in part to the food sources having been more organic, 
unmodified, unrefined, Earth not having been as polluted terrestrially or atmospherically, and the soils having 
not been so overtaxed? Or could the flavor have been literally bred out of food from modifying it too much? A 
2017 study on improved tomato flavor found that modem commercial tomato varieties contained significantly 
lower amounts of many important flavor chemicals than older tomato varieties. (503) The following is a general 
list of food additives, most of them are not naturally present in any food source and are synthesized in a 
laboratory setting. How can consumers accept and consume foods that have been modified with so many 
unnatural and unhealthy additives? Why are all of these additives put in foods when so many natural and 
unmodified food sources already exist? 

Some of the Additives Used in Food 

1,4-heptonolactone - food acid 

Lecithins - antioxidant. Emulsifier 

2-hydroxybiphenyl - preservative 

Lecithin citrate - preservative 

Acesulfame potassium - artificial sweetener 

Leucine - flavor enhancer 

Acetic acid - acidity regulator 

Lipases - flavor enhancer 

Acetic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids - emulsifier 

Lithol Rubine BK - color 

Acetylated distarch adipate - thickener 

Litholrubine - color 

Acetylated distarch phosphate - thickener 

L(+)-Tartaric acid - food acid 

Acetylated oxidised starch - thickener 

Lutein - color 

Acetylated starch - thickener 

Lycopene - color 

Acid treated starch - thickener 

Lysozyme - preservative 

Agar - thickener, stabilizer, gelling agent 

Magnesium carbonate - anti-caking agent, mineral salt 

Alginic acid - thickener, stabilizer, gelling agent, emulsifier 

Magnesium chloride - mineral salt 

Alitame - artificial sweetener 

Magnesium citrate - acidity regulator 

Alkaline treated starch - thickener 

Magnesium diglutamate - flavor enhancer 

Allura red AC - color (FDA: FD&C Red #40) 

Magnesium hydroxide - mineral salt 

Aluminium - color (silver) 

Magnesium lactate - food acid 

Aluminium ammonium sulfate - mineral salt 

Magnesium oxide - anti-caking agent 

Aluminium potassium sulfate - mineral salt 

Magnesium phosphates - mineral salt, anti-caking agent 

Aluminium silicate - anti-caking agent 

Magnesium salts of fatty acids - emulsifier, stabiliser, 

Aluminium sodium sulfate - mineral salt 

anti-caking agent 

Aluminium sulfate - mineral salt 

Magnesium silicate - anti-caking agent 

Amaranth - color (red) (FDA: [DELISTED] Red #2) Note that amaranth 

Magnesium stearate - emulsifier, stabiliser 

dye is unrelated to the amaranth plant 

Magnesium sulfate - mineral salt, acidity regulator, 

Ammonium acetate - preservative, acidity regulator 

firming agent 

Ammonium adipates - acidity regulator 

Malic acid - acidity regulator 

Ammonium alginate - thicken, stabilizer, gelling agent, emulsifier 

Maltitol - humectant, stabiliser 

Ammonium bicarbonate - mineral salt 

Maltodextrin - carbohydrate sweetener 

Ammonium carbonate - mineral salt 

Maltol - flavor enhancer 

Ammonium chloride - mineral salt 

Mannitol - humectant, anti-caking agent, sweetener 

Ammonium ferric citrate - food acid 

Metatartaric acid - food acid, emulsifier 

Ammonium fumarate - food acid 

Methyl butyrate - used as food flavoring 

Ammonium hydroxide - mineral salt 

Methyl ethyl cellulose - thickener, emulsifier 

Ammonium lactate - food acid 

Methylcellulose - thickener, emulsifier 

Ammonium malate - food acid 

Methylparaben (methyl para-hydroxybenzoate) - 

Ammonium phosphates - mineral salt 


Ammonium phosphatides - emulsifier 

Microcrystalline cellulose - anti-caking agent 

Ammonium polyphosphates - anti-caking agent 

Mixed acetic and tartaric acid esters of mono- and 

Ammonium sulfate - mineral salt, improving agent 

diglycerides of fatty acids - emulsifier 

Anthocyanins - color 

Modified starch - also called starch derivatives, are 

Argon - propellant 

prepared by physically, enzymatically, or chemically 

Ascorbyl palmitate - antioxidant (fat soluble) 

treating native starch to change its properties 

Ascorbyl stearate - antioxidant (fat soluble) 

Mono- and diglycerides of Fatty acids - emulsifier 

Aspartame - artificial sweetener 

Monoammonium glutamate - flavor enhancer 

Azodicarbonamide - flour bleaching agent. Also used in the production of 

Monopotassium glutamate - flavor enhancer 

foamed plastics and the manufacture of gaskets. Banned as a food additive 

Monosodium glutamate (MSG) - flavor enhancer 

in Australia and Europe. 

Monostarch phosphate - thickener 

Azorubine - color (red) (FDA: Ext D&C Red #10) 

Montanic acid esters - humectant 

Baking powder - leavening agent; includes acid and base 

Natamycin - preservative 

Baking soda - food base 

Neohesperidin dihydrochalcone - artificial sweetener 

Bentonite - anti-caking agent 

Nisin - preservative 

Benzoic acid - preservative 

Nitrates - The use of nitrates in food preservation is 

Benzoyl peroxide - flour treatment agent 

controversial. This is due to the potential for the 

Bergamot - in Earl Grey tea 

formation of nitrosamines when nitrates are present in 

Beta-apo-8'-carotenal (C 30) - color 

high concentrations and the product is cooked at high 

Beta-apo-8'-carotenic acid ethyl ester - color 

temperatures. The effect is seen for red or processed 

Betanin - color (red) 

meat, but not for white meat or fish. The production of 

Biphenyl - preservative 

carcinogenic nitrosamines can be potently inhibited by 

Bixin - color 

the use of the antioxidants Vitamin C and the alpha- 

Black 7984 - color (brown and black) 

tocopherol form of Vitamin E during curing. 

Black PN - color (brown and black) 

Nitrogen - propellant 

Bleached starch - thickener 

Nitrous oxide - propellant 

Bone phosphate - anti-caking agent 

Norbixin - color 

Borax - preservative 

Octyl gallate - antioxidant 

Boric acid - preservative 

Orange GGN - color (orange) 

Brilliant Black BN- color (brown and black) 

Orcein - color (red) 

Brilliant blue FCF - color (FDA: FD&C Blue #1) 

Orchil - color (red) 

Brilliant Scarlet 4R - color (FDA: Ext D&C Red #8) 

Orthophenyl phenol - preservative 

Brown FK - color (brown and black) 

Patent blue V - color (blue) 

Butane - propellant 

Phosphated distarch phosphate - thickener 

Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) - antioxidant (fat soluble) 

Phosphoric acid - food acid 

Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) - antioxidant (fat soluble) 

Phytic acid - preservative 

Calcium 5'-ribonucleotides - flavor enhancer 

Pigment Rubine - color 

Calcium acetate - preservative, acidity regulator 

Poly vinyl pyrrolidone - used as a stabilizer 

Calcium alginate - thickener, stabilizer, gelling agent, emulsifier 

Polydextrose - humectant 

Calcium ascorbate - antioxidant (water-soluble) 

Polyethylene glycol 8000 - antifoaming agent 

Calcium aluminosilicate (calcium aluminium silicate) - anti-caking agent 

Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids - emulsifier 

Calcium ascorbate (Vitamin C) 

Polyglycerol polyricinoleate - emulsifier 

Calcium benzoate - preservative 

Polymethylsiloxane - antifoaming agent 

Calcium bisulfite - preservative, antioxidant 

Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate - emulsifier 

Calcium carbonates - color (white), anticaking agent, stabiliser 

Polyoxyethylene (8) stearate - emulsifier, stabilizer 

Calcium chloride - mineral salt 

Polyphosphates - mineral salt, emulsifier 

Calcium citrates - food acid, finning agent 

Polysorbate 20 - emulsifier 

Calcium diglutamate - flavor enhancer 

Polysorbate 40 - emulsifier 

Calcium disodium EDTA - preservative 

Polysorbate 60 - emulsifier 

Calcium ferrocyanide - anti-caking agent 

Polysorbate 65 - emulsifier 

Calcium formate - preservative 

Polysorbate 80 - emulsifier 

Calcium fumarate - food acid 

Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone - color stabiliser 

Calcium gluconate - acidity regulator 

Ponceau 4R - color (FDA: Ext D&C Red #8) 

Calcium guanylate - flavor enhancer 

Ponceau 6R - color 

Calcium hydrogen sulfite - preservative, antioxidant 

Ponceau SX - color 

Calcium hydroxide - mineral salt 

Potassium acetates - preservative, acidity regulator 

Calcium inosinate - flavor enhancer 

Potassium adipate - food acid 

Calcium lactate - food acid 

Potassium alginate - thickener, stabilizer, gelling agent, 

Calcium lactobionate - stabilizer 


Calcium malates - food acid 

Potassium aluminium silicate - anti-caking agent 

Calcium oxide - mineral salt 

Potassium ascorbate - antioxidant (water-soluble) 

Calcium peroxide - is used as flour bleaching agent and improving agent 

Potassium benzoate - preservative 

Calcium phosphates - mineral salt, anti-caking agent, firming agent 

Potassium bicarbonate - mineral salt 

Calcium polyphosphates - anti-caking agent 

Potassium bisulfite - preservative, antioxidant 

Calcium propionate - preservative 

Potassium bromate - flour treatment agent 

Calcium salts of fatty acids - emulsifier, stabiliser, anti-caking agent 

Potassium carbonate - mineral salt 

Calcium silicate - anti-caking agent 

Potassium chloride - mineral salt 

Calcium sorbate - preservative 

Potassium citrates - food acid 

Calcium stearoyl lactylate - emulsifier 

Potassium ferrocyanide - anti-caking agent 

Calcium sulfate - flour treatment agent, mineral salt, sequestrant. 

Potassium fumarate - food acid 

improving agent, firming agent 

Potassium gluconate - stabiliser 

Calcium sulfite - preservative, antioxidant 

Potassium hydrogen sulfite - preservative, antioxidant 

Calcium tartrate - food acid, emulsifier 

Potassium hydroxide - mineral salt 

Canthaxanthin - color 

Potassium lactate - food acid 

Capsanthin - color 

Potassium malate - food acid 

Capsorubin - color 

Potassium metabisulfite - preservative, antioxidant 

Caramel I (plain) - color (brown and black) 

Potassium nitrate - preservative, color fixative 

Caramel II (Caustic Sulfite process) - color (brown and black) 

Potassium nitrite - preservative, color fixative 

Caramel III (Ammonia process) - color (brown and black) 

Potassium phosphates - mineral salt 

Caramel IV (Ammonia sulfite process) - color (brown and black) 

Potassium propionate - preservative 

Carbamide - flour treatment agent 

Potassium salts of fatty acids - emulsifier, stabiliser, anti- 

Carbon black - color (brown and black) 

caking agent 

Carbon dioxide - acidity regulator, propellant 

Potassium sodium tartrate - food acid 

carmines - color (red) 

Potassium sorbate - preservative 

Carmoisine - color (red) (FDA: Ext D&C Red #10) 

Potassium sulfate - mineral salt, seasoning 

Carotenes - color 

Potassium sulfite - preservative, antioxidant 

Alpha-carotene - color 

Potassium tartrates - food acid 

Beta-carotene - color 

Powdered Cellulose - anti-caking agent 

Gamma-carotene - color 

Propane-1,2-diol alginate - thickener, stabilizer, 

Chlorine dioxide - flour treatment agent 


Chlorine - flour treatment agent 

Propionic acid - preservative 

Chlorophylls and Chlorophyllins - color (green) 

Propyl gallate - antioxidant 

Chocolate Brown HT - color 

Propylene glycol - humectant 

Choline salts and esters - emulsifier 

Propylene glycol alginate - thickener, stabilizer. 

Chrysoine resorcinol - color (red) 


Citranaxanthin - color 

Propylene glycol esters of fatty acids - emulsifier 

Citric acid - food acid 

Propylparaben (propyl para-hydroxybenzoate) - 

Citric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids - emulsifier 


Citrus red 2 - color (red) 

Pyridoxine hydrochloride - used as a vitamin B6 dietary 

Cochineal - color (red) 


Copper complexes of chlorophylls - color (green) 

Quinoline Yellow WS - color (yellow and orange) (FDA: 

Com syrup - thickener, a sweetener and as a humectant 

D&C Yellow #10) 

Crocetin - color 

Red 2G - color 

Crocin - color 

Saccharin - artificial sweetener 

Crosslinked Sodium carboxymethylcellulose - emulsifier 

Scarlet GN - color 

Cryptoxanthin - color 

Shellac - glazing agent 

Cupric sulfate - mineral salt 

Silicon dioxide - anti-caking agent 

Curcumin - color (yellow and orange) 

Silver - metallic element used in food coloring 

Cyclamates - artificial sweetener 

Sodium acetate - preservative, acidity regulator 

Cyclamic acid - artificial sweetener 

Sodium adipate - food acid 

beta-cyclodextrin - emulsifier 

Sodium alginate - thickener, stabilizer, gelling agent, 

Decanoic acid - used as artificial fruit flavoring 


Dchydroacetic acid - preservative 

Sodium aluminium phosphate - acidity regulator, 

Dclta-tocopherol(synthetic) - antioxidant 


Dextrin roasted starch - thickener 

Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium aluminium silicate) - 

Diacetyltartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids - 

anti-caking agent 


Sodium ascorbate - antioxidant (water-soluble) 

Dicalcium diphosphate - anti-caking agent 

Sodium benzoate - preservative 

Dilauryl thiodipropionate - antioxidant 

Sodium bicarbonate - mineral salt 

Dimethyl dicarbonate - preservative 

Sodium bisulfite (sodium hydrogen sulfite) - 

Dimethylpolysiloxane - emulsifier, anti-caking agent 

preservative, antioxidant 

Dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate - emulsifier 

Sodium carbonate - mineral salt 

Diphenyl - preservative 

Sodium carboxymethylcellulose - emulsifier 

Diphosphates - mineral salt, emulsifier 

Sodium citrates - food acid 

Dipotassium guanylate - flavor enhancer 

Sodium dehydroacetate - preservative 

Dipotassium inosinate - flavor enhancer 

Sodium erythorbate - antioxidant 

Disodium 5'-ribonucleotides - flavor enhancer 

Sodium erythorbin - antioxidant 

Disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate - antioxidant, preservative 

Sodium ethyl para-hydroxybenzoate - preservative 

Disodium guanylate - flavor enhancer 

Sodium ferrocyanide - anti-caking agent 

Disodium inosinate - flavor enhancer 

Sodium formate - preservative 

Distarch phosphate - thickener. 

Sodium fumarate - food acid 

Distearyl thiodipropionate - antioxidant 

Sodium gluconate - stabiliser 

Dl-alpha-tocopherol (synthetic) - antioxidant 

Sodium hydrogen acetate - preservative, acidity 

Dodecyl gallate - antioxidant 


EDTA - Antioxidant, Chelating Agent 

Sodium hydroxide - mineral salt 

Enzymatically hydrolyzed Carboxymethyl cellulose - emulsifier 

Sodium lactate - food acid 

Enzyme treated starch - thickener 

Sodium malates - food acid 

Epazote (Chenopodium ambrosioides) 

Sodium metabisulfite - preservative, antioxidant. 

Epsom salts - mineral salt, acidity regulator, firming agent 

bleaching agent 

Erythorbin acid - antioxidant 

Sodium methyl para-hydroxybenzoate - preservative 

Erythrosine - color (red) (FDA: FD&C Red #3) 

Sodium nitrate - preservative, color fixative 

Erythritol - sweetener 

Sodium nitrite - preservative, color fixative 

Ethyl maltol - flavor enhancer 

Sodium orthophenyl phenol - preservative 

Ethyl methyl cellulose - thickener, emulsifier 

Sodium propionate - preservative 

Ethylparaben (ethyl para-hydroxybenzoate) - preservative 

Sodium propyl para-hydroxybenzoate - preservative 

Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid - preservative and stabilizer 

Sodium sorbate - preservative 

Fast green FCF - color (FDA: FD&C Green #3) 

Sodium stearoyl lactylate - emulsifier 

Flavoxanthin - color 

Sodium succinates - acidity regulator, flavor enhancer 

Ferric ammonium citrate - food acid 

Sodium salts of fatty acids - emulsifier, stabiliser, anti- 

Ferrous gluconate - color retention agent 

caking agent 

Formaldehyde - preservative 

Sodium sulfite - mineral salt, preservative, antioxidant 

Formic acid - preservative 

Sodium sulfite - preservative, antioxidant 

Fumaric acid - acidity regulator 

Sodium tartrates - food acid 

Gamma-tocopherol(synthetic) - antioxidant 

Sodium tetraborate - preservative 

Gelatin/gelatine - Gelling agent, emulsifier 

Sorbic acid - preservative 

Gellan gum - thickener, stabilizer, emulsifier 

Sorbitan monolaurate - emulsifier 

Glacial Acetic acid - preservative, acidity regulator 

Sorbitan monooleate - emulsifier 

Glucitol - AKA sorbitol sugar substitute most is made from corn syrup 

Sorbitan monopalmitate - emulsifier 

Gluconate - flavor enhancer 

Sorbitan monostearate - emulsifier 

Glucono delta-lactone - acidity regulator 

Sorbitan tristearate - emulsifier 

Glucose oxidase - antioxidant 

Sorbitol - humectant, emulsifier, sugar substitute most is 

Glucose syrup - sweetener 

made from com syrup 

Glutamate - acidity regulator 

Starch sodium octenylsuccinate - thickener 

Glutamic acid - flavor enhancer 

Stearic acid - anti-caking agent 

Glycerin - humectant, sweetener 

Stearyl tartarate - emulsifier 

Glycerol - a humectant, solvent, and sweetener 

Succinic acid - food acid 

Glyceryl distearate - emulsifier 

Sucralose - artificial sweetener 

Glyceryl monostearate - emulsifier 

Sucroglycerides - emulsifier 

Glycine - flavor enhancer 

Sucrose acetate isobutyrate - emulsifier, stabiliser 

Gold - metallic element used as a food color 

Sucrose esters of fatty acids - emulsifier 

Green S - color (green) 

Sulfur dioxide - preservative, antioxidant 

Guanylic acid - flavor enhancer 

Sulfuric acid - acidity regulator 

Gum arabic / Gum acacia / E414 - thickener, stabilizer, emulsifier 

Sunset Yellow FCF - color (yellow and orange) (FDA: 

Gum guaicum - preservative 

FD&C Yellow #6) 

Helium - propellant 

Talc - anti-caking agent, once widely used in baby power 

Hcptyl p-hydroxybenzoate - preservative 

until it was implicated with ovarian cancers 

Hcxamine (hexamethylene tetramine) - preservative 

Tannins - color, emulsifier, stabiliser, thickener 

Hexyl acetate - used as a flavoring agent 

Tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty 

High fructose corn syrup - used in most processed and unhealthy foods 

acids - emulsifier 

and especially in candy, sodas, and other junk foods, it is one of several 

Tartrazine - color (yellow and orange) (FDA: FD&C 

artificial sweetners that has replaced 

Yellow #5) 

the natural once widely consumed sucrose or table sugar. 

Tert-butylhydroquinone - antioxidant 

Hydrochloric acid - acidity regulator 

Tetrahydrocannabinol- flavor enhancer, potent anti¬ 

Hydroxypropyl cellulose - thickener, emulsifier 


Hydroxypropyl distarch phosphate - thickener 

Thaumatin - flavor enhancer, artificial sweetener 

Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose - thickener, emulsifier 

Thiabendazole - preservative 

Hydroxypropyl starch - thickener 

Thiodipropionic acid - antioxidant 

Indanthrene blue RS - color (blue) 

Stannous chloride - color retention agent, antioxidant 

Indigo carmine - color (blue) (FDA: FD&C Blue #2) 

Titanium dioxide - color (white) 

Indigotine - color (blue) (FDA: FD&C Blue #2 

Triacetin - humectant 

Inosinic acid - flavor enhancer 

Triammonium citrate - food acid 

Invert sugar - modified sugar additive similar to high fructose corn syrup. 

Triethyl citrate - thickener, Triethyl citrate is also used as 

Iron ammonium citrate - acidity regulator 

a plasticizer for polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and similar 

Iron oxides and hydroxides - color 


Isobutane - propellant 

Triphosphates - mineral salt, emulsifier 

Isomalt - humectant 

sodium phosphates - Mineral Salt 

Isopropyl citrates - antioxidant, preservative 

Violaxanthin - color 

L-cysteine - flour treatment agent 

Xylitol - humectant, stabiliser 

Lactic acid - acidity regulator, preservative, antioxidant 

Yellow 2G - color (yellow and orange) 

Lactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids - emulsifier 

Zeaxanthin - color 

Lactitol - humectant 

Zinc acetate - flavor enhancer 

Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propylene glycol - emulsifier 

SOURCE: Wikipedia (with some corrections, additions, and other edits) 

To see the reality of the current food sources and the results of the mass scale consumption of meat and dairy 
products which Homo sapiens are engaged in, while a government encourages this gluttonous behavior, one need 
only watch the documentary films and news programs: ‘Earthlings ’ by: Shaun Monson 2005, ‘Our Daily Bread’ 
by: Nikolaus Geyrhalter 2005, ‘Fat Sick and Nearly Dead’ by: Joe Cross 2010, ‘FoodInc. ’ by: Robert Kenner 
2008, Food Matters ’ by: James Colquhoun and Carlo Ledesma 2008, Forks Over Knives ’ by: Lee Fulkerson 
2011, ‘Hungry for Change ’ by: Laurentine Ten Bosch and James Colquhoun 2012, ‘Supersize Me ’ by: Morgan 
Spurlock 2004, ‘Veducated ’ by: Marisa Miller Wolfson 2011, 'The Future of Food' by: Deborah Koons Garcia 
2004, ‘Cowspiracy: The Sustainability Secret ’ by: Kip Andersen and Keegan Kuhn 2014, and the PBS Frontline 
reports: ‘The Trouble with Chicken ’ May 12, 2015 and ‘The Trouble with Antibiotics ’ October 14, 2014, and 
VICE season 4 episode 5 ‘Meathooked & End of Water ’. Or for a more in-depth analysis from an inside medical 
perspective one can read ‘The China Study ’ 2006 by: Dr. T. Colin Campbell, Ph.D. and Thomas M. Campbell. 

TABLE 2 2. Top 25 Sources of Calories Among Americans Ages 2 Years and Older, 
NHANES 2005-2006* 

Rank Overall, Ages 2+ yr* 

(Mean keal/d; Total daily calories = 2,157) 

Children and Adolescents, Ages 2*18 yrs 
(Mean kcal/d; Total daily calories = 2,027) 

Adults and Older Adults, Ages 19+ yrs 
(Mean kcal/d; Total daily calories * 2,199) 


Grain-based desserts' 1 (138 kcal) 

Grain-based desserts (138 kcal) 

Grain-based desserts (138 kcal) 


Yeast breads' (129 kcal) 

Pizza (136 kcal) 

Yeast breads (134 kcal) 


Chicken and chicken mixed dishes* 

(121 kcal) 

Soda/energyAports drinks (118 kcal) 

Chicken and chicken mixed dishes 
(123 kcal) 


Soda/energy/sports drinks* (114 kcal) 

Yeast breads (114 kcal) 

Soda/energyAports drinks (112 kcal) 


Pizza (98 kcal) 

Chicken and chicken mixed dishes 
(113 kcal) 

Alcoholic beverages (106 kcal) 


Alcoholic beverages (82 kcal) 

Pasta and pasta dishes (91 kcal) 

Pizza (86 kcal) 


Pasta and pasta dishes' (81 kcal) 

Reduced fat milk (86 kcal) 

Tortillas, burritos. tacos (85 kcal) 


Tortillas, burritos. tacos* (80 kcal) 

Dairy desserts (76 kcal) 

Pasta and pasta dishes (78 kcal) 


Beef and beef mixed dishes' 1 (64 kcal) 

Potato/corn/other chips (70 kcal) 

Beef and beef mixed dishes (71 kcal) 


Dairy desserts' (62 kcal) 

Ready-to-eat cereals (65 kcal) 

Dairy desserts (58 kcal) 


Potato/com/tot her chips (56 kcal) 

Tortillas, burritos. tacos (63 kcal) 

Burgers (53 kcal) 


Burgers (53 kcal) 

Whole milk (60 kcal) 

Regular cheese (51 kcal) 


Reduced fat milk (51 kcal) 

Candy (56 kcal) 

Potato/com/other chips (51 kcal) 


Regular cheese (49 kcal) 

Fruit drinks (55 kcal) 

Sausage, franks, bacon, and ribs 
(49 kcal) 


Ready-to-eat cereals (49 kcal) 

Burgers (55 kcal) 

Nuts/seeds and nut/seed mixed dishes 
(47 kcal) 


Sausage, franks, bacon, and ribs 
(49 kcal) 

Fried white potatoes (52 kcal) 

Fried white potatoes (46 kcal) 


Fried white potatoes (48 kcal) 

Sausage, franks, bacon, and ribs 
(47 kcal) 

Ready-to-eat cereals (44 kcal) 


Candy (47 kcal) 

Regular cheese (43 kcal) 

Candy (44 kcal) 


Nuts/seeds and nut/seed mixed 
dishes' (42 kcal) 

Beef and beef mixed dishes (43 kcal) 

Eggs and egg mixed dishes (42 kcal) 


Eggs and egg mixed dishes 1 (39 kcal) 

100% fruit juice, not orange/grapefruit 
(35 kcal) 

Rice and rice mixed dishes (41 kcal) 


Rice and rice mixed dishes' (36 kcal) 

Eggs and egg mixed dishes (30 kcal) 

Reduced fat milk (39 kcal) 


Fruit drinks'" (36 kcal) 

Pancakes, waffles, and French toast 
(29 kcal) 

Quickbreads (36 kcal) 


Whole milk (33 kcal) 

Crackers (28 kcal) 

Other fish and fish mixed dishes* 

(30 kcal) 


Quickbreads" (32 kcal) 

Nuts/seeds and nutAeed mixed dishes 
(27 kcal) 

Fruit drinks (29 kcal) 


Cold cuts (27 kcal) 

Cold cuts (24 kcal) 

Salad dressing (29 kcal) 

--- 1 -- \ 

SOURCE: USD A - Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 - 

What does it mean when the number 1 and 10 calorie sources for American adults are deserts, and the number 6 
source is alcohol, not a food but a poison, while the vast majority of the other sources are unhealthy processed 
foods, and not one natural healthy fruit- or vegetable-based item? Is there any wonder that Americans are going 
through an obesity epidemic and have other chronic health issues? Why is the number 6 calorie source alcohol, 
are they stressed, angry, or depressed and attempting to silence a pain with something that gives them temporary 
relief? Are they addicted to indulgence? Are they following the patterns of behavior set for them by portions of 
the entertainment industry, friends, parents, or other mentors? Why are all these unhealthy food products being 
consumed in such vast quantities? Could it have to do with them being more prevalent at most restaurants and 
grocery stores? Could it be that these products are what is marketed to consumers by the food companies and 
even recommended by pseudo experts of nutrition that create the recommended daily allowances (RDAs) which 
so many consumers follow? Dr. T. Colin Campbell, Ph.D., a former panel member, explains in detail how the 
Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) has turned the RDAs into a corrupt and unreliable system with devastating 

“The Food and Nutrition Board (FNB), as part of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academy of Sciences, has 
the responsibility every five years or so to review and update the recommended consumption of individual nutrients. The 
FNB has been making nutrient recommendations since 1943 when it established a plan for the U.S. Armed Forces wherein it 
recommended daily allowances (RDAs) for each individual nutrient” 

“The second panel member, a long-time friend and colleague, was a subcommittee chair during the latter part of the panel's 
existence. He is not a nutritional scientist and also was surprised to hear my concerns about the upper limit for protein. He did 
not recall much discussion on the topic either. When I reminded him of some of the evidence linking high-animal protein 
diets to chronic disease, he initially was a little defensive. But with a little more persistence on my part about the evidence, he 
finally said, “Colin, you know that I really don't know anything about nutrition.” How then was he a member-let alone the 
chair-of this important subcommittee? And it gets worse. The chair of the standing committee on the evaluation of these 
recommendations left the panel shortly before its completion for a senior executive position in a very large food company-a 
company that will salivate over these new recommendations.” 

“Almost all of the wide-ranging effects of this 2002 FNB report will be profoundly harmful. In school, our children can be fed more 
fat, more meat, more milk, more animal protein and more sugar. They will also learn that this food is consistent with good health. 
The ramifications of this are serious, as a whole generation will walk the path of obesity, diabetes and other chronic illnesses, all the 
while believing that they are doing the right thing.” (109) 

For many westerners, their food source is that of fast food which is often marketed as delicious, healthy, and 
inexpensive, but it is in fact highly processed, mass produced, very unhealthy, and expensive. Although there is 
‘Smoothie King ’ founded in 1973 and ‘Veggie Grill ’ established in 2006, there are no mainstream fast food 
chains which base their menu solely around healthy fresh plant-based ingredients, instead menu items use mainly 
fauna-based ingredients. And although there are a few vegan options when eating at some of the smaller 
restaurants and fast food chains which specialize in cultural and regional cuisines, perhaps one day there will be 
more ’Veganurants ’ or even more vegan options on mainstream fast food menus. In the United States, there are 
131,624 mainstream fast food chain locations in addition to the thousands of smaller chains or independent 
knock-offs, and globally locations are increasing rapidly. For instance, McDonald’s had 2,500 China locations in 
2017 and recently announced that by the end of 2022 they expect to increase the number to 4,500 restaurants. 
(481) It should also be noted, that in addition, there are 4,130 fast food trucks (127) and 154,195 convenient stores 
(125) which also operate in the United States, most of which offer some type of fast food either precooked or 
microwavable, and is usually even more unhealthy than their fast food restaurant counterparts. There are also 
thousands of vending machines which mainly offer unhealthy food and drink items for an exorbitant price. 

U.S. Fast Food Franchises 


Worldwide Locations in 2017 







RFC Corp. 


Burger King 


Pizza Hut Inc. 


Dunkin' Donuts 


Dominos Pizza 




Taco Bell 




Dairy Queen 


Papa John’s 






Jack in the Box 




Jimmy Johns Gourmet Sandwiches 




Krispy Kreme 




SOURCE: Wikipedia (with some corrections, additions, and other edits) 

Biotechnological Food 

Some of the methods being practiced to modify agricultural crops resulting in increased yields, resistance to 
pestilence, and to adjust for climate conditions are: genetic modification, inter-species crossing, marker-assisted 
selection, mutation breeding, or traditional breeding. Some are under the impression that modifying the food 
sources themselves with technology will solve the health issues which are being created from an unhealthy diet. 
Instead of working with nature these methods in fact work against it, and the solution to many of the problems 
that are trying to be corrected are easily found in simple dietary changes, and not changing the foods themselves. 

In 2014, sales of products labeled as non-genetically modified organisms (non-GMO) grew 30% to more than 
$1,100,000,000, (42) an increase which may be a result of the public's non-acceptance of GMO products. There 
seems to be a general negative consensus and fear towards genetically modified foods from most of the public, 
but ironically most Homo sapiens have been unknowingly consuming some type of modified food for the last 50 
years, either modified through genetics or through the use of fertilizers and pesticides. In 2017, the USDA 
estimated that 94% of soybeans are genetically modified to be herbicide-tolerant (HT), and 89% of domestic 
com are also produced with HT seeds. As of 2015, more than 81% of domestic com has also been genetically 
modified to contain genes from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis. (575) After an outbreak of papaya 
ringspot vims in the early 1990s, a genetically modified papaya was created to resist the virus, today more than 
80% of Hawaiian papaya is genetically modified. (691) So why is the public so unwilling to accept GM Foods? 
The Institute of Medicine and National Research Council in 2004 stated, 

"Adverse health effects from genetic engineering have not been documented in the human population, but the technique is 
new and concerns about its safety remain.” (41) 

Could a negative side-effect from genetic modification directly affect Homo sapiens health in the future? How 
will the susceptibility to genetic erosion or genetic homogeneity affect GM food crops over time? Is there a real 
need to modify food crops in the first place? Could all the food needed for consumption be grown with the tools 
of nature and in a more organic natural manner without all the synthetic unnatural pesticides, fertilizers, 
additives, homiones, antibiotics, or genetic modifications? Could these added homiones be causing precocious 
puberty in some Homo sapiens ? In the October 2014 National Geographic Magazine Tim Folger reported that, 

"First released in the 1990s, they’ve been adopted by 28 countries and planted on 11 percent of the world’s arable land, 
including half the cropland in the U.S. About 90 percent of the com, cotton, and soybeans grown in the U.S. are genetically 
modified. Americans have been eating GM products for nearly two decades. But in Europe and much of Africa, debates over 
the safety and environmental effects of GM crops have largely blocked their use." 

Proponents like Fraley say such crops have prevented billions of dollars in losses in the U.S. alone and have actually benefited 
the environment. A recent study by the U.S. Department of Agriculture found that pesticide use on corn crops has dropped 90 
percent since the introduction of Bt corn, which contains genes from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis that help it ward off 
corn borers and other pests. Reports from China indicate that harmful aphids have decreased—and ladybugs and other 
beneficial insects have increased—in provinces where GM cotton has been planted." 

"The particular GM crops Fraley pioneered at Monsanto have been profitable for the company and many farmers, but have 
not helped sell the cause of high-tech agriculture to the public. Monsanto’s Roundup Ready crops are genetically modified to 
be immune to the herbicide Roundup, which Monsanto also manufactures. That means farmers can spray the herbicide freely 
to eliminate weeds without damaging their GM com, cotton, or soybeans. Their contract with Monsanto does not allow them 

to save seeds for planting; they must purchase its patented seeds each year. 

Modem agriculture, they say, already relies too heavily on synthetic fertilizers and pesticides. Not only are they unaffordable 
for a small farmer like Juma; they pollute land, water, and air. Synthetic fertilizers are manufactured using fossil fuels, and 
they themselves emit potent greenhouse gases when they’re applied to fields." 

“The choice is clear,” says Hans Herren, another World Food Prize laureate and the director of Biovision, a Swiss nonprofit. 

“We need a farming system that is much more mindful of the landscape and ecological resources. We need to change the 
paradigm of the green revolution. Heavy-input agriculture has no future—we need something different.” There are ways to 
deter pests and increase yields, he thinks, that are more suitable for the Jumas of this world." 

A GM crop is by no means the fix all answer to food pestilence, a growing population, or climate conditions, the 
technology is still susceptible to evolution and the other processes, forces, and laws of nature. Already com 
rootworms have evolved resistance to the bacterial toxins in GM Bt com. In the May 2015 National Geographic 
Magazine Rachel Hartigan Shea reported that, 

“Using a technique called RNA interference (RNAi), scientists have silenced genes that lead potatoes to biuise and to brown 
when exposed to air—the two characteristics that land roughly 30 percent of harvested potatoes in the trash. These new spuds 
also contain up to 70 percent less of an amino acid that transforms into a cancer- causing compound at high temperatures. A 
second version will be resistant to late blight, the disease that caused the Irish potato famine.” 

AquAdvantage salmon, the first genetically modified salmon was deemed safe for consumption in 2010 and will 
be available as soon as labeling guidelines from the FDA have been mandated. And in 2006, Hematech, Inc. 
announced it had used genetic engineering and cloning technology to produce cattle that lacked a necessary gene 
for prion production, theoretically making them immune to Mad Cow Disease which has resulted in the deaths of 
millions of cattle worldwide. Is it acceptable to use science techniques to modify food in such ways? One can see 
many benefits, but will consumers accept a food that has been altered in such a way? Could GMOs have adverse 
side effects on natural unmodified florae and faunae? Wouldn’t a simpler solution be to not fry potatoes and not 
worry so much about aesthetics? Does the onion really need to be genetically modify so that Homo sapiens eyes 
don't water when they are cut? Must companies resort to genetically engineering wheat and rice to resemble 
seaweed in order to grow on soil that has been overtaxed and become saline? Can we not maintain the soils with 
natural husbandry techniques, and instead grow a natural unmodified food crop? Would it not be wiser for Homo 
sapiens to alter their lifestyles and mentalities, rather than modifying the food sources to suit a negative lifestyle 
and mentality? 

Is all this modification of nature necessary, or could the solution to the agricultural dilemma be to simply better 
understand and work with nature allowing the natural processes, forces, and laws of nature to help, instead of 
working hopelessly against it? Many Homo sapiens tend to forget that nature does things far better than Homo 
sapiens do, and in fact some things that Homo sapiens have perfected technologically have been based on some 
natural design. Continuing to work against nature in the future could result in a cycle of similar problems the 
agricultural industry is encountering today. Nature has far more experience than Homo sapiens and has been 
using evolution along with other processes, forces, and laws to create perfect food for every living creature on 
Earth for billions of years, and this system works in perfect harmony if left alone. Would Homo sapiens not be 
wiser to use this experience to their advantage and follow the example set by nature instead of trying to reinvent 
and attempt to control nature? 

Meat, Dairy, and Egg Consumption 

Some paleobiologist and paleoanthropologist have postulated that eating meat led to the development of the 
human brain, and that without eating meat humans would not be as intelligent as they are today. This view is 
used by some proponents who advocate eating meat based on the erroneous belief that Homo sapiens must 
consume a diet of 50% or more of meat, and that if Homo sapiens stop eating meat they will become less 
intelligent. In the September 2014 issue of National Geographic Magazine paleobiologist Amanda Henry said, 

“There’s been a consistent story about hunting defining us and that meat made us human, frankly, I think that misses half of 
the story. They want meat, sure. But what they actually live on is plant foods.” 

Furthermore, in the same National Geographic Magazine when describing modem day indigenous Homo sapiens 
Ann Gibbons said. 

"The Hadza get almost 70 percent of their calories from plants. The Kung traditionally rely on tubers and mongongo nuts, the 
Aka and Baka Pygmies of the Congo River Basin on yams, the Tsimane and Yanomami Indians of the Amazon on plantains 
and manioc, the Australian Aboriginals on nut grass and water chestnuts.” 

And although salmon, deer, seafood, and other wild game were eaten by the indigenous which inhabited 
California, their diet consisted of many flora species and even some insects, grubs, and womis. Theodora 
Kroeber in describing the California indigenous diet writes, 

“The great staple food of the California Indian was acorn flour made into mush or bread. The acorn, of which some half dozen 
or more edible varieties were recognized, meant to Indians what rice means to Cantonese Chinese, or maize to 
Mexicans...Pine nuts, hazel nuts, buckeye, manzanita berries, wild raspberry, huckleberry, plum, grape, elderberry, barberry, 
and thimbleberry were enjoyed in season, and some of them were dried and stored. There were sage and tarweed and clarkia 
seeds, and a host of other seeds small and large and, in season, the earth-oven roasted roots of the camas, annis, tiger lily, and 
brodiaea were a welcome addition. Certain grubs and wonns were roasted as delicacies; also grasshoppers as in modem 
Mexico.” (96) 

Even more prolific is the erroneous mainstream belief that consuming meat and dairy products are healthy, and 
that one will be bigger and stronger by consuming them. Some use the excuse that Homo erectus began hunting 
around 1,800,000 years ago, and even Homo sapiens themselves have been consuming meat for more than 
200,000 years, but again modern-day Homo sapiens have far more knowledge and alternatives their primitive 
ancestors didn’t have. Others justify consuming faunae in that there are other predator species in the wild which 
hunt, kill, and consume other fauna species. Yes, there are predators in nature which hunt and eat other species, 
and yes this keeps a balance, but there is far more coexistence in nature which is not focused on. To use this to 
justify eating faunae is irrational, as Homo sapiens have far more intelligence than a lion and have a choice at 
this point in their evolution, whereas a lion has evolved this way and has no choice. If one compares the physical 
features of Homo sapiens with carnivores, they can easily see that Homo sapiens do not have fangs or claws for 
killing and ripping apart flesh, but in fact have the exact opposite with teeth and hands made for harvesting and 
consuming florae. Homo sapiens can’t digest raw meat like carnivores do, as it contains disease-carrying 
pathogens which will make Homo sapiens extremely ill and can even cause death. Homo sapiens do not have the 
same digestive system as carnivores do, and in fact have a longer intestine which is a trait found in herbivores. If 
one also looks at other predators and most all other faunae, they do not suffer from medical issues as a result of 
consuming meat, medical issues which are prevalent only in Homo sapiens, (e.g. obesity, diabetes, high blood 
pressure, cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, strokes, various cancers, etc.) Homo sapiens are not 
predators, and without tools to hunt with and fire to cook, meat is not naturally feasible to acquire and consume. 
Florae are the exact opposite in that it is easily obtainable, and almost always edible in its raw form. The vast 
majority of Earth's fauna species are vegan and most of the carnivorous species are not predators, they are in fact 
scavengers and do not kill anything, but rather wait until it dies naturally and then consume the carrion. They are 
really doing nothing more than cleaning the Earth of its inevitable victims of death. 

As most anyone will attest to, fresh food is always not only more tasting, but also more nutritional. Most meat is 
several months old by the time it even reaches the consumer, and dairy and eggs are also not fresh. Meat, dairy, 
and eggs all require refrigeration because they spoil very rapidly, and in addition, eggs and meat must also be 
cooked at very high temperatures in order to kill disease-carrying pathogens and consume it safely. What does 
this say about the natural edibility of these products for Homo sapiens ? The majority of Homo sapiens around 
the world today do not eat vast quantities of meat from cows, chickens, or pigs as it is not readily available, or 
they are too poor to afford it, when and if they do consume meat it is on rare occasions and in very small 
quantities. In most parts of India, the cow is in fact sacred and not eaten. A 2003 report by the Food and 
Agriculture Organization of the United Nations report stated, 

“The second major factor limiting the growth of world meat consumption is the fact that such consumption is heavily and 
disproportionately concentrated in the industrial countries. They account for 15 percent of world population but for 37 percent 
of world meat consumption and 40 percent of that of milk.” (131) 

Vegetarianism is nothing more than the erroneous notion that by not killing and eating faunae it somehow 
justifies the continual exploitation of faunae through the consumption of eggs and dairy. How can vegetarians 
proclaim their love of faunae and advocate for fauna rights while still exploiting the fauna for either their milk, 
eggs, feathers, skins, or labor? From the easily visible negative impact on consumer health and the environment, 
in conjunction with a basic set of morals toward other sentient faunae, one would think that vegan logic would 
prevail in the carnivore argument. Homo sapiens can sustain life without faunae as a source of food, so why 
don't they? Have most Homo sapiens simply not developed enough intellectually and morally to see how 
illogical it is to dominate, exploit, and consume faunae? 

SOURCE: USDA - photos K3839-3 and K3627-16 by: Keith Weller and photo K7623-1 by: Scott Bauer. Which picture looks not only 
more appetizing but takes less effort to prepare and consume? Which pictures feels pain, stress, and other emotions? 

The meat, egg, and dairy industry along with omnivorous consumers have proliferated on a global scale the 
spread of disease, environmental destruction, and the abuse and slaughter of billions of cows, chickens, goats, 
bison, snakes, sharks, whales, birds, and other faunae all in the name of tradition and profits. Perhaps if Homo 
sapiens would inquire more about their meat sources they could see the brutality and inhumane treatment their 
commercial meat sources endure daily on a mass scale. Some of the things Homo sapiens consume are beyond 
comprehension when one looks at the natural intentions of the product, (e.g. milk, eggs, flesh, feet, snouts, 
spleens, tongues, lips, and a wide range of animal organs such as hearts, livers, brains, etc.) Isaac Singer wrote, 

"As often as Herman had witnessed the slaughter of animals and fish, he always had the same thought: in their behavior 
toward creatures, all men were Nazis. The smugness with which man could do with other species as he pleased exemplified 
the most extreme racist theories, the principle that might is right." (612) 

Although there is insufficient scientific evidence to prove a cause-and-effect relationship between probiotics and 
any health benefits, companies still market them as such which ultimately results in many consumers being 
misled into consuming them unnecessarily. In addition, because of vast marketing campaigns by the dairy 

industry, many Homo sapiens have the false notion that you must eat probiotic rich dairy foods to maintain 
health and must also drink milk to get vitamin D to maintain healthy bones. Probiotics are added to products like 
yogurt in attempt to promote more of a healthy product, and most buy into this marketing scheme not realize that 
yeast obtained by when eating naturally baked goods is sufficient. “ Milk does the body good” and “Got Milk? ” 
are some of the most famous tag-lines, and the dairy industry has even used celebrities to market milk and other 
dairy products as healthy and as the best source for vitamin D and calcium. But it does not do the body good and 
in fact it is very harmful, while there are other far more healthier sources to obtain vitamin D and calcium. Few 
know or even realize that vitamin D is not a vitamin that needs to be consumed and in fact around 1 hour of 
sunlight exposure per week will allow Homo sapiens bodies to make all that it needs internally, no milk or dairy 
is needed, just natural sunshine. 

In addition, the majority of adults in the world produce low levels of lactase and are not naturally capable of 
digesting dairy products. The lactase enzyme is present in all children, but as they stop breast feeding there is no 
reason for the enzyme and it weakens unless the child is forced to consume dairy products. The majority of 
adults with high levels of lactase are from regions in the world like Europe and American with a history of 
raising dairy animals. 75% of all African-Americans and Native-Americans as well as 90% of all Asian- 
Americans are lactose intolerant. (219) So logically speaking from an evolutionary standpoint Homo sapiens are 
not designed to digest milk for their entire lifespan, only for the early initial development stage, and with 
breastmilk, not cow’s milk. While Americans now drink 37% less milk than in 1970, (347) China, a previously 
non-dairy consuming nation, has quickly become a new consumer market for milk in recent years increasing the 
global milk demand. 

There are far healthier alternative flora-based milk sources available derived from almonds, soy, rice, oat, 
quinoa, hemp, coconuts, and other florae which are cholesterol free and contain even more vitamins and 
minerals than fauna based dairy products. They are all natural and produce a much smaller carbon footprint 
during the manufacturing process than milk which comes from cows or other faunae. In addition, almonds, soy, 
rice, oat, quinoa, hemp, coconuts, and other florae contain less fat and are more nutritional and healthier. 

Almond, soy, rice, oat, quinoa, hemp, coconut, and other flora-based milks also do not spoil as quickly and thus 
can be consumed over a longer period. Ironically, high dairy consumption has been linked to higher rates of 
osteoporosis and not lower, and yet the dairy industry has marketed the idea that mass milk consumption leads to 
stronger bones. This erroneous claim can be seen in the scientific evidence that the consumption of fauna protein 
creates metabolic acidosis, as a defense mechanism the body uses calcium in the bones to neutralize the 
metabolic acidosis, resulting in osteoporosis. Changing the consumption of regular whole dairy products to low 
fat or even non-fat dairy products does not have any results on this condition. 

Unfortunately for faunae, the health of the Homo sapiens who consume them, and the Earth that bears the scars 
from the livestock industry, meat and dairy consumption is on the rise, especially the meat of chickens. American 
meat consumers are consuming less red meat, appearing to have learned a valuable nutritional lesson in recent 
decades about the fatal side effects of beef consumption in gluttonous amounts. Unfortunately for consumers, 
and like so many other industries in recent times, corporations have consolidated smaller operations and created 
a monopoly over the meat supply. In the November 2014, National Geographic Magazine Robert Kunzig 
reported that, 

"In 1976 per capita beef consumption peaked in the United States at 91.5 pounds a year. It has since fallen more than 40 

percent. Last year Americans ate on average 54 pounds of beef each, about the same amount as a century ago. Instead we eat 

twice as much chicken as we did in 1976 and nearly six times as much as a century ago. 82 percent of U.S. beef passes through plants that process thousands of cattle a day and are owned by just four 


Worldwide, billions of cows, chickens, and pigs are consumed each year, and although there are no complete 
worldwide statistics available as to exactly how many have been consumed in just the last 100 years, one can get 
a general idea of how enormous the scale is in which these faunae are being consumed globally. During 2015 in 
the United States alone, 28,800,000 cows, 452,600 calves, 115,400,000 pigs, 2,220,000 sheep and lambs, 

8,822,695,000 chickens, 232,398,000 turkeys, and 27,749,000 ducks (132) (133) (134) were federally inspected and 
slaughtered for consumption. Globally more than 1,200,000,000,000 eggs were produced for consumption in 
2014. (475) In 2013, the worldwide production of milk was 275,302,000,000 gallons. (188) It should also be 
factored in that millions of individuals worldwide also maintain livestock for personal consumption and 
exploitation, and these faunae are not federally inspected nor included in any statistical data. 

Figure 8 



2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 

■ China ■ EU-27 ■ United States ■ Brazil ■ Other 

Source, USDA, FAS, Production, Supply, and Distribution database (accessed October 28, 2013). 

Global pork production, 2008-13 (thousand metric tons, carcass-weight equivalent) 

FIGURE 8 Global production of poultry meat was highly concentrated in 2006-12 

2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 

« EU-27 ■ China a Brazil h United States * Rest of World 

Source USDA, FAS, PSD Online database, (accessed August 20, 2013). 

Beef and Veal Selected Countries Summary 
1,000 Metric Tons (Carcass Weight Equivalent) 

















European Union 






































































Total Foreign 







United States 














SOURCE: United States International Trade Commission and United States Department of Agriculture 

In the May 2014 issue of National Geographic Magazine, Jonathan Foley stated, 

“Agriculture is among the greatest contributors to global warming, emitting more greenhouse gases than all our cars, trucks, 
trains, and airplanes combined—largely from methane released by cattle and rice farms, nitrous oxide from fertilized fields, 
and carbon dioxide from the cutting of rain forests to grow crops or raise livestock. 

The spread of prosperity across the world, especially in China and India, is driving an increased demand for meat, eggs, and 
dairy, boosting pressure to grow more com and soybeans to feed more cattle, pigs, and chickens. If these trends continue, the 
double whammy of population growth and richer diets will require us to roughly double the amount of crops we grow by 

If eating meat causes more environmental damage than driving an oil powered automobile, would not the most 
logical action be to encourage more individuals to consume less meat and not more? Will this proliferation of 
meat eating offset the positive reductions in greenhouse gas emissions from other sources? How long will it take 
developing countries to realize the devastating health and environmental consequences of this new deadly diet? 
What if western civilizations had taken a more vegan path, would the developing countries be following this 
example instead? Does eating faunae really symbolize that a civilization is modem, powerful, wealthy, and 
prosperous? Why do so many oppose harming faunae, and yet eat them? Will morbid carnivorous symbols ever 
end, like the National Thanksgiving Turkey Presentation which pardons one turkey while millions of other 
turkeys are consumed? 

Faunae produce an enormous amount of feces during the entire livestock process and consume vast amounts of 
water. Around 90% of fresh water consumed on the planet by Homo sapiens is for agricultural and livestock 
purposes, with livestock consuming larger volumes of water than flora crops. The amount of water consumption 
when producing meat and dairy products is enormous when compared with the water footprint to produce fruits 
and vegetables. Livestock consume vast quantities of water during the growth phase in addition to the water used 
during the processing and even consumption phases. 

Average Water Consumption for Meat and Dairy Production 

Meat / Dairy Product 

Gallons of Water Required 

2.2 lbs of Pork 


2.2 lbs of Beef 


2.2 lbs of Cheese 


2.2 lbs of Chicken 


12 Chicken Eggs 


2.2 Gallons of Cow’s Milk 


2.2 lbs of Leather from a Cow 


Average Water Consumption for Fruit and Vegetable Production 

Fruit / Vegetable Product 

Gallons of Water Required 

2.2 lbs of Tomatoes 


2.2 lbs of Apples 


2.2 lbs of Bananas 


2.2 lbs of Cucumbers 


2.2 lbs of Lettuce 


2.2 lbs of Corn 


2.2 lbs of Mangos 


2.2 lbs of Oranges 


2.2 lbs of Peaches 


2.2 lbs of Potatoes 


SOURCE: Water Footprint Network - Product Water Footprint - 

Furthermore, a large portion of the food grown is used to feed meat-based food sources which produce far less 
calories than the actual food being consumed to create the meat. It is an endless negative cycle of using valuable 
resources to produce very unhealthy food products. In the May 2014 issue of National Geographic Magazine 
Jonathan Foley stated, 

“It would be far easier to feed nine billion people by 2050 if more of the crops we grew ended up in human stomachs. Today 
only 55 percent of the world’s crop calories feed people directly; the rest are fed to livestock (about 36 percent) or turned into 
biofuels and industrial products (roughly 9 percent). Though many of us consume meat, dairy, and eggs from animals raised 
on feedlots, only a fraction of the calories in feed given to livestock make their way into the meat and milk that we consume. 

For every 100 calories of grain we feed animals, we get only about 40 new calories of milk, 22 calories of eggs, 12 of 
chicken, 10 of pork, or 3 of beef.” 

Among all the faunae that are raised under cruel conditions and get brutally slaughtered and gutted to be shipped 
around the world for consumption, the chicken is being consumed in the greatest numbers. According to the 
October 2014 National Geographic Magazine, the United States exported 2,700,000 tons of unconsumed chicken 
parts, (e.g. the wings, feathers, leg quarters, viscera, and feet) to the countries of China, Indonesia, South Africa, 
and Russia. The wretched conditions of confinement that most livestock faunae are exposed to is one of the most 
inhumane practices that Homo sapiens continuously do with government regulators and an omnivorous eating 
public cynically ignoring the issue. Most consumers are not even aware of the barbaric practices with which the 
livestock industry handles their food sources. Flow could one eat meat once they witness the livestock industrial 
machine? Is not the logical solution to stop using nutritional flora food sources to create other less healthy meat- 
based food and an unneeded biofuel energy source, and instead simply consume these or other flora-based 
sources which are naturally nutritional foods and utilize the clean energy of the Sun and wind? 

Do most consumers even know where the meat they’re consuming originated from and how old it truly is? In 
June 2015, Chinese authorities seized more than 100,000 tonnes of smuggled meat, some of which was more 
than 40 years old. (340) And in March 2017, more than 1,000 Federal Police of Brazil, the world’s largest red 
meat exporter, launched ‘Operation Came Fraca ’ raiding 194 meat production facilities of 30 meat companies. 
The Brazilian meat companies were accused of bribing meat inspectors, exporting rotten meat, using acid and 
other sometimes carcinogenic chemicals to mask the smell of the rotten meat, altering dates of meat expiration, 
and of adding potato, water, and even cardboard to chicken meat in an effort to increase profits. (341) To 
maintain the appetizing bright red color and prevent rapid spoilage in most ground beef, beef loin steaks, and 
pork chops, the meat is packaged in a modified atmosphere using carbon monoxide, nitrogen, oxygen, and high 
carbon dioxide. (451) In order to kill any bacteria like salmonella, many chickens around the world are rinsed or 
dipped in an antimicrobial solution of chlorine dioxide, acidified sodium chlorite, trisodium phosphate, and 
peroxyacids. (528) What does this say about a food source which uses chemicals to maintain an appetizing color, 
prolong the shelf life, or eliminate deadly bacteria? If meat was allowed to turn the natural color as it is rotting 
waiting to be purchased, would there be less meat consumption? 

It should also be noted that in addition to the mainstream western faunae, (e.g. cows, chickens, pigs, etc.) being 
consumed there are also millions of donkeys, camels, pigeons, goats, ducks, sheep, snakes, turtles, civets, dogs, 
cats, rabbits, rats, monkeys, guinea pigs, and other faunae which are slaughtered and sold every day at live 
animal markets throughout China and in other world food markets for local consumption. Insects are also 
consumed by many around the world as they cost far less to cultivate, are very nutritional, and have less 

environmental impact producing less greenhouse gases and requiring less land use. The September 2014 
National Geographic Magazine stated that, 

“2 billion people consume more than 2,000 different species of insects worldwide, but this is declining as more people 
convert to a western diet. The percent of protein and fat in crickets is similar to that of most meats.” 

Or perhaps meat of the future will be grown in a factory and not involve actual faunae at all. In 2013, scientists 
made a hamburger from muscle fibers which were grown from cow stem cells. (215) And in 2016 a company 
called Perfect Day unveiled that they had created milk using yeast, cow DNA, and plant nutrients. (216) Will the 
health risks of eating meat and dairy still be ignored even if the moral and environmental concerns are 

In 2010, 32 diseases caused an estimated 600,000,000 foodbome illnesses cases and 420,000 deaths worldwide. 
More than 90% of human exposure to dioxins is through food, mainly meat, dairy, fish, and shellfish. (529) Could 
many of these deaths be easily prevented by simply not consuming meat and daily products? Alpha-gal allergy is 
a recently discovered mammalian meat allergy which is caused by certain tick bites. A similar self-inflicted 
medical condition known as Pork-Cat syndrome was first described in 1994, where some cat owners became 
allergic to pork after being exposed to cats. Could these emerging medical conditions be nature’s evolutionary 
reaction to Homo sapiens mass meat consumption? If more Homo sapiens developed a meat allergy would this 
lead to less meat consumption, or would another medication simply be developed to alleviate the allergy in order 
to continue meat consumption? 

Faunae are also exploited in other ways by Homo sapiens to obtain some other foods as well. Tens of thousands 
of Asian palm civets are exploited daily for their feces in order to create kopi luwak, a coffee which is made with 
the partially digested coffee cherries eaten and defecated by the Asian palm civet. Homo sapiens have been 
exploiting bees for their honey and beeswax for more than 8,000 years. In 1961 the world had 49,173,473 
beehives, by 2016 this number increased to 90,564,654 beehives. (698) If each hive contains an average of 30,000 
bees, this would total more than 2,716,939,620,000 bees being exploited every year for their honey. In addition 
to the stress which bees undergo, some bees are injured or killed from beekeepers haphazardly handling them 
when harvesting the honey. Some beekeepers also permanently maim the queen bee by clipping away part of her 
wings with the erroneous notion that this will keep the colony form swarming. Couldn't maple syrup, molasses, 
coconut nectar, agave nectar, or another flower nectar be used instead? If every consumer had to collect the 
honey from the hive without protective gear, a bee smoker, or other technology how much less honey would be 
eaten? Could colony collapse disorder (CCD) have been aggravated from this exploitation? 

There will most likely always be omnivorous Homo sapiens so long as the unwitting new generations are taught 
to eat meat by an older generation of omnivores, and while this type of diet is also encouraged by food 
corporations and even the government itself which is being vastly influenced by these same food corporations. 
Why do most Homo sapiens feel compassion towards some sentient beings their ancestors once exploited or 
extirpated (e.g. whales, buffalo, wolves, bears, etc.) and then deem others ok to continuously exploit? (e.g. pigs, 
cows, chickens, etc.) If Homo sapiens had to see the fauna born, raise it for years, slaughter it, skin and gut the 
animal for consumption, would they still eat the cow, pig, chicken, fish, or other fauna? How many more vegans 
would there be in the world if this was the process in which everyone acquired meat instead of the current 
blinded reality where it is commercially presented as this final picture perfect, delicious and healthy food that 
everyone is told they want and need to consume? Would Homo sapiens eat a more vegan diet if they were 
exposed to the reality of the foods which they are consuming, the environmental impacts, the morality issues, 
and the health effects? What does it say about food and nutritional education when some consumers believe that 
chocolate milk comes from brown cows or that lean beef comes from skinny cows? 

Livestock Antibiotics, Steroids, and Candy 

Antibiotics were a revolution in medicine but ultimately the livestock and even medical industries have abused 
them, and now they may become useless against certain strains of disease as a result of this abuse. At one point 

recently, most antibiotics were being used on livestock animals and not on humans. Until 2016, antibiotics were 
widely used on livestock animals, not to treat disease, but as growth promoters, and the down side to doing this 
is pathogens could develop a resistance to antibiotics and could potentially be transmitted to humans. Some 
antibiotics are given to cattle to prevent liver abscesses, a side effect of the unnatural diet fed to them by Homo 
sapiens. In the March 2015 National Geographic Magazine, Kelsey Nowakowski reported that, 

“Americans today eat three times as much poultry as they did in 1960. Since most U.S. chickens are raised in large, crowded 
facilities, farmers feed them antibiotics to prevent disease as well as speed their growth... 80% of all antibiotics sold in the 
United States are given to poultry and other livestock... In 1960 it took 63 days to grow a chicken 3.4 lbs. chicken, in 2011 it 
took 47 days to grow a 5.4 lbs. chicken... Only 7 percent of some 400 antibiotic drugs given to livestock have been reviewed 
by the FDA” 

To abuse antibiotics in this irresponsible manner for profits and increased demand has allowed for the potential 
of a pandemic, as antibiotics are now becoming useless in some medical applications. The December 2015 
Naked Scientist podcast released a story 'Antibiotic Apocalypse', in it, they reported that no truly new antibiotics 
have been developed in the last 20 years, yet the rate of resistance to antibiotics is increasing. Scientist have 
attributed this resistance mainly to the overuse of antibiotics to treat the overwhelming endemic diseases which 
farm faunae proliferate as a result of stress caused by the conditions which the faunae are exposed to. 

In March 2016, CDC Director Tom Frieden, M.D., M.P.H. said, “New data show that far too many patients are 
getting infected with dangerous, drug-resistant bacteria in healthcare settings.” The antibiotic-resistant superbugs 
are: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), 
ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (extended-spectrum B-lactamases), Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus 
(VRE), Multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter, and Clostridium 
difficile. Clostridium difficile was the most common type of bacteria responsible for infections in hospitals and 
which caused almost 500,000 infections in the United States in 2011. (66) The October 22, 2013 PBS Frontline 
report ‘Hunting the Nightmare Bacteria ’ explains the issue in detail. Antibiotics are often misused, as they are 
now sold over the counter in some countries and available globally through the Internet without a prescription, 
leading to regular use by some as a cure all solution, but this has only led to antibiotic resistant bacteria. 

Perhaps nature has a solution to the antibiotic dilemma with an alternative antibiotic source from a flora species 
in one of the ever-shrinking rainforest. Scientists at Rockefeller University have discovered microorganisms 
found in soil that can be used to create antibiotics which kill pathogens resistant to multiple drugs currently in 
use. (706) Or perhaps in the not too distant past the solution was within the stomachs of Homo sapiens ancestors. 
Anew study by scientists of Yanomani tribespeople has revealed some very interesting facts about the original 
human digestive bacteria and antibiotics. In April 2015, Michael Purdy reported that, 

"The study, published April 17 in Science Advances, reports that the microbial populations on the skin and in the mouths and 
intestines of the Yanomami tribespeople were much more diverse than those found in people from the United States and 
Europe. The multicenter research was conducted by scientists at New York University School of Medicine, Washington 
University School of Medicine in St. Louis, the Venezuelan Institute of Scientific Research and other institutions. 

In recent years, the abundance of antibiotics in medicine and agriculture has accelerated this process, stimulating the 
development and spread of genes that help bacteria survive exposure to antibiotics. Consequently, strains of human disease 
that are much harder to treat have emerged. “We have already run out of drugs to treat some types of multidrugresistant 
infections, many of which can be lethal, raising the bleak prospect of a post-antibiotic era,” Dantas said. 

“Our results bolster a growing body of data suggesting a link between, on one hand, decreased bacterial diversity, 
industrialized diets and modem antibiotics, and on the other, immunological and metabolic diseases — such as obesity, 
asthma, allergies and diabetes, which have dramatically increased since the 1970s,” said Maria Dominguez-Bello, PhD, 
associate professor of medicine at New York University Langone Medical Center and senior author of the study. “We believe 
there is something occurring in the environment during the past 30 years that has been driving these diseases, and we think the 
microbiome could be involved.” 

Dominguez-Bello said the research suggests a link between modem antibiotics, diets in industrialized parts of the world and a 
greatly reduced diversity in the human microbiome — the trillions of bacteria that live in and on the body and that are 
increasingly being recognized as vital to good health. Yanomami as for how bacteria could resist drugs that such microbes 

never before had encountered, the researchers point to the possibility of cross-resistance, when genes that resist natural 
antibiotics also have the ability to resist related synthetic antibiotics. 

“We’ve seen resistance emerge in the clinic to every new class of antibiotics, and this appears to be because resistance 
mechanisms are a natural feature of most bacteria and are just waiting to be activated or acquired with exposure to 
antibiotics,” Dantas said.” (36) 

Cattle are also given steroids like estradiol and trenbolone acetate to add muscle and make the product larger to 
increase profits. To inject faunae with these unnatural steroids is some of the worst modifications that can be 
done to a food source, especially when flora-based foods never need these antibiotics or steroids to produce a 
perfectly natural and healthy food product. Shouldn’t food companies be required to reveal the sources of the 
food they are selling, any modifications done with genetics, fertilizers, pesticides, medications, or other 

For decades now in the United States some cows have been fed aesthetically defective candy like Skittles as an 
inexpensive carbohydrate source. (240) Would consumers still eat this meat if they knew exactly what the fauna 
was eating? Why is this meat not labeled candy-fed like other meat which is labeled grass-fed or grain-fed? 

Fresh Fruits and Vegetables / Flora Based Food Sources 

Compare the actions, energy level, mood, lifespan, outer appearance, bowel movements, and overall health of an 
individual who eats an organic vegan diet of whole grains, beans, fruits, nuts, seeds, and vegetables with 
someone who eats fast food, junk food, meat, dairy, and other disgusting unhealthy foods, and one will see vast 
differences with far more positive results from the vegan individual. It is also a fact that vegans have a smaller 
carbon footprint as a result of not consuming meat. And in spite of the erroneous belief that meat must be 
consumed in order to maintain health, all the nutritional needs of Homo sapiens can be fulfilled entirely on a 
vegan diet, in fact even more so than on a fauna-based diet. Eating a vegan diet of whole grains, beans, fruits, 
nuts, seeds, and vegetables has been proven to be far healthier. Many vegan converts cannot believe how they ate 
meat for so long in such vast quantities. Some are even disgusted by the taste of dairy, eggs, and meat when 
attempting to revert back to an omnivore diet, and ultimately switch back to the healthier better tasting vegan 

Some have a misconception about vegans being skinny and malnourished, but vegans are actually far healthier 
and maintain a perfect body weight compared to their obese omnivore counterparts. Many athletes eat a vegan 
diet, and Roman gladiators ate mostly a vegan diet of barley and vegetables, they were even sometimes refered 
to as hordearii which literally means 'barley men'. (291) Claims have also been made that meat must be consumed 
to maintain a healthy and balanced diet, that without meat an individual cannot get the required vitamins and 
other nutritional components to maintain health. But if one compares the vitamin and mineral sources, it is 
obvious that all of the vitamins and other nutritional components needed to maintain health are found in flora- 
based sources. In fact, many nutritional qualities like carbohydrates, fiber, vitamin C, vitamin K, and 
antioxidants are only found in sufficient quantities when from flora-based sources and are found in minute 
quantities from a fauna source as a result of the fauna consuming flora. The following table illustrates how flora- 
based food sources contain far more nutrition, and that there is also allot more variety to choose from than fauna- 
based food sources. 

Source Comparison of Vitamins and Other Nutrition Components 


Some of the Best Flora or Other Natural Sources 

Some of the Best Fauna or Other Modified Sources 


cereals, most all fruits and vegetables, legumes, nuts, 
and whole grains 

beef, dairy products, eggs, fish, and poultry 


nuts, polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats from 
vegetable-based oils 

beef, dairy products, eggs, fish, and poultry 


most all fruits and vegetables, grains, and legumes 



apple skins, avocados, barley, berries, broccoli, carrots, 


cauliflower, celery, figs, green beans, legumes, 
legumes, nuts and seeds, oats, onions, pears, plums, 
potato skins, prunes, ripe bananas, rye, sweet potatoes, 
wheat and corn bran, whole grain foods, zucchini 

Vitamin A 

apricots, broccoli, cantaloupe, carrots, collard greens, 
kale, mango, papaya, peas, pumpkin, spinach, and 

chicken, beef, pork, and fish livers, dairy products, and 

Vitamin B1 

corn flour, legumes, rice, seeds, and spinach 

enriched breads and flour and pork 

Vitamin B2 

almonds, most all leaf vegetables, and mushrooms 

dairy products, eggs, kidneys, and livers 

Vitamin B6 

bananas, chickpeas, pistachios, potatoes, and whole 

beef, pork, and turkey 

Vitamin B12 

vegetables grown in healthy organic soils (see notation 

beef, dairy products, eggs, poultry, shellfish, and turkey 


apricots, bell peppers, ginger, portabella mushrooms, 
potatoes, sesame seeds, sunflower seeds, tarragon, and 
whole grains 

pork, tuna, and turkey, and veal 

Vitamin B9 (Folic 
Acid / Folate) 

asparagus, avocados, Brussels sprouts, legumes, dark 
green leafy vegetables, most all fruits, nuts, peas, 
spinach, and whole grains 

beef, eggs, enriched breads, and poultry, and seafood 

Vitamin C 

most all fruits and vegetables 


Vitamin D 


fortified dairy products 

Vitamin E 

avocados, broccoli, canola oil, kiwifruit, mangos, nuts, 
olive oil, pumpkins, sesame oil, sunflower oil, and 

dairy products 

Vitamin K 

asparagus, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, collard 
greens, kale, lettuce, mustard greens, parsley, spinach, 
and turnip greens 


SOURCE: Wikipedia (with some corrections, additions, and other edits) 

NOTE ON B12: Dr. T. Colin Campbell, Ph.D. states that, 

"Research has convincingly shown that plants grown in healthy soil that has a good concentration of vitamin B12 will readily 
absorb the nutrient. However, plants grown in "lifeless” soil (non-organic soil) may be deficient in vitamin B12. In the United 
States, most of our agriculture takes place on relatively lifeless soil, decimated from years of unnatural pesticide, herbicide 
and fertilizer use. So the plants grown in this soil and sold in our super markets lack B12. In addition, we live in such a 
sanitized world that we rarely come into direct contact with the soil home microorganisms that produce B12. At one point in 
our history, we got B12 from vegetables that hadn't been scoured of all the soil.” (101) 

Furthermore, if one examines the nutrient composition chart below, they will see that flora-based foods have far 
more nutrition than fauna-based foods. It is unfortunate that so few know this information, or even take the time 
to actually inquire about the foods they are consuming, but instead simply consume whatever the food 
conglomerates supply and market to them. 

Nutrient Composition of Plant and Animal-Based Foods 
(Per 500 Calories of Energy) 


Plant-Based Foods (i) 

Animal-Based Foods ( 2 > 













Dietary Fiber(g) 



Vitamin C(mg) 






Vitamin E (mg ATE) 












(1) Equal parts of tomatoes, spinach, lima beans, peas, potatoes 

(2) Equal parts of beef, pork, chicken, whole milk 

SOURCE: The China Study (2006) by: Dr. T. Colin Campbell, Ph.D. And Thomas M. Campbell II ISBN: 1-932100-66-0 p.230 

Some omnivores consume little to no fiber and are so constipated they take must take medication in order to 
defecate, while others resort to bringing reading material into the bathroom because it takes them so long to 
defecate on the rare occasion that they actually do. Some Homo sapiens consume vast quantities of vitamins and 
nutritional supplements in an attempt to maintain health, most do not monitor and regulate their intake and end 
up taxing their organs as a result when excreting these excess vitamins and minerals in their urine and feces. This 
unnecessary stress on the liver, kidneys, and digestive system can also lead to digestive problems and even early 
organ failure. The billion-dollar vitamin and nutritional supplement industry is strongly based on the erroneous 
assumption that Homo sapiens can’t get sufficient vitamins and minerals from food sources, or that they can 
simply replace food with a pill. Would it not be more logical to consume healthy and nutritional flora-based 
foods versus attempting to get vitamins, minerals, and fiber from a pill source? The PBS Frontline report 
‘Supplements and Safety ’ January 19, 2016 reports on this controversial billion-dollar industry. Would vitamins 
and other nutritional supplements even be necessary if Homo sapiens simply consumed a healthier vegan-based 
diet instead of a meat- and dairy-based diet? 

The May 2014 National Geographic Magazine, reported that Farmers markets which sell mainly fruits and 
vegetables had increased from 4,685 markets in 2008, to 8,144 markets in 2014. This increase is great news for 
consumers that prefer local, often organic, fresh fruits and vegetables. It also shows that food can be supplied 
directly from farmer to customer and eliminate all the greedy brokers, manufacturers, wholesalers, and retailers 
which serve as middlemen and only make the food far costlier than it should be. If the local organic farmers can 
continue growing in numbers, then this positive trend could have an enormous impact on food sources and the 
food quality. The consumer demand for more natural, organic, and less genetically modified foods is growing, 
especially as consumers have more natural alternatives for flora-based food sources from around the world. 
Consumers now have more choices than ever when it comes to food sources which are vegan, organic, and 
additive free. There are even emerging vegan specialty companies like Beyond Meat, Gardein, Tofurky, Yves 
Veggie Cuisine, Field Roast, LightLife, Sweet Earth Foods, The Jackfruit Company, along with several others 
and now there is even Veganz, a chain of vegan grocery stores. There are also new companies like Ugly Juice 
which not only make a vegan product, but also help to fight food waste by making fresh juice from produce 
which would otherwise be discarded for aesthetic reasons. 

Healthy fresh fruits and vegetables can be produced inexpensively on an individual or commercial level, and 
naturally without using synthetic pesticides, additives, hormones, antibiotics, or genetic modifications. If a 
majority of Homo sapiens switch to a vegan-based diet consuming no meat or dairy products which are sourced 
from other mammals, aves, or fish, this could tremendously help in reducing pollution, water consumption, and 
increase the overall well-being of Homo sapiens. If all the food available were nutritional and healthy, would this 
not alleviate many health issues? 

Current Medical Epidemics 

Regarding the connection that nutrition and disease have, Hippocrates wrote, 

"Whoever pays no attention to these things, or, paying attention, does not comprehend them, how can he understand the 
diseases which befall a man?" (311) 

Nearly 2,500 years ago Hippocrates referred to this link between nutrition and disease, and 150 years ago 
surgeon and author George Macilwain identified alcohol, grease, and fat as being the main causes of cancer. (105) 
Thus for a very long-time, Homo sapiens have been aware of how dietary factors can cause disease. So why then 
is modern medicine wasting so much time and so many resources attempting to cure easily preventable diseases? 
Why are more individuals not educated from youth about nutrition and how to live a more healthy and longer 
life while also making less impact upon Earth? 

Many individuals know Greek history, it is taught in many schools at many grade levels, but there is a 
mainstream focus on the antiquated subjects of mythology, war, and the tyrants who waged these wars, while the 
subjects of science and health often go virtually unnoticed, and this is unfortunate as there is much to be learned. 
Dr. T. Colin Campbell, Ph.D. tells of one such ancient lesson that perhaps applies even more so today than when 
it was written, 

“Almost 2,500 years ago, Plato wrote a dialogue between two characters, Socrates and Glaucon, in which they discuss the 
future of their cities. Socrates says the cities should be simple, and the citizens should subsist on barley and wheat, with 
“relishes” of salt, olives, cheese and “country fare of boiled onions and cabbage,” with deserts of “figs, peas, beans,” roasted 
myrtle-berries and beechnuts, and wine in moderation. Socrates says, “And thus, passing their days in tranquility and sound 
health, they will in all probability, live to an advanced age....” 

But Glaucon replies that such a diet would only be appropriate for “a community of swine,” and that the citizens should live 
“in a civilized manner.” He continues, “They ought to recline on couches...and have the usual dishes and dessert of a modem 
dinner.” In other words, the citizens should have the “luxury” of eating meat. Socrates replies, “if you wish us also to 
contemplate a city that is suffering from inflammation....We shall also need great quantities of all kinds of cattle for those who 
may wish to eat them, shall we not?” 

Glaucon says, “Of course we shall.” Socrates then says, “Then shall we not experience the need of medical men also to a 
much greater extent under this than under the former regime?” Glaucon can't deny it. “Yes, indeed,” he says. Socrates goes on 
to say that this luxurious city will be short of land because of the extra acreage required to raise animals for food. This 
shortage will lead to citizens to take land from others, which could precipitate violence and war, thus a need for justice. 

Furthermore, Socrates writes, “when dissoluteness and disease abound in a city, are not law courts and surgeries opened in 
abundance, and do not Law and Physic begin to hold their heads high, when number even of well-bom persons devote 
themselves with eagerness to these professions?” In other words, in this luxurious city of sickness and disease, lawyers and 
doctors will become the nonn. 

Plato, in this passage, made it perfectly clear: we shall eat animals only at our own peril. Though it is indeed remarkable that 
one of the greatest intellectuals in the history of the Western world condemned meat eating almost 2,500 years ago, I find it 
even more remarkable that few know about this history. Hardly anybody knows, for example, that the father of Western 
medicine, Hippocrates, advocated diet as the chief way to prevent and treat disease or that George Macilwain knew that diet 
was the way to prevent and treat disease or that the man instrumental in founding the American Cancer Society, Frederick L. 
Hoffman, knew that diet was the way to prevent and treat disease. 

How did Plato predict the future so accurately? He knew that consuming animal foods would not lead to true health and 
prosperity. Instead, the false sense of rich luxury granted by being able to eat animals would only lead to a culture of sickness, 
disease, land disputes, lawyers and doctors. This is a pretty good description of some of the challenges faced by modem 
America!” (114) 

The mainstream western society diet is high in fat, sugar, cholesterol, and sodium which has resulted in 
epidemics of obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, strokes, autoimmune diseases, 
various cancers, and other chronic diseases of affluence. These resulting medical conditions have also cost 
trillions of dollars and placed unneeded stress on the medical resources of the world. These conditions have 
helped to create a massive trillion-dollar network of businesses offering life-threatening surgery, pseudo 
specialists, pseudo treatments, potentially lethal prescription drugs, gimmicks, and other pseudo solutions that 
are unable to solve an ever growing worldwide self-inflicted health epidemic. In other countries where plant- 
based diets are more predominant, these diseases are virtually non-existent until the fauna-based western diet is 
introduced, and the population begins consuming vast quantities of meat and dairy. Gluttonous consumption of 
foods high in fat, sugar, cholesterol, and sodium combined with alcohol, tobacco, stress, and a sedentary lifestyle 

have made cardiovascular disease the leading cause of death worldwide. And the number of annual victims is 
quickly rising, from 12,300,000 Homo sapiens worldwide dying of cardiovascular related causes in 1993, to 
17,300,000 in 2013. (37) There has also been an increase in the incidence rate of anaphylaxis. Dr. F. Estelle R. 
Simons states, 

“... it is clear that anaphylaxis is not rare and that the rate of occurrence is increasing, especially in the first 2 decades of life. 

In a retrospective, population-based study using the resources of the Rochester Epidemiology Project, the incidence rate of 
anaphylaxis was reported to double from 21 per 100,00 person-years in the 1980s to 49.8 per 100,000 person-years in the 
1990s.” (126) 

In addition, a 2015 study on clinical and diagnostic aspects of gluten related disorders stated, 

“Gluten is one of the most abundant and widely distributed components of food in many areas. It can be included in wheat, 
barley, rye, and grains such as oats, barley, spelt, kamut, and triticale. Gluten-containing grains are widely consumed; in 
particular, wheat is one of the world’s primary sources of food, providing up to 50% of the caloric intake in both 
industrialized and developing countries. Until two decades ago, celiac disease (CD) and other gluten-related disorders were 
believed to be exceedingly rare outside of Europe and were relatively ignored by health professionals and the global media. 

In recent years, however, the discovery of important diagnostic and pathogenic milestones led CD from obscurity to global 
prominence. In addition, interestingly, people feeding themselves with gluten-free products greatly outnumber patients 
affected by CD, fuelling a global consumption of gluten-free foods with approximately $2.5 billion in United States sales 
each year. The acknowledgment of other medical conditions related to gluten that has arisen as health problems, providing a 
wide spectrum of gluten-related disorders.” (92) 

This deadly diet, along with other lifestyle choices, combined with the polluted and toxic environment of Earth, 
is also impacting Homo sapiens reproduction abilities. Diabetes, obesity, heart disease, and high blood pressure 
all helped to increase the maternal mortality rates 27% in 48 U.S. states and Washington, D.C. between 2000 to 
20 1 4. (437) The 52.4% sperm count decline between 1973 and 2011 in men from North America, Europe, 
Australia, and New Zealand has been plausibly associated with environmental influences and lifestyle factors 
like: pesticides, diet, smoking, and stress. (442) In the United States, 4,500,000 women had impaired fecundity or 
difficulties conceiving or bringing a pregnancy to term in 1982, by 2002 this number increased to 7,300,000 
women. And while this dramatic increase in infertility and impaired fecundity are not well understood, sexually 
transmitted infections, environmental toxins, and certain lifestyle factors have been the focus of ongoing 
research. (694) 

Many of these chronic diseases of affluence are so easily preventable as they are caused primarily by vitamin 
deficiencies. (121) Scientific research and the evidence it has gathered shows that countries with a diet of mostly 
unrefined flora-based foods have far lower rates of these chronic diseases. Most consumers are very ignorant 
about health knowledge and more especially about nutrition, thus they naively allow commercial food 
companies to take this responsibility. Unfortunately for consumers health, most commercial food companies are 
in the business to make profits, and this has resulted in making the cheapest food products using the unhealthiest 
ingredients. Many think the solution to solving chronic diseases of affluence is through genetic modification, but 
genetics determines only 2 to 3% of these diseases while environmental factors, lifestyle, and diet are major 
influences. This misunderstanding lead many to believe that these chronic diseases of affluence will someday be 
cured by simply turning the gene off. Another misconception is that eating grass fed, farm raised meat and dairy 
is somehow safer and healthier, but it's not so much the process as it is the product being consumed, which is 
unhealthy. And yet this erroneous notion is still peipetuated by some companies as being a safer better 
alternative, while also allowing these companies to charge exorbitant prices for something that will have the 
same negative health consequences. And although the Hippocratic oath states, “1 will prevent disease whenever 1 
can, for prevention is preferable to cure,” many doctors practice the exact opposite of this philosophy. By 
utilizing education and making healthy alternatives readily available, chronic diseases of affluence can be 
prevented in many if not most instances. So why then isn't it being done? Dr. T. Colin Campbell, Ph.D. states 

“When nutrition education is provided in relation to public health problems, guess who is supplying the “educational” 
material? The Dannon Institute, Egg Nutrition Board, National Cattlemen's Beef Association, National Dairy Council, Nestle 
Clinical Nutrition, Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Baxter Healthcare Corporation and others 
have all joined forces to product a Nutrition in Medicine program and the Medical Nutrition Curriculum Initiative. Do you 

think that this all-star team of animal foods and drug industries representatives is going to objectively judge and promote 
optimal nutrition, which science has shown to be a whole foods, plant-based diet that minimizes the need for drugs? Or might 
they try to protect the meat-centered, Western diet where everyone expects to pop a pill for every sickness?” 

“Our institutions and infonnation providers are failing us. Even cancer organizations, at both the national and local level, are 
reluctant to discuss or even believe this evidence. Food as a key to health represents a powerful challenge to conventional 
medicine, which is fundamentally built on drugs and surgery. The widespread communities of nutrition professionals, 
researchers and doctors are, as a whole, either unaware of this evidence or reluctant to share it. Because of the failings, 

Americans are being cheated out of infonnation that could save their lives.” (118) 

During his extensive career Dr. T. Colin Campbell, Ph.D. has been at the forefront of nutrition research, he has 
conducted studies which focus on cancer and the effects that fauna-based protein versus flora-based protein have 
on promoting and even decreasing cancer. The China Study, which is to date, the most comprehensive study of 
health and nutrition ever conducted, revealed some very interesting data. In the China Study and several other 
nutritional studies all the results point to the same conclusion, meat and dairy based food sources are unhealthy 
and even deadly, while flora-based food sources are healthy and promote life. Dr. T. Colin Campbell, Ph.D. 
states that, 

“More commonly known as the China Study, this project eventually produced more than 8,000 statistically significant 
associations between various dietary factors and disease! 

What made this project especially remarkable is that, among the many associations that are relevant to diet and disease, so 
many pointed to the same finding: people who ate the most animal-based foods got the most chronic disease. Even relatively 
small intakes of animal-based food were associated with adverse effects. People who ate the most plant-based foods were the 
healthiest and tended to avoid chronic disease.” 

“In fact, dietary protein proved to be so powerful in its effect that we could turn on and turn off cancer growth simply by 
changing the level consumed... What protein consistently and strongly promoted cancer? Casein, which makes up 87% of 
cow's milk protein, promoted all stages of the cancer process. What type of protein did not promote cancer, even at high levels 
of intake? The safe proteins were from plants, including wheat and soy.” 

“...nutrients from animal-based foods increased tumor development while nutrients from plant-based foods decreased tumor 

“Almost all of us in the United States will die of diseases of affluence. In our China Study, we saw that nutrition has a very 
strong effect on these diseases. Plant-based foods are linked to lower blood cholesterol; animal-based foods are linked to 
higher blood cholesterol. Animal-based foods are linked to higher breast cancer rates; plant-based foods are linked to lower 
rates. Fiber and antioxidants from plants are linked to a lower risk of cancers of the digestive tract. Plant-based diets and 
active lifestyles result in a healthy weight, yet permit people to become big and strong...we can minimize our risk of 
contracting deadly diseases just by eating the right food.” (117) 

Furthermore, Dr. T. Colin Campbell, Ph.D. speculates that cancer could be dormant just waiting to be activated 
by the consumption of meat and dairy foods, in writing, 

“In simple terms, the body holds a grudge. It suggests that if we are exposed in the past to a carcinogen that initiates a bit of 
cancer that remain donnant, this cancer can still be “reawakened” by bad nutrition.” 

“Is it possible that chemical carcinogens, in general, do not cause cancer unless the nutritional conditions are “right”? Is it 
possible that, for much of our lives, we are being exposed to small amounts of cancer causing chemicals, but cancer does not 
occur unless we consume foods that promote and nurture tumor development? Can we control cancer through nutrition?” 

“ both rodents and humans the initiation stage is far less important than the promotion stage of cancer. This is because we 
are very likely “dosed” with a certain amount of carcinogens in our everyday lives, but whether they lead to full tumors 
depends on their promotion or lack thereof.” 

“...our most powerful weapon against cancer is the food we eat every day.” (122) 

Obesity has nearly tripled worldwide since 1975. In 2016, there were more than 1,900,000,000 adults aged 18 
years and older which were overweight, with 650,000,000 of them being obese. In addition, there were 
41,000,000 children under the age of 5 that were either overweight or obese, and more than 340,000,000 children 
and adolescents aged 5 to 19 that were also overweight or obese. (608) Of the 195 countries in the world, 96 

countries have high obesity rates with 20% or more of the population being obese. It should also be noted, that in 
addition to the obese percentage, another 20% or more of the population of many countries is overweight. 









































































When 1/4 to 1/3 of a population is obese, one might be led to believe that there is a serious problem with the 
society’s food sources and lifestyle choices. The CDC states that American adult men and women are 25 pounds 
heavier on average than they were in 1960. (161) In 2008, the estimated yearly medical costs of obesity in the 
United States was as high as $147,000,000,000 a year, or nearly 10% of all medical spending. An amount which 
nearly doubled since 1998 from an estimated of $78,500,000,000 a year. (162) Obesity is now more than ever an 

accepted part of western society, and it is considered just another lifestyle. The entertainment industry portrays 
obese Homo sapiens as happy and funny, as just another character. There are even specialty clothing stores 
which cater specifically towards obese Homo sapiens, with the socially acceptable name called 'Plus Size’. An 
entire billion-dollar pseudo diet and weight loss industry has developed around obesity. Obesity has in fact 
become just another negative thing that society accepts, while ignoring the simple solution that most obesity 
issues could easily be corrected with daily exercise and consuming a healthy diet. Some are also delusional in 
thinking that as you get older your metabolism slows down and you just simply get fatter with age. 

Obesity is so prevalent in western societies that it has also affected dogs and cats which have developed this 
condition. As a result of Homo sapiens feeding them a diet high in fat combined with a sedentary lifestyle, an 
estimated 35% of cats and 34% of dogs in the United States are overweight or obese. (404) Engaging in glutton 
competitions while other Homo sapiens are starving around the world is a major warning sign that society has 
serious issues with regard to food consumption and distribution. If every individual in developed countries went 
hungry for a month eating a daily diet which consisted of only one small bowl of rice and beans per day, would 
their attitude not change towards helping to eliminate world hunger and food waste? One thing is certain it 
would definitely help those who are morbidly obese to lose some weight. Will the world ever reverse the current 
obesity epidemic, or will future generations continue down the same path their ancestors took? Perhaps the most 
recent spikes in consumer food cost combined with recent product quantity decreases will lead to slightly less 
consumption and more awareness about the quantities of food they are consuming versus the recommended 

Part of the cause is from consumers not having had nutritional education and disciplinary eating habits, while the 
other part is a result of commercial companies themselves offering and promoting unhealthy foods. There are 
nutritional and ingredient labels which detail everything about the food item, but how many consumers actual 
read or even understand this data? And what good are the labels if the members of the Food and Nutrition Board 
(FNB) who decide the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) are heavily influenced by the meat, dairy, sugar, 
and other food industries? Why must Homo sapiens waste resources attempting to fight and control these 
medical issues with science and medicine, when they could easily be prevented by not consuming meat, dairy, 
and other unhealthy foods? Flow many billions of dollars each year goes towards the medical expenses of these 
easily preventable diseases? Could medical treatments be decreased by 70% or more if Homo sapiens simply 
changed their lifestyle and diet? Is it simply a matter of the consumer's eating habits changing by choice, either 
through education or as a result of health issues from an indulgent and unhealthy diet in the past? 

Temporary Solutions for Permanent Problems 

The lengths some Homo sapiens will go to for medical treatment are sometimes unthinkable, (e.g. dental 
amalgam is still practiced for treating cavities even though it utilizes highly toxic mercury) Why would anyone 
put such a highly toxic substance permanently into their mouth potentially endangering their health, and 
ultimately releasing mercury pollution into the atmosphere or soil when they die? Why are toxic treatments like 
chemotherapy used when they have so many adverse side effects and such a low success rate? Why are medical 
procedures like electroconvulsive therapy still used when there are questions as to the efficacy, ethics, and 
adverse side effects of the treatment? Why are synthetically created medicines used so heavily when they have 
so many possible adverse side effects and warnings? 

There were 66,000 kidney transplants in 2005 which only covered around 10% of requested donations. Organ 
transplants have extended some lives with many organs transplanted which are taken from willing donors who 
want to help others when they die. But unfortunately, like most medicine, organ transplants have become just 
another medical industry based around profits that cannot meet the demand resulting in a black market of 
desperate poor donors. In some villages in Pakistan 40 to 50% of the village residents have only one kidney 
because they have sold the other. (367) In China, an estimated 60,000 to 100,000 organs are transplanted each 
year with the majority of donor organs coming from executed prisoners of conscience. Between 2000 and 2016, 
an estimated 1,500,000 organ transplants took place in China. (368) Do these organ recipients know, or even care 
where these organs are being sourced from? If an individual has taxed their organs to the point of failure because 

of their negative lifestyle choices and now needs an organ transplant, would not the simpler more cost-effective 
solution have been prevention? Would there even be such a demand for organs if Homo sapiens maintained 
healthier lifestyles? Are Homo sapiens so desperate to live they will attempt insane pseudo medical treatments 
and go so far as to transplant organs? Have these individuals not reached a point of acceptance that death is 
inevitable and that nothing can make you live forever? Homo sapiens seem so desperate to live as long as 
possible that they will pay any amount and attempt anything, risking even the certain possibility of death which 
they are attempting to defy. If some have their way, organ transplants in the future will be grown inside pigs, one 
of the very fauna species which is being eaten and causing so many to need an organ transplant in the first place. 
(430) What does it say about a society’s morals toward another sentient being, which is exploited first by eating it 
and then by using it to harvest replacement organs? Perhaps future medicine will be more like Miguel 
Sapochnik’s 2010 ‘Repo Men ’, where organ transplants will be just another overpriced commodity which is sold 
and repossessed when consumers can no longer afford it. Shouldn’t Homo sapiens attempt to solve the 
anthropogenic issues which claim far more lives before attempting to change and alter the natural ones? 

There are many natural medicines which are derived from florae, some of which have been used for thousands of 
years. But much knowledge about natural medicine which was known by Homo sapiens ancient ancestors is 
unknown today and is simply waiting to be rediscovered. This ancient and once common knowledge has either 
been replaced by synthetic drugs or simply forgotten. Many florae of Earth have not been identified, classified, 
or described, and these unknown florae and much of the known florae have never even been scientifically 
researched for medicinal applications. Perhaps if a more natural cure to diseases is sought through ethnobotany, 
so many ailments which plague Homo sapiens could be a thing of the past. Nature is perfect and has a solution to 
every problem that is encountered, for it is not seen as a problem to nature, but simply a piece of nature's larger 
puzzle. The hurdle which Homo sapiens are faced with is not one of finding the solution to nature's problems, 
but the correct natural solution which nature already knows. If Homo sapiens continue to seek the answers to 
problems in a synthetic way attempting to playing God with science, they may continue to only find temporary 
solutions to permanent self-inflicted problems. Do potential new medicinal drugs await Homo sapiens from 
undiscovered flora in one of the many unexplored ecosystems of the Earth? Could florae revolutionize medicine 
and lead Homo sapiens to abandon potentially harmful synthetic drugs which result in the deaths of so many 
every year? How much different would the medical system be if more resources were devoted to researching 
ethnobotany, herbalism, nutrition, ethnomedicine, and other natural alternative therapies? 

The human body is resilient and can heal itself if given time and the proper nutrition, but much of modern 
medicine is based on extreme treatments, some even experimental, which actually weaken the immune system 
and can result in additional medical issues and even death. Homo sapiens are a beautifully created complex 
organism, to attempt manipulation of it through technology or to rely on pseudo-science for shortcuts as an 
alternative for better health is nothing more than ignorance and foolishness. No pill can replace whole foods, no 
surgery can permanently fix the body or make one live a healthier life, no genetic modifications will alleviate 
diseases of affluence, and no fauna-based diet will ever be as healthy as a flora-based one. The only true way to 
maintain a healthy body, is through a healthy flora-based diet and an active lifestyle. Age is a part of life, and 
acceptance of aging is something many do not want to do so they instead attempt to hide or stop the inevitable 
with plastic surgery, pseudo medicines, and other anti-aging schemes. Some Homo sapiens take 5, 10, 15, or 
more pills per day, how stressed are the livers, kidneys, and other organs of these individuals? Is attempting to 
prolong an inevitable death really worth the excessive strain placed on the medical community and environment? 
Is fighting an inevitable death in this manner really considered living? 

A Healthcare System Based Around Money and Profits 

Medicine has become an industry based on profits, not a system based solely on helping the sick. In 2013, the 
world spent $7,350,000,000,000 on healthcare, more than double spent in 2000, with a total world market for 
medicines and medical technologies estimated to be $11,000,000,000,000. (413) The United States spends more 
than 17% of its GDP on healthcare. In 2010, the costs of cancer care in the United States alone was 
$124,570,000,000. (270) In 2013, the top 10 bestselling cancer drugs had a combined revenue of 
$37,470,000,000. (271) Has cancer become just another sector of the medical industry with a profitable pseudo 

cure, while natural treatments and possibly even a cure utilizing cannabis has been proven scientifically in 
laboratory tests, but is ignored by most of the medical establishment? CNBC reported in 2017, that the top six 
health insurers in the United States reported $6,000,000,000 in adjusted profits for the second quarter, which was 
a 29% increase from the same quarter a year ago. (577) Millions of Homo sapiens every year become even poorer 
as a result of their medical expenses. A 2015 WHO report concluded, 

"Every year, some 100 million people fall below the poverty line as a result of out-of-pocket expenditures on health, and a 

further 1.2 billion, already living in poverty, are pushed further into penury for the same reason." (413) 

Basing medical care mainly around money and profits has ultimately led to exorbitant prices for medical 
treatment, and more especially for synthetic prescription drugs, resulting in many around the world having 
limited access to medicine because they simply cannot afford it. How can life itself be based on a monetary 
value? How many patients are treated each year unnecessarily to make a profit? How many millions of dollars 
and resources were wasted on patients who would have inevitably died anyway? Why must millions of Homo 
sapiens become poor in order to get medical treatment to sustain life? Shouldn’t medical care be based on 
helping patients and not on making profits? What good it a cure if it is based mainly on money and thus 
unavailable to much of the world’s population? When the government mandates all Americans have health 
insurance or pay a tax penalty, is this not further evidence the health system is based around money and profits 
and not on actual healthcare? Why is the Catholic religion allowed to own hospitals and other healthcare 
facilities allowing medical directives to be influenced with their religious beliefs, while also receiving federal 
funding? Will there ever be free Universal Health Care for the entire world? 

In the United States, care for the elderly, disabled, and dying has become just another business where private 
companies charge vast sums of money and often provide inadequate care. In 2014, the CDC reported that in the 
United States, there were 12,400 home health agencies serving 4,900,000 patients with 80% of home health 
agencies being for-profit ownership, 30,200 residential care communities with 835,200 residents with 81.8% of 
residential care communities being for-profit ownership, 4,000 hospice care agencies with 1,300,000 patients 
with 60.2% of hospice care agencies being for-profit ownership, and 15,600 nursing homes housing 1,400,000 
residents with 69.8% of nursing homes being for-profit ownership. (581) Between 2012 and 2014, there were 
8,100 fires in nursing homes, 66% of which were started by cooking vessels. (580) How can so many fires occur 
in facilities which are supposed to be providing things like hot food and beverages within a safe and secure 
environment? How can families with adequate resources abandon their relatives in such facilities? 

Prescription Drug Epidemic 

The vast majority of medical issues today are caused by negative lifestyle choices and environmental factors, 
and yet to cure today's medical issues, be it mental illness, stress, depression, or dietary health issues, society has 
resorted to experimental science in an attempt to 'Cure all with a pill'. Many of these preventative ills could 
easily be cured by simple lifestyle and dietary changes, education, social changes, or perhaps even alternative 
natural medicines derived from florae. Other medical issues like asthma could be drastically reduced if 
environmental conditions in cities improved and the air quality were less polluted. Everything is susceptible to 
the biological laws of cause and effect, especially dietary habits, if you eat unhealthily or live in an unhealthy 
environment you will become unhealthy, and no amount of pills or extreme medical treatments will change the 
results, they may perhaps delay the inevitable, but only temporarily. In many instances, modern medicine and 
what doctors call a cure has done nothing more than prolong pain and suffering of many preventative diseases 
and other health ailments. In fact, most prescription drugs only work on 50% or less of the patients who take 
them, an open secret within the drug industry and one admitted to in 2003 by Allen Roses, the former worldwide 
vice-president of genetics at GlaxoSmithKline who stated, 

"The vast majority of drugs - more than 90 per cent - only work in 30 or 50 per cent of the people, I wouldn't say that most 
drugs don't work. I would say that most drugs work in 30 to 50 per cent of people. Drugs out there on the market work, but 
they don't work in everybody." (197) 

The pharmaceutical companies have, in essence, formed a monopoly over many drugs while also engaging in 
price gouging to increase profits. This monopoly has created a trillion-dollar industry of over overpriced, over¬ 
prescribed, and sometimes addictive pharmaceutical drugs. Utilizing patents, tax breaks, and government 
subsidies the pharmaceutical industry has created a monopoly that charges exorbitant prices on drugs that the 
public is either addicted to taking or unknowingly forced to take through ignorance and a medical community of 
doctors who condone the practice and perpetuate it on a daily basis. Dr. T. Colin Campbell, Ph.D. remarks that, 

“Considered from another perspective, the NCI (of the NIH), in 1999 had a budget of $2.93 billion. In a “major” 5-A-Day 
dietary program, it was spending $500,000 to $1 million to educate the public to consume five or more servings of fruits and 
vegetables per day. This is only three hundredths of one percent (0.0256%) of its budget. That's $2.56 for every $10,000! If it 
calls this a major campaign, I pity its minor campaigns.” 

“If very few of our tax dollars are used to fund nutrition research, what do they fund? Almost all of the billions of dollars of 
taxpayer money expended by the NIH each year funds projects to develop drugs, supplements and mechanical devices. In 
essence, the vast bulk of biomedical research funded by you and me is basic research to discover products that the 
pharmaceutical industry can develop and market. In 2000, Dr. Marcia Angell, a former editor of the New England Journal of 
Medicine, summarized it well when she wrote: 

...the pharmaceutical industry enjoys extraordinary government protections and subsidies. Much of the early basic research 
that may lead to drug development is funded by the National Institutes of Health. It is usually only later, when the research 
shows practical promise that the drug companies become involved. The industry enjoys great tax advantages. Not only are its 
research and development costs deductible, but so are its massive marketing expenses. The average tax tare of major U.S. 

Industries from 1993 to 1996 was 27.3% of revenues. During the same period the pharmaceutical industry was reportedly 
taxed at a rate of only 16.2%. Most important, the drug companies enjoy seventeen-year government-granted monopolies on 
their new drugs-that is, patent protection. Once a drug is patented, no one else may sell it, and the drug company is free to 
charge whatever the traffic will bear.” (119) 

The pharmaceutical industry makes huge profits every year but spends far more on marketing medications than 
on actual research and development. (316) Globally, pharmaceutical industry revenue each year is now more than 
$1,000,000,000,000. Every year in the United States physicians order or provide 2,915,400,000 drugs to their 
patients. 48.7% of the United States population uses one prescription drug, 21.8% use three or more prescription 
drugs, 10.7% use 5 or more prescription drugs. What does it mean when nearly half the population takes a 
prescription drug? Are Americans extremely sick or are they being overmedicated for monetary profits? (202) 

Many pharmaceutical drugs cost very little to manufacture but retail for an exorbitant amount, the epinephrine 
autoinjector, aka EpiPen is a prime example of this costing around $1 to manufacture and retailing for $600. In 
the United States from 2002 to 2013, spending for insulin per patient increased from $231.48 to $736.09 which 
affects some 29,000,000 American diabetics, or 9.3% of the population. (307) Lomustine, a 40-year old cancer 
drug, was sold to a new pharmaceutical company in 2013, it has since risen from $50.00 per capsule to $768.00 
per pill, an increase of nearly 1,400%. (664) How can companies be allowed to charge such exorbitant amounts 
on life saving drugs? Do these scientists, doctors, and businesspersons who run these pharmaceutical giants have 
no morals, and only care about profits? Why are companies like Turing Pharmaceuticals allowed to obtain the 
sole manufacturing license for an antiparasitic drug like Daraprim, and engage in price gouging by increasing the 
price from $13.50 USD per pill to $750.00 USD per pill, while in Brazil the same drug is available for $0.02 
USD per pill? (409) An investigation by Reuters found that 4 of the most 10 prescribed drugs in the United States 
have increased in price by more than 100% since 2011, and that in 2014 sales for the 10 most prescribed drugs 
increased 44%, even though prescriptions for these same medications dropped 22%. Patient spending on 
pharmaceutical drugs also increased faster than doctor visits and hospitalization over a five-year period. (412) 

List of Most Expensive Prescription Drugs | 

Drug Name 



$ 1,000,000 per year 


$794,000 per year (an estimated 2000 Homo sapiens in the United States suffer from 
this rare genetic disease, if each patient pays this exorbitant price it would be a total 
of: $1,588,000,000. 


$750,000 for the first year and $375,000 for each year after 


$626,000 per year 


$585,000 per year 


$572,000 per year 


$543,000 per year (with an estimated 41,000 patients worldwide, if each patient pays 
this exorbitant price it would be a total of: $22,263,000,000 

As of 2015 there were 90 other prescription drugs that each had an annual cost of $100,000 or more, 5 of them costing more than 
$400,000 per year. 

SOURCE: The Motley Fool - The 7 Most Expensive Prescription Drugs in the World - April 18, 2017 - 

Pharmaceutical companies have used unethical business schemes like: Medicaid Price Reporting, Best Price 
Fraud, CME Fraud, Off Label Marketing, Good Manufacturing Practice Violations, Manufactured Compound 
Drugs, and other methods to defraud the health care system in an effort to increase profits. From 2001 to 2013, 
there were many settlements made between pharmaceutical companies and the United States Department of 
Justice, the 22 largest settlements amounted to $19,755,000,000 in fines. Flow can these companies continue to 
break the law with little or no real consequences? 

Children today are often prescribed Ritalin, Adderall, or another experimental pharmaceutical concoction to 
correct behavioral problems. In 1990, there were 600,000 children that were taking stimulants like Ritalin, by 
2013 the number increased to 3,500,000 children while the stimulant Ritalin was largely replaced by Adderall. 
(459) Worldwide, global Ritalin consumption was 2,400,000,000 doses in 2013. (461) About 83,000 prescriptions 
for Prozac, and almost 20,000 prescriptions for Risperdal, Seroquel, and other antipsychotic medications were 
written in 2014 for children that were 2 years old and younger. (460) Why is Ritalin, a drug that essentially has 
the same pharmacological properties as amphetamines, used to treat children with behavioral problems? Are 
these children’s behavioral issues a result from social and environmental factors? (e.g. alcohol, drug, pesticide, 
or other chemical exposure during pregnancy, premature birth, low birth weight, vitamin or other nutritional 
deficiencies, social deprivation, neglect or abuse, etc.) Instead of prescription drugs, could the solution be in 
treating these children with behavior therapy, diet and lifestyle changes, and/or social changes? The January 
2008 PBS Frontline program ‘The Medicated Child’ documents the issue in depth. 

Top 25 Most Prescribed Pharmaceutical Drugs in the United States - April 2014 to March 2015 

Prescription Drug 

Total Prescriptions 




thyroid hormone deficiency 



high cholesterol and related conditions and to prevent 
cardiovascular disease 

Ventolin HFA 





stomach acid reducer 

Advair Diskus 


asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 

Lantus Solostar 





attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and binge eating 



epilepsy, neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia, and generalized anxiety 

Spiriva Handihaler 











atypical antipsychotic 



asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 



antiviral flu medication 



erectile dysfunction 



erectile dysfunction 



used in the treatment of opioid dependence 



high cholesterol 



preventing and treating blood clots 



high blood pressure 



pain and inflammation 






Alzheimer's disease 

Flo vent HFA 


asthma, allergic rhinitis, nasal polyps, various skin disorders and 
Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis 




Source: Medscape - 100 Best-Selling, Most Prescribed Branded Drugs Through March - by: Troy Brown, RN - May 06, 2015 - 
httr>://www.medscar> 1 

The vast majority of prescription drugs used today are synthetic, with some even containing known chemicals 
that have adverse health effects for some patients who use them only once. Prolonged use of prescription drugs 
can also result in severe irreversible liver, kidney, or other bodily damage. There are no official statistics from 
the FDA, CDC, or any United States government agency for the total number of adverse drug reactions and 
adverse drug reaction deaths. There is however one study which analyzed data between 1966 and 1996, the study 
estimated that in 1994 there were 2,216,000 hospitalized patients that had a serious adverse drug reaction, while 
another 106,000 hospitalized patients had a fatal adverse drug reaction, making this an unreported and hidden 
leading cause of death. (458) These estimates do not include adverse drug reactions which occurred in a nursing 
home or in an ambulatory setting, which could add hundreds of thousands to the total. Why are adverse drug 
reaction deaths not a focal point for relative government agencies, hospitals, doctors, and patients? Why are no 
government statistics available on this issue, and why is there no system in place to record, track, and further 
investigate each adverse drug reaction incident? How can the government ignore such a prevalent issue within 
medicine? How many millions of adverse drug reactions occur worldwide? How many hundreds of thousands of 
deaths worldwide occur because of an adverse drug reaction? Why is there so much focus on the abuse and 
overdose deaths of prescription and illegal drugs, but so little attention given to a prescription drug which kills 
the patient it was intending to save? If the public was more aware of the real total number of adverse drug 
reactions and adverse drug reaction deaths which occur, would they take less prescription drugs? Have patients 
become the ultimate clinical trial for prescription drugs? Why would anyone take such a substance to cure 
something that can be done in a more natural way with florae, lifestyle changes, or physical therapy? 

Prescription drug advertisements are presented in a soothing calm and happy voice when talking about not only 
the drug itself, but even the side effects, as if allergic reactions, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, insomnia, heart 
palpitations, addiction, dependence, and other negative and even fatal side effects are normal and to be accepted. 
A recent study found that 32% of prescription drugs approved by the FDA had safety issues prompting either 
withdrawal of the drug from market, a box warning, or prompted a safety communication release. (346) Since the 
1960’s, many prescription drugs in the United States and Europe have been recalled due to adverse and 
sometimes previously unknown fatal side-effects. Why are so many highly addictive drugs prescribed so 
frequently? Why have so many drugs with known side-effects been allowed to reach consumers only to later be 
recalled? If 2 out of 1,000 patients experience a side-effect from taking a prescribed drug and the side-effect is a 
guaranteed statistical probability, then what use is a black box warning or other government warning? Is society 
being so heavily influenced by the medical establishment, corporations, and their advertising that they consume 
whatever is marketed towards them no matter how toxic and deadly it could possibly be? 

Some Controversial Medications 




Alosetron was withdrawn from the market in 2000 owing to the occurrence of serious life-threatening 
gastrointestinal adverse effects, but was reintroduced in 2002 with availability and use restricted. Alosetron 
was withdrawn from the market voluntarily by Glaxo Wellcome on November 28, 2000 owing to the 
occurrence of serious life-threatening gastrointestinal adverse effects, including 5 deaths and additional bowel 
surgeries. The FDA said it had reports of 49 cases of ischemic colitis and 21 cases of "severe constipation" 
and that ten of the 70 patients underwent surgeries and 34 others were examined at hospitals and released 
without surgery. Severe adverse events continued to be reported, with a final total of 84 instances of 
ischaemic colitis, 113 of severe constipation, 143 admissions to hospital, and 7 deaths. It was the first drug 
returned to the U.S. market after withdrawal for safety concerns. 

Amphetamine and 

In the United States, methamphetamine hydrochloride, under the trade name Desoxyn, has been approved by 
the FDA for treating ADHD and obesity in both adults and children; however, the FDA also indicates that the 
limited therapeutic usefulness of methamphetamine should be weighed against the inherent risks associated 
with its use. Methamphetamine is sometimes prescribed off label for narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia. 

In the United States, methamphetamine's levorotary form is available in some over-the-counter (OTC) nasal 
decongestant products. As methamphetamine is associated with a high potential for misuse, the drug is 
regulated under the Controlled Substances Act and is listed under schedule II in the United States. 

One of the earliest uses of amphetamine and methamphetamine was during World War II, when they were 
used by Axis and Allied forces. As early as 1919, Akira Ogata synthesized methamphetamine via reduction of 
ephedrine using red phosphorus and iodine. Later, the chemists Hauschild and Dobke from the German 
pharmaceutical company Temmler developed an easier method for converting ephedrine to 
methamphetamine. As a result, it was possible for Temmler to market it on a large scale as a nonprescription 
drug under the trade name Pervitin (methamphetamine hydrochloride). It was not until 1986 that Pervitin 
became a controlled substance, requiring a special prescription to obtain. Pervitin was commonly used by the 
German and Finnish militaries. 

It was widely distributed across German military ranks and divisions, from elite forces to tank crews and 
aircraft personnel, with many millions of tablets being distributed throughout the war for its performance 
enhancing stimulant effects and to induce extended wakefulness. Its use by German Tank (Panzer) crews also 
led to it being known as Panzerschokolade ("Tank-Chocolates"). It was also colloquially known among 

German Luftwaffe pilots as Stuka-Tabletten ("Stuka-Tablets") and Hermann-Goring-Pillen ("Herman-Goring- 
Pills"). More than 35 million three-milligram doses of Pervitin were manufactured for the German army and 
air force between April and July 1940. From 1942 until his death in 1945, Adolf Hitler was given intravenous 
injections of methamphetamine by his personal physician Theodor Morell. In Japan, methamphetamine was 
sold under the registered trademark of Philopon by Dainippon Pharmaceuticals (present-day Dainippon 
Sumitomo Pharma [DSP]) for civilian and military use. It has been estimated that one billion Phiporon pills 
were produced between 1939 and 1945. As with the rest of the world at the time, the side effects of 
methamphetamine were not well studied, and regulation was not seen as necessary. In the 1940s and 1950s, 
the drug was widely administered to Japanese industrial workers to increase their productivity. In Finland, 
Pervitin was colloquially known as hookipulveri ("pep powder"). Its use was essentially restricted to special 
forces, especially to long range commandos. 

Amphetamine was given to Allied bomber pilots during World War II to sustain them by fighting off fatigue 
and enhancing focus during long flights. During the Persian Gulf War, amphetamine became the drug of 
choice for American bomber pilots, being used on a voluntary basis by roughly half of U.S. Air Force pilots. 

The Tamak Farm incident, in which an American F-16 pilot killed several friendly Canadian soldiers on the 
ground, was blamed by the pilot on his use of amphetamine. A nonjudicial (UCMJ Article 15) U.S. Air Force 
hearing rejected the pilot's claim. 


Under the trade name Trasylol, aprotinin was used as a medication administered by injection to reduce 
bleeding during complex surgery, such as heart and liver surgery. Its main effect is the slowing down of 
fibrinolysis, the process that leads to the breakdown of blood clots. The aim in its use was to decrease the 
need for blood transfusions during surgery, as well as end-organ damage due to hypotension (low blood 
pressure) as a result of marked blood loss. The drug was temporarily withdrawn worldwide in 2007 after 
studies suggested that its use increased the risk of complications or death; this was confirmed by follow-up 
studies. Trasylol sales were suspended in May 2008, except for very restricted research use. In February 2012 
the European Medicines Agency (EMA) scientific committee reverted its previous standpoint regarding 
aprotinin, and has recommended that the suspension be lifted. Nordic became distributor of aprotinin in 2012. 
On October 25, 2007, the FDA issued a statement regarding the "Blood conservation using antifibrinolytics" 
(BART) randomized trial in a cardiac surgery population. The preliminary findings suggest that, compared to 
other antifibrinolytic drugs (epsilon-aminocaproic acid and tranexamic acid) aprotinin may increase the risk 
of death. On October 29, 2006 the Food and Drag Administration issued a warning that aprotinin may have 
serious kidney and cardiovascular toxicity. The producer, Bayer, reported to the FDA that additional 
observation studies showed that it may increase the chance for death, serious kidney damage, congestive heart 
failure and strokes. FDA warned clinicians to consider limiting use to those situations where the clinical 
benefit of reduced blood loss is essential to medical management and outweighs the potential risks. On 
November 5, 2007, Bayer announced that it was withdrawing Aprotinin because of a Canadian study that 
showed it increased the risk of death when used to prevent bleeding during heart surgery. 


Benoxaprofen, also known as Benoxaphen, is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug and was marketed under 
the brand name Oraflex in the United States and as Opren in Europe by Eli Lilly and Company. Lilly 
suspended sales of Oraflex in 1982 after reports from the British government and the U.S. Food and Drag 
Administration (FDA) of adverse effects and deaths linked to the drag. When benoxaprofen was on the 
market as Oraflex in the USA the first sign of trouble came for the Lilly Company. The British Medical 

Journal reported in May 1982 that physicians in the UK believed that the drug was responsible for at least 12 
deaths, mainly caused by kidney and liver failure. A petition was filed to have Oraflex removed from the 
market. On the fourth of August 1982 the British government temporarily suspended sales of the drug in UK 
‘on grounds of safety’. The British Committee on the Safety of Medicines declared, in a telegram to the FDA, 
that it had received reports of more than 3,500 adverse side-effects among patients who had used Oraflex. 

There were also 61 deaths, most of which were of elderly people. Almost simultaneously, the FDA said it had 
reports of 11 deaths in the USA among Oraflex users, most of which were caused by kidney and liver damage. 


Cerivastatin is a synthetic member of the class of statins used to lower cholesterol and prevent cardiovascular 
disease. It was marketed by the pharmaceutical company Bayer A.G. in the late 1990s, competing with 

Pfizer's highly successful atorvastatin (Lipitor). Cerivastatin was voluntarily withdrawn from the market 
worldwide in 2001, due to reports of fatal rhabdomyolysis. During postmarketing surveillance, 52 deaths 
were reported in patients using cerivastatin, mainly from rhabdomyolysis and its resultant renal failure 


Dexfenfluramine was, for some years in the mid-1990s, approved by the United States Food and Drug 
Administration for the purposes of weight loss. Flowever, following multiple concerns about the 
cardiovascular side-effects of the drug, the FDA withdrew the approval in 1997. After it was removed in the 

US, dexfenfluramine was also pulled out in other global markets. It was later superseded by sibutramine, 
which, although initially considered a safer alternative to both dexfenfluramine and fenfluramine, was 
likewise removed from the US market in 2010. 


Dcxtropropoxyphene is an analgesic in the opioid category, it is intended to treat mild pain and also has 
antitussive (cough suppressant) and local anaesthetic effects. The drag has been taken off the market in 

Europe and the US due to concerns of fatal overdoses and heart arrhythmias. Dcxtropropoxyphene is subject 
to some controversy: while many physicians prescribe it for a wide range of mildly to moderately painful 
symptoms, as well as for treatment of diarrhea, many others refuse to prescribe it, citing limited effectiveness. 

In addition, the therapeutic index of dextroproxyphene is relatively narrow. 

Caution should be used when administering dextropropoxyphene, particularly with children and the elderly 
and with patients who may be pregnant or breast feeding; other reported problems include kidney, liver or 
respiratory disorders, and prolonged use. Attention should be paid to concomitant use with tranquillizers, 
antidepressants or excess alcohol. Darvon, a dextropropoxyphene formulation made by Eh Lilly, which had 
been on the market for 25 years, came under heavy fire in 1978 by consumer groups that said it was 
associated with suicide. Darvon was never withdrawn from the market, until recently. But Lilly has waged a 
sweeping, and largely successful, campaign among doctors, pharmacists and Darvon users to defend the drag 
as safe when it is used in proper doses and not mixed with alcohol. After determining the risks outweigh the 
benefits, the USFDA requested physicians stop prescribing the drug. On November 19, 2010 the FDA 
announced that Xanodyne Pharmaceuticals agreed to withdraw Darvon and Darvocet in the United States, 
followed by manufacturers of dextropropoxyphene. 

Diethyls tilbestrol 

Diethylstilbestrol is a synthetic, non-steroidal estrogen of the stilbestrol group that was first synthesized in 

1938. It is also classified as an endocrine disruptor. Human exposure to DES occurred through diverse 
sources, such as dietary ingestion from supplemented cattle feed and medical treatment for certain conditions, 
including breast and prostate cancers. From about 1940 to 1971, DES was given to pregnant women in the 
mistaken belief it would reduce the risk of pregnancy complications and losses. 

In 1971, DES was shown to cause clear cell carcinoma, a rare vaginal tumor in girls and women who had 
been exposed to this drug in utero. The United States Food and Drug Administration subsequently withdrew 
approval of DES as a treatment for pregnant women. Follow-up studies have indicated that DES also has the 
potential to cause a variety of significant adverse medical complications during the lifetimes of those exposed. 
The United States National Cancer Institute recommends women born to mothers who took DES undergo 
special medical exams on a regular basis to screen for complications as a result of the drug. 

The greatest usage of DES was in the livestock industry, used to improve feed conversion in beef and poultry. 
During the 1960s, DES was used as a growth hormone in the beef and poultry industries. It was later found to 
cause cancer by 1971, but was not phased out until 1979. When DES was discovered to be harmful to 
humans, it was moved to veterinary use. 

Fenfluramine and 

The drag combination fenfluramine/phentermine, usually called fen-phen, was an anti-obesity treatment that 
utilized two anorectics. Fenfluramine was marketed by American Home Products (later known as Wyeth) as 
Pondimin, but was shown to cause potentially fatal pulmonary hypertension and heart valve problems, which 
eventually led to its withdrawal and legal damages of over $13 billion. Phentennine was not shown to have 
harmful effects. 

Lysergic Acid 

Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), also known as acid, is a psychedelic drug known for its psychological 
effects. This may include altered awareness of the surroundings, perceptions, and feelings as well as 
sensations and images that seem real though they are not. In the 1950s and 1960s LSD was used in psychiatry 
to enhance psychotherapy known as psychedelic therapy. Some psychiatrists [who?] believed LSD was 
especially useful at helping patients to "unblock" repressed subconscious material through other 
psychotherapeutic methods, and also for treating alcoholism. One study concluded, "The root of the 
therapeutic value of the LSD experience is its potential for producing self-acceptance and self-surrender," 
presumably by forcing the user to face issues and problems in that individual's psyche. Two recent reviews 
concluded that conclusions drawn from most of these early trials are unreliable due to serious methodological 
flaws. These include the absence of adequate control groups, lack of followup, and vague criteria for 
therapeutic outcome. In many cases studies failed to convincingly demonstrate whether the drag or the 
therapeutic interaction was responsible for any beneficial effects. 


Methaqualone, sold under the brand name Quaalude. The sedative-hypnotic activity of methaqualone was 
first noted by researchers in the 1950s. In 1962, methaqualone was patented in the US by Wallace and 

Tiernan. By 1965, it was the most commonly prescribed sedative in Britain, where it has been sold legally 
under the names Malsed, Malsedin, and Renoval. In 1965, a methaqualone/antihistamine combination was 

sold as the sedative drug Mandrax, by Roussel Laboratories (now part of Sanofi-Aventis). In 1972, it was the 
sixth-bestselling sedative in the US, where it was legal under the brand name Quaalude. Its use peaked in the 
early 1970s as a hypnotic, for the treatment of insomnia, and as a sedative and muscle relaxant. Methaqualone 
peaks in the bloodstream within several hours, with a half-life of 20-60 hours. Regular users build up a 
physical tolerance, requiring larger doses for the same effect. Overdose can lead to nervous system shutdown, 
coma and death. An overdose can cause delirium, convulsions, hypertonia, hyperreflexia, vomiting, kidney 
failure, coma, and death through cardiac or respiratory arrest. It resembles barbiturate poisoning, but with 
increased motor difficulties and a lower incidence of cardiac or respiratory depression. The standard one 
tablet adult dose of Quaalude was 300 mg when made by Lemmon. A dose of 8000 mg is lethal and a dose as 
little as 2000 mg could induce a coma if taken with an alcoholic beverage. 


Methylhexanamine (trade names Forthane, Geranamine) or methylhexamine, commonly known as 1,3- 
dimethylamylamine (1,3-DMAA) or simply dimethylamylamine (DMAA), is an indirect sympathomimetic 
drug invented and developed by Eli Lilly and Company and marketed as an inhaled nasal decongestant from 
1944 until it was voluntarily withdrawn from the market in 1983. 

Since 2006 methylhexanamine has been sold extensively under many names as a stimulant or energy-boosting 
dietary supplement under the claim that it is similar to certain compounds found in geraniums, but its safety 
has been questioned as a number of adverse events and at least five deaths have been associated with 
methylhexanamine-containing supplements. It is banned by many sports authorities and governmental 
agencies. The FDA has stated that methylhexanamine "is known to narrow the blood vessels and arteries, 
which can elevate blood pressure and may lead to cardiovascular events ranging from shortness of breath and 
tightening in the chest to heart attack." Numerous adverse events and at least five deaths have been reported 
in association with methylhexanamine-containing dietary supplements. 


Natalizumab is used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis and Crohn's disease. Natalizumab was approved in 
2004 by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). It was subsequently withdrawn from the market by 
its manufacturer after it was linked with three cases of the rare neurological condition progressive multifocal 
leukoencephalopathy (PML) when administered in combination with interferon beta-la, another 
immunosuppressive drug often used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis. After a review of safety 
information and no further deaths, the drug was returned to the US market in 2006 under a special 
prescription program. As of June 2009, ten cases of PML were known. However, twenty-four cases of PML 
had been reported since its reintroduction by October 2009, showing a sharp rise in the number of fatalities 
and prompting a review of the chemical for human use by the European Medicines Agency. By January 2010, 

31 cases of PML were attributed to natalizumab. The FDA did not withdraw the drug from the market because 
its clinical benefits outweigh the risks involved. 


Obetrol was the brand of amphetamine mixed salts based drugs indicated for treatment of exogenous obesity 
by the American pharmaceutical company Obetrol Pharmaceuticals. Obetrol was a popular diet pill in 

America in the 1950s and 1960s. A formulation of amphetamine mixed salts that included methamphetamine 
was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on January 19, 1960 under the name Obetrol. 
Between 1965 and 1973, this fonnula was offered in 10 mg and 20 mg strength through Obetrol 
Pharmaceuticals division of an American pharmaceutical company Rexar under the trade name Obetrol. Its 
indication was for exogenous obesity. Obetrol was withdrawn from the market in 1973 under DESI statute. 
Rexar reformulated Obetrol to exclude methamphetamine and continued to sell this new formulation under 
the same Obetrol brand name. This new unapproved formulation was later rebranded and sold as Adderall by 
Richwood after it acquired Rexar resulting in FDA warning in 1994. When Richwood acquired Rexar, the 
drug's name was changed from Obetrol to Adderall, and the drug was marketed for use in the treatment of 
Attention Deficit Disorder (in both children and adults). 


Oxymorphone, sold under the brand names Numorphan among others, is a powerful semi-synthetic opioid 
analgesic (painkiller) developed 1914 in Germany. In June 2017, the FDA asked Endo Pharmaceuticals to 
remove Opana ER from the US market, because vis a vis the opioid epidemic the drug's benefits may no 
longer outweigh its risks, this being the first time the agency has taken steps to remove a currently marketed 
opioid pain medication from sale due to public health consequences of abuse. 


Phenformin is an antidiabetic drug from the biguanide class. It was marketed as DBI by Ciba-Geigy, but was 
withdrawn from most markets in the late 1970s due to a high risk of lactic acidosis, which was fatal in 50% of 
cases. Phenformin sales began to decline in the US from 1973 due to negative trial studies and reports of 
lactic acidosis. By October 1976, the FDA Endocrinology and Metabolism Advisory Committee 
recommended phenformin be removed from the market. The FDA began formal proceedings in May 1977, 
leading to its eventual withdrawal on November 15, 1978. 


Rimonabant (trade names Acomplia, Zimulti) was an anorectic antiobesity drug that was first approved in 
Europe in 2006 but was withdrawn worldwide in 2008 due to serious psychiatric side effects; it was never 
approved in the United States. Rimonabant is an inverse agonist for the cannabinoid receptor CB1 and was 
the first drug approved in that class. In October 2008, the European Medicines Agency recommended the 
suspension of Acomplia after the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) had determined 
that the risks of Acomplia outweighed its benefits due to the risk of serious psychiatric problems, including 


Rofecoxib is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that has now been withdrawn over safety 

concerns. It was marketed by Merck & Co. to treat osteoarthritis, acute pain conditions, and dysmenorrhea. 
Rofecoxib was approved by the U.S. Food and Drag Administration (FDA) on May 20, 1999, and was 
marketed under the brand names Vioxx, Ceoxx, and Ceeoxx. Rofecoxib gained widespread acceptance among 
physicians treating patients with arthritis and other conditions causing chronic or acute pain. Worldwide, over 

80 million people were prescribed rofecoxib at some time. On September 30, 2004, Merck withdrew 
rofecoxib from the market because of concerns about increased risk of heart attack and stroke associated with 
long-tenn, high-dosage use. Merck withdrew the drag after disclosures that it withheld infonnation about 
rofecoxib's risks from doctors and patients for over five years, resulting in between 88,000 and 140,000 cases 
of serious heart disease. Rofecoxib was one of the most widely used drugs ever to be withdrawn from the 
market. In the year before withdrawal, Merck had sales revenue of US$2.5 billion from Vioxx. Merck 
reserved $970 million to pay for its Vioxx-related legal expenses through 2007, and has set aside $4.85bn for 
legal claims from US citizens. 


Rosiglitazone (trade name Avandia) is an antidiabetic drag in the thiazolidinedione class. It works as an 
insulin sensitizer, by binding to the PPAR in fat cells and making the cells more responsive to insulin. It is 
marketed by the pharmaceutical company GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) as a stand-alone drug or for use in 
combination with metformin or with glimepiride. First released in 1999, annual sales peaked at approximately 
$2.5-billion in 2006; however, following a meta-analysis published in the New England Journal of Medicine 
in 2007 that linked the drug's use to an increased risk of heart attack, sales plummeted to just $9.5-million in 
2012. The drug's patent expired in 2012. 

Despite rosiglitazone's effectiveness at decreasing blood sugar in type 2 diabetes mellitus, its use decreased 
dramatically as studies showed apparent associations with increased risks of heart attacks and death. Adverse 
effects alleged to be caused by rosiglitazone were the subject of over 13,000 lawsuits against GSK; as of July 
2010, GSK had agreed to settlements on more than 11,500 of these suits. In Europe, the European Medicines 
Agency (EMA) recommended in September 2010 that the drag be suspended from the European market 
because the benefits of rosiglitazone no longer outweighed the risks. It was withdrawn from the market in the 
UK and India in 2010, and in New Zealand and South Africa in 2011. 

In 2012, the U.S. Justice Department announced GlaxoSmithKline had agreed to plead guilty and pay a $3 
billion fine, in part for withholding the results of two studies of the cardiovascular safety of Avandia between 
2001 and 2007. The settlement stems from claims made by four employees of GlaxoSmithKline, including a 
former senior marketing development manager for the company and a regional vice president, who tipped off 
the government about a range of improper practices from the late 1990s to the mid-2000s. 

Following the reports in 2007 that Avandia can significantly increase the risk of heart attacks, the drug has 
been controversial. A 2010 article in Time uses the Avandia case as evidence of a broken FDA regulatory 
system that "may prove criminal as well as fatal". It details the disclosure failures, adding, "Congressional 
reports revealed that GSK sat on early evidence of the heart risks of its drug, and that the FDA knew of the 
dangers months before it informed the public." It reports, "the FDA is investigating whether GSK broke the 
law by failing to fully inform the agency of Avandia's heart risks", according to deputy FDA commissioner 

Dr. Joshua Sharfstein. GSK threatened academics who reported adverse research results, and received 
multiple warning letters from the FDA for deceptive marketing and failure to report clinical data. The maker 
of the drug, GlaxoSmithKline, has dealt with serious backlash against the company for the drag's controversy. 
Sales on the drug dropped significantly after the story first broke in 2007, dropping from $2.5 billion in 2006 
to less than $408 million in 2009 in the US. 


Sibutramine (usually in the fonn of the hydrochloride monohydrate salt) is an oral anorexiant. It was sold 
under a variety of brand names including Reductil, Meridia, Siredia, and Sibutrex. Until 2010 it was marketed 
and prescribed as an adjunct in the treatment of exogenous obesity along with diet and exercise. It has been 
associated with increased cardiovascular events and strokes and has been withdrawn from the market in 
several countries and regions including Australia, Canada, China, the European Union (EU), Hong Kong, 

India, Mexico, New Zealand, the Philippines, Thailand, the United Kingdom, and the United States. 


Temafloxacin (marketed by Abbott Laboratories as Omniflox) is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic drag which was 
withdrawn from sale in the United States shortly after its approval. Omniflox was approved to treat lower 
respiratory tract infections, genital and urinary infections like prostatitis, and skin infections in the United 

States by the Food and Drug Administration in January 1992. Severe adverse reactions, including allergic 
reactions and hemolytic anemia, developed in over 100 patients during the first four months of its use, leading 
to three patient deaths. Abbott withdrew the drag from sale in June 1992. 


Thalidomide was first marketed in 1957 in West Germany under the trade-name Contergan. The German drug 
company Chemie Griinenthal developed and sold the drag. Primarily prescribed as a sedative or hypnotic, 
thalidomide also claimed to cure "anxiety, insomnia, gastritis, and tension". Afterwards, it was used against 
nausea and to alleviate morning sickness in pregnant women. Thalidomide became an over-the-counter drug 
in West Germany on October 1, 1957. Shortly after the drug was sold in West Germany, between 5,000 and 
7,000 infants were bom with phocomelia (malformation of the limbs). Only 40% of these children survived. 
Throughout the world, about 10,000 cases were reported of infants with phocomelia due to thalidomide; only 
50% of the 10,000 survived. Those subjected to thalidomide while in the womb experienced limb deficiencies 

in a way that the long limbs either were not developed or presented themselves as stumps. Other effects 
included deformed eyes and hearts, deformed alimentary and urinary tracts, blindness and deafness. The 
negative effects of thalidomide led to the development of more structured drug regulations and control over 
drug use and development. 

In the late 1950s and early 1960s, more than 10,000 children in 46 countries were born with defonnities such 
as phocomelia as a consequence of thalidomide use. The severity and location of the deformities depended on 
how many days into the pregnancy the mother was before beginning treatment; thalidomide taken on the 20th 
day of pregnancy caused central brain damage, day 21 would damage the eyes, day 22 the ears and face, day 

24 the arms, and leg damage would occur if taken up to day 28. Thalidomide did not damage the fetus if taken 
after 42 days gestation. It is not known exactly how many worldwide victims of the drug there have been, 
although estimates range from 10,000 to 20,000 to 100,000. Despite the side effects, thalidomide was sold in 
pharmacies in Canada until 1962. In the United Kingdom, the drug was licensed in 1958 and withdrawn in 
1961. Of the approximately 2,000 babies born with defects, around half died within a few months and 466 
survived to at least 2010. In Spain, thalidomide was widely available throughout the 1970s, perhaps even into 
the 1980s. There were two reasons for this. First, state controls and safeguarding were poor; indeed, it was not 
until 2008 that the government even admitted the country had ever imported thalidomide. Second, Griinenthal 
failed to insist that its sister company in Madrid warn Spanish doctors, and pennitted it to not warn them. The 
Spanish advocacy group for victims of thalidomide estimates that in 2015, there were 250-300 living victims 
of thalidomide in Spain. 

Tienilic acid 

Tienilic acid (INN and BAN) or ticrynafen (USAN) is a loop diuretic drug with uric acid-lowering 
(uricosuric) action, formerly marketed for the treatment of hypertension. It was approved by FDA on May 2, 
1979, and withdrawn in 1982, after case reports in the United States indicated a link between the use of 
ticrynafen and hepatitis. Criminal charges were brought against SmithKline executives with regard to hiding 
data related to toxicity while gaining FDA approval. The company pleaded guilty to 14 counts of failure to 
report adverse reactions and 20 counts of selling a misbranded drug. 


Triparanol was patented in 1959 and introduced in the United States in 1960, was the first synthetic 
cholesterol-lowering drug. It was withdrawn in 1962 due to severe adverse effects such as nausea and 
vomiting, vision loss due to irreversible cataracts, alopecia, skin disorders (e.g., dryness, itching, peeling, and 
"fish-scale" texture), and accelerated atherosclerosis and is now considered to be obsolete 


Troglitazone (Rezulin, Resulin, Romozin, Noscal) is an antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory drug, and a 
member of the drug class of the thiazolidinediones. It was prescribed for patients with diabetes mellitus type 

2. It was developed by Daiichi Sankyo (Japan). In the United States, it was introduced and manufactured by 
Parke-Davis in the late 1990s, but turned out to be associated with an idiosyncratic reaction leading to drug- 
induced hepatitis. The FDA medical officer assigned to evaluate troglitazone, John Gueriguian, did not 
recommend its approval due to potential high liver toxicity; Parke-Davis complained to the FDA and 

Gueriguian was subsequently removed from his post. A full panel of experts approved it in January 1997. 

Once the prevalence of adverse liver effects became known, troglitazone was withdrawn from the British 
market in December 1997, from the United States market in 2000, and from the Japanese market soon 
afterwards. It did not get approval in the rest of Europe. On March 21, 2000, the FDA withdrew the drug from 
the market. Dr. Robert I. Misbin, an FDA medical officer, wrote in a July 3, 2000 letter to the House Energy 
and Commerce Committee of strong evidence that Rezulin could not be used safely, after having been 
threatened by the FDA with dismissal in March 2000. By that time the drug had been linked to 63 liver-failure 
deaths and had generated sales of more than $2.1 billion for Warner-Lambert 


Trovafloxacin (sold as Trovan by Pfizer and Turvel by Laboratories Almirall) was a broad spectrum antibiotic 
that inhibits the uncoiling of supercoiled DNA in various bacteria by blocking the activity of DNA gyrase and 
topoisomerase IV. It was withdrawn from the market due to the risk of hepatotoxicity. In 1996, during a 
meningitis epidemic in Kano, Nigeria, the drag was administered to approximately 200 infected children. 

Eleven children died in the trial: five after taking Trovan and six after taking an older antibiotic used for 
comparison in the clinical trial. Others suffered blindness, deafness and brain damage, common sequalae of 
meningitis that have not been seen in patients treated with trovafloxacin for other infection types. An 
investigation by the Washington Post concluded that Pfizer had administered the drug as part of an illegal 
clinical trial without authorization from the Nigerian government or consent from the children's parents. The 
case came to light in December 2000 as the result of an investigation by The Washington Post, and sparked 
significant public outcry. 


Valdecoxib is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used in the treatment of osteoarthritis, 
rheumatoid arthritis, and painful menstruation and menstrual symptoms. It is a selective cyclooxygenase-2 
inhibitor. Valdecoxib was manufactured and marketed under the brand name Bextra by G. D. Searle & 

Company as an anti-inflammatory arthritis drag. It was approved by the United States Food and Drag 
Administration on November 20, 2001, to treat arthritis and menstrual cramps, and was available by 
prescription in tablet fonn until 2005 when the FDA requested that Pfizer withdraw Bextra from the American 
market. The FDA cited "potential increased risk for serious cardiovascular (CV) adverse events," an 
"increased risk of serious skin reactions" and the "fact that Bextra has not been shown to offer any unique 
advantages over the other available NSAIDs." In September 2009 Bextra was at the center of the "largest 
health care fraud settlement and the largest criminal fine of any kind ever." Pfizer paid a $2.3 billion civil and 

criminal fine. Pharmacia and Upjohn, a Pfizer subsidiary, violated the United States Food, Drug and Cosmetic 
Act for misbranding Bextra "with the intent to defraud or mislead." 


Zolpidem (originally marketed as Ambien and available worldwide under many brand names) is a sedative 
primarily used for the treatment of insomnia. It works quickly, usually within 15 minutes, and has a short 
half-life of two to three hours. Zolpidem has not adequately demonstrated effectiveness in maintaining sleep, 
unless delivered in a controlled-release (CR) form. However, it is effective in initiating sleep. Zolpidem 
addresses sleep-initiation problems, but is not effective in maintaining sleep. Also, a 2012 NIH study showed 
that Zolpidem's effectiveness is nearly as much due to psychological effects as to the drug itself, so "increased 
attention should be directed at psychological intervention of insomnia." 

Some users have reported unexplained sleepwalking while using zolpidem, as well as sleep driving, Night 
eating syndrome while asleep, and performing other daily tasks while sleeping. Research by Australia's 

National Prescribing Service found these events occur mostly after the first dose taken, or within a few days 
of starting therapy. Rare reports of sexual parasomnia (sleep sex) episodes related to zolpidem intake have 
also been reported. Sleepwalkers can sometimes perform these tasks as normally as they might if they were 
awake. Residual 'hangover' effects, such as sleepiness and impaired psychomotor and cognitive function, may 
persist into the day following nighttime administration. Such effects may impair the ability of users to drive 
safely and increase risks of falls and hip fractures. In February 2008, the Australian Therapeutic Goods 
Administration attached a boxed warning to zolpidem, stating that "Zolpidem may be associated with 
potentially dangerous complex sleep-related behaviors that may include sleep walking, sleep driving, and 
other bizarre behaviours. 

The United States Air Force uses zolpidem as one of the hypnotics approved as a "no-go pill" (with a 6-hour 
restriction on subsequent flight operation) to help aviators and special duty personnel sleep in support of 
mission readiness. (The other hypnotics used are temazepam and zaleplon.) "Ground tests" are required prior 
to authorization issued to use the medication in an operational situation. 

| SOURCE: Wikipedia (with some corrections, additions, and other edits) 1 

Death and other Medical Statistics 

It should be noted that many low- and middle-income countries do not have systems in place for collecting 
information on causes of death, so all worldwide estimates are based on incomplete data and could be much 
higher. Of the 56,400,000 deaths worldwide in 2015, heart disease and stroke accounted for 15,000,000 deaths 
and they have been the leading causes of death globally for the last 15 years. Chronic obstructive pulmonary 
disease killed 3,200,000 Homo sapiens, diabetes killed 1,600,000 Homo sapiens, tuberculosis killed 1,400,000 
Homo sapiens, and there were an estimated 1,400,000 Homo sapiens worldwide that died from a diarrheal 
disease. In low-income countries 52% of all deaths in 2015 were caused by communicable diseases. (358) (e.g. 
maternal causes, conditions arising during pregnancy and childbirth, and nutritional deficiencies) The World 
Health Organization (WHO) reported that environmental risks, (e.g. indoor and outdoor air pollution, second¬ 
hand smoke, unsafe water, lack of sanitation, and inadequate hygiene) take the lives of 1,700,000 children under 
5 years of age every year, which equates to 3 children dying every minute of easily preventable causes. (383) 
How can easily preventable diseases and medical conditions still claim the lives of so many? UNICEF reported 

"About 29,000 children under the age of five - 21 each minute - die every day, mainly from preventable causes. More than 70 
per cent of almost 11 million child deaths every year are attributable to six causes: diarrhoea, malaria, neonatal infection, 
pneumonia, pretenn delivery, or lack of oxygen at birth." (204) 

A 2015 WHO report concluded that noncommunicable diseases (NCD) were the leading cause of death 
worldwide. The report stated, 

"In 2012, an estimated 52% of all deaths under age 70 was due to NCDs, and two thirds of those deaths were caused by 
cardiovascular diseases (CVD), cancer, diabetes and chronic respiratory disease (CRD)." 

"NCDs are estimated to kill around 38 million people per year, accounting for 68% of all deaths worldwide, 1 and the main 
NCDs (CVD, cancers, CRD and diabetes), taken singly, are among the top 10 leading killers. Nearly 80% of NCD deaths - 
30 million - occurs in low-, middle- and non-OECD high-income countries, where NCDs are fast replacing infectious 
diseases and malnutrition as the leading causes of disability and premature death. Despite their obvious and growing 
significance, NCDs have long been hidden, misunderstood and underrecorded. They were passed over in the MDGs, which, 
by focusing attention on other issues, may have actually contributed to the sidelining of this core public health concern in 

global health." 

"In terms of mortality, the leading NCD is cardiovascular disease (CVD), which claimed 17.5 million lives in 2012 (46% of 
all NCD deaths), 6 million of which were people under age 70 Of those 17.5 million deaths, 7.4 million were due to coronary 
heart disease (heart attacks) and 6.7 million to stroke. Cancers kill around half as many (8.2 million, with 4.3 million under 
age 70), while CRD and diabetes accounted for 4.0 million and 1.5 million deaths, respectively. 1 Diabetes is also a risk factor 
for CVD, with about 11% of cardiovascular deaths attributed to high blood glucose." 

“Globally, the prevalence of diabetes continues to increase The leading risk factors for type 2 diabetes are excess body weight 
and physical inactivity. Diabetes is highly correlated with the global prevalence of obesity, which has nearly doubled since 
1980. In 2014, 11% of men and 15% of women age 18 and older were obese, while more than 42 million children under five 
years were overweight in 2013 It is encouraging to note, however, that a few high-income countries have managed to slow or 
halt the increase in obesity prevalence in children,14,15 which may eventually help to stabilize diabetes prevalence. In 2012, 
diabetes was the direct cause of 1.5 million deaths (4% of all NCD deaths), 46% of which occurred under age 70.” 

“Many of the products associated with the development of NCDs make companies money...Globalization of marketing and 
trade offers unprecedented opportunities for companies to promote products leading to tobacco use, harmful use of alcohol, 
consumption of food that is high in fat, especially saturated and trans fats, sugars, and salt/sodium, and sedentary lifestyles, 
often taking advantage of the weaker regulatory frameworks in many low- and middle-income countries.” (413) 

Cancer can be caused by physical, chemical, or oncogenic carcinogens, and while it is often very difficult to find 
the exact source of the cancer, most evidence will point to something the victim was exposed to throughout their 
lifetime, sometimes even being self-inflicted through dietary or other lifestyle choices. As there are so many 
agents in the world which can cause cancer, and too often there is very little investigation done into the cause of 
the cancer, the cause usually remains a mystery. Worldwide cancer is the second leading cause of death claiming 
8,800,000 lives in 2015. In 2012, more than 14,000,000 new cancer cases were diagnosed, and this number is 
expected to rise by 70% over the next 2 decades. (607) While much research has been done, and new technologies 
can now be used to help with early diagnosis and control, no cure exists utilizing modern-day mainstream 
medicine. Is there a direct or even indirect connection between the use of some toxic chemicals and exploding 
cancer rates over the last 100 years? If there never really is a direct connection to these toxic chemicals, will they 
ever be seen as one of the possible sources of this cancer epidemic? 

In the United States, an estimated 30,200,000 adults aged 18 years or older had diabetes in 2015, while an 
estimated 84,000,000 adults aged 18 years or older had prediabetes, equating to 46.1% of the adult population. 
(436) Again, one might be led to believe that there is a serious problem with the society’s food sources and 
lifestyle choices when 46.1% of the United States adult population has diabetes or prediabetes. Worldwide, over 
50% of indigenous adults over the age of 35 have type 2 diabetes. (494) 

Leading Causes of Death in United States 

Cause of Death 

Total Deaths Per Year 

Heart disease 




Chronic lower respiratory diseases 


Accidents (unintentional injuries) 


Stroke (cerebrovascular diseases) 


Adverse Drag Reaction (1998 Estimated no official or updated statistics) (458) 


Alzheimer's disease 




Dmg Overdose (heroin, natural and semi-synthetic opioids, methadone, synthetic opioids 
excluding methadone, cocaine, or psychostimulants with abuse potential) (535) 


Influenza and pneumonia 


Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome, and nephrosis 


Intentional self-harm (suicide) 


Source: CDC National Center for Health Statistics - Health, United States, 2015: With Special Feature on Racial and Ethnic Health 
Disparities Hvattsville. MD.2016. Library of Congress Catalog Number 76-641496 - httns:// 

(458) Incidence of adverse drug reactions in hospitalized patients: a meta-analysis of prospective studies - April 15, 1998 - by: Lazarou 
J, Pomeranz BH, and Corey PN - 

(535) CDC • National Center for Health Statistics • National Vital Statistics System - PROVISIONAL COUNTS OF DRUG 
OVERDOSE DEATHS, as of 8/6/2017 - policv/monthlv-drug-overdose-death-estimates.pdf 

Mental Health and Drug Addiction 

In 2013, there were 61,700,000 Americans that visited a physician's office with a mental disorder as the primary 
diagnosis. (443) In addition, another 4,700,000 Americans visited an emergency department with a mental 
disorder as the primary diagnosis. (444) Very few species on Earth have ever been observed committing suicide, 
and it is often a result of Homo sapiens confining a species and causing so much stress that it refuses to eat and 
just simply shuts down losing the will to live, and ultimately dies of sadness. Homo sapiens are the only species 
on Earth that commit suicide on a mass scale. In 2012, an estimated 804,000 Homo sapiens committed suicide 
globally. (413) What does it say about a society when 804,000 members of society lose the will to live from 
sadness, anger, or another emotion ultimately committing suicide? When the members of a society begin to 
commit suicide perhaps there is something seriously wrong within parts of the society itself. 

In December 2016, after releasing videos in which she talked about being bullied at school and being sexually 
and physically abused by her stepfather, 12-year old Katelyn Nicole Davis live streamed her suicide on social 
media. Less than a month later on January 26, 2017, two days after having been beaten by fellow students and 
found unconscious in a school bathroom, 8-year-old Gabriel Taye committed suicide. Later that year on March 
14, 2017 an 11-year-old boy committed suicide after his girlfriend faked her own death. Then on June 14, 2017, 
after being taunted at school and on social media, 12-year-old Mallory Grossman committed suicide. A similar 
bullying situation in South Carolina resulted in 11-year-old Toni Rivers committing suicide on October 25, 2017, 
and another incident in California of prolonged bullying over years eventually led to 13-year-old Rosalie Avile 
hanging herself in December 2017. Have children become so disconnected with their friends, parents, or other 
mentors that they commit suicide instead of getting help from an adult? What does it say about society when 
children are taught and allowed to bully other children to the point of suicide? What does it say about society 
when children are committing suicide? 

Stress and depression caused mainly by social factors have led some to abuse alcohol and drugs to the point of 
self-destruction, incarceration, or death. In the United States, an estimated 88,000 Homo sapiens die from 
alcohol-related causes each year. Worldwide, there were 3,300,000 deaths of Homo sapiens which were 
attributed to alcohol consumption in 2012. (538) Beginning in the late 1990s, United States healthcare providers 
began widely prescribing opioids to treat chronic pain. This ultimately resulted in a billion-dollar opioid 
prescription drug market and an opioid drug epidemic which has plagued many parts of the United States. In 
2010, there were 38,329 Homo sapiens in the United States that died of a drug overdose, and in 2014 this 
number increased 23% to 47,055. The 10 drugs most frequently involved in overdose deaths were heroin, 
oxycodone, methadone, morphine, hydrocodone, fentanyl, alprazolam, diazepam, cocaine, and 
methamphetamine. (356) In the United States, there were 52,898 overdose deaths in 2016, of which 9,945 
resulted from synthetic opioids excluding methadone, by 2017 the number of overdoses increased to 64,070 with 
20,145 caused from synthetic opioids excluding methadone. (535) There were 197,713 deaths in the United States 
from prescription opioid overdoses between 2000 and 20016. (620) OxyContin was released into the United 
States market in 1996, and when prescriptions for the drug peaked in 2012, doctors were writing enough 
prescriptions for every American adult to have a bottle. Since the peak in 2012 there has been a decline in opioid 
prescriptions and yet an increase in opioid related overdose deaths. (357) The CDC reported that in 2015 the 
number of opioids prescribed in the United States was enough for every American to be medicated around the 
clock for 3 weeks. (399) How can the United States spend more than $4,000,000,000,000 on the Iraq and 
Afghanistan wars halfway around the world, while only spending $2,500,000,000 to help Mexico in fighting the 
drug war which has claimed more than 100,000 civilians and police? Why doesn’t the United States government 
focus more on this drug war which is happening within the United States and in neighboring Mexico? Would 
simply legalizing all drugs end the drug war? Could rampant drug use be prevented simply through education 
and social changes? 

Estimated Age-adjusted Death Rates? for Drug Poisoning 
by County, United States: 1999 

Legend for Estimated Age-adjusted Death Rate per 100,000 

■ 0-2 □ 8.1-10 □ 16.1-18 ■ 26.1-28 

■ 2.1-4 □ 10 1-12 □ 18.1-20 

□ 4.1-6 □ 12.1-14 H 20.1-22 

□ 6.1-8 □ 14.1-16 B 22.1-24 

SOURCE: CDC - Drug Poisoning Mortality in the United States, 1999-2015 - 

Estimated Age-adjusted Death Rates? for Drug Poisoning 
by County, United States: 2015 

Legend for Estimated Age-adjusted Death Rate per 100,000 

■ 0-2 □ 8.1-10 □ 16.1-18 

■ 2.1-4 □ 10.1-12 □ 18.1-20 

□ 4.1-6 □ 12.1-14 □ 20.1-22 

□ 6.1-8 □ 14.1-16 @ 22.1-24 

■ 24 1-26 

■ 26 1-28 
■ 28.1-30 

SOURCE: CDC - Drug Poisoning Mortality in the United States, 1999-2015 - 


Why has the FDA and DEA allowed opioids to be prescribed so easily and for so long when there is such a 
prevalent prescription opioid epidemic with rapidly increasing rates of addiction and overdoses, many of which 
result in death? How did this fatal prescription opioid epidemic begin? Former DEA deputy assistant 
administrator Joe Rannazzisi told 60 Minutes that pharmaceutical distributors Cardinal Health, McKesson, and 
AmerisourceBergen, which control most of the industry, allowed millions of pharmaceutical opioid painkillers to 
go into what he described as bad pharmacies and doctor offices, which then distributed them to patients that had 
no legitimate medical need for the drugs. Drug companies then lobbied in Washington D.C. to get the Ensuring 
Patient Access and Effective Drug Enforcement Act passed, which limited the Drug Enforcement 
Administration’s ability to stop the prescription opioid epidemic. Joe Rannazzisi told 60 minutes, 

“Because I think that the drug industry — the manufacturers, wholesalers, distributors and chain drugstores — 
have an influence over Congress that has never been seen before. And these people came in with their influence 
and their money and got a whole statute changed because they didn't like it” ( 619 ) 

Countries with the Highest Rates of Burden of Disease for Mental Illness and Behavioral Related Disorders 




Alcohol and Illegal Drug Use 









United States 

United States 

United States 

United States 









SOURCE: World Health Organization - Global Burden Diseases 2002 to 2012 - Health statistics and information systems 

Why do these advanced nations have such high rates of depression, anxiety, and other mental issues? Why do the 
citizens of these nations choose to consume vast quantities of prescription drugs, illegal drugs, and alcohol as a 
solution to these problems? 


Every year around 5,500,000,000,000 cigarettes are produced worldwide, and between 1950 and 2004 the world 
produced 94,340,000,000,000 cigarettes. (248) Every year 6,000,000 Homo sapiens die as a result of smoking 
tobacco, and an additional 600,000 Homo sapiens die as a result of second-hand smoke. (413) In 2017, an 
estimated 1,000,000,000 Homo sapiens worldwide smoked cigarettes. In the 20 th century more than 100,000,000 
Homo sapiens were killed as a result of tobacco use. (226) Each year during the Epiphany celebrations in the 
village of Vale de Salgueiro in Portugal, parents encourage their children, some as young as 5, to smoke 
cigarettes. And while no one is really sure what the centuries old tradition symbolizes or even why they continue 
it, this victimization of children through forced tobacco use continues. (666) More than 7,000 chemical 
compounds are created and released into the atmosphere when a cigarette is burned, hundreds of which are toxic, 
and about 70 that are known to cause cancer. (225) Toxic substances which include arsenic, nicotine, tar, cyanide, 
and even the radioactive materials: polonium-210 and lead-210. (439) In addition there is not only second-hand 
smoke which can potentially affect others around the smoker, but also third-hand smoke which is the remnants of 
these toxic chemicals on surfaces after the second-hand smoke has cleared the air. 

E-cigarettes are now the latest trend, and they are often marketed as a safer alternative to traditional cigarettes 
and even advertised as a method to quit smoking, but they can in fact be just as addictive and deadly as 
traditional cigarettes as they can potentially contain nicotine, diacetyl and other flavorings, volatile organic 
compounds, heavy metals such as nickel, tin, and lead along with other cancer-causing chemicals and ultrafine 
particles that can be inhaled deep into the lungs. (679) How many billions of cigarette butts litter the Earth today? 
Why does the government even allow a product that is known to kill so many millions of Homo sapiens and 
pollute the Earth so badly? A 2015 World Health Organization report on the environmental and health impacts of 
tobacco concluded, 

'Tobacco growing usually involves substantial use of chemicals - including pesticides, fertilizers and growth regulators. 

These chemicals may affect drinking water sources as a result of run-off from tobacco growing areas. Research has also 
shown that tobacco crops deplete soil nutrients by taking up more nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium than other major 
crops. This depletion is compounded by topping and de-suckering plants, which increase the nicotine content and leaf yields 
of tobacco plants. 

Land used for subsistence farming in low- and middle-income countries may be diverted to tobacco as a cash crop. Intensive 
lobbying and investments by multinational tobacco companies (e.g. Philip Morris International, British American Tobacco 
and Japan Tobacco International) and leaf buyers (e.g. Universal Corporation and Alliance One International) along with 
market liberalization measures have encouraged the expansion of tobacco agriculture in low- and middle-income countries. 
Many of these countries have limited legislative and economic capacities to resist multinational tobacco companies’ influence 
and investments. As a consequence of expanded tobacco agriculture, there are short-term economic benefits for some 
farmers, but there will be long-tenn social, economic, health and environmental detriments for many others. 

Due to widespread concerns about unfair labour practices in tobacco agriculture, tobacco control advocates have recently 
been working with tobacco farmers and farm workers to ensure the right to collective bargaining and to receive living wages 
and fair leaf prices.5 Given the agricultural labour practices in both low- and middle-income countries and more developed 
countries, attention is also needed to ensure the safety of children involved in tobacco farming. Farm workers, especially 
child labourers, minorities and migrant workers are at risk of nicotine toxicity (green tobacco illness), caused by handling 
tobacco leaves without protection during harvest and processing. 

In 1995, it was estimated that global tobacco manufacturing produced over 2,000,000 tonnes of solid waste, 300,000 tonnes 
of non-recyclable nicotine-containing waste and 200,000 tonnes of chemical waste. If annual cigarette production had 
remained constant for the past 20 years (output has actually increased from 5 to 6.3 trillion cigarettes annually), tobacco 
factories would have deposited a total of 45,000,000 tonnes of solid wastes, 6,000,000 tonnes of nicotine waste and almost 
4,000,000 tonnes of chemical wastes during this time. Other toxic by-products of tobacco manufacturing or chemicals used in 
manufacturing include ammonia, hydrochloric acid, toluene and methyl ethyl ketone. 

The health impacts of environmental tobacco smoke exposure include lung cancer, cardiovascular disease and pulmonary 
disease. Exposure to residual chemicals in environments where smoking has taken place may also have human health 
impacts, though these impacts have not yet been quantified. Most cigarettes are lit using matches or gas-filled lighters. If, for 
example, one wooden match is used to light two cigarettes, the six trillion cigarettes smoked globally each year would require 
the destruction of about nine million trees to produce three trillion matches. There are also environmental impacts of 
manufacturing and disposing of the plastic, metal and butane used in making cigarette lighters. 

Cigarettes remain an important cause of accidental fires and resulting deaths. In the United Kingdom of Great Britain and 
Northern Ireland, cigarettes caused 7% of fires in 2013-2014, making them the single most important cause of deaths related 
to fires (34 deaths/1,000 fires).11 In the United States of America, cigarettes have been responsible for 8-10% of all fires 
over the past 10 years (on average 90,000 fires per year); they also remain the single most important cause of deaths related 
to fires (540 of 2855 total deaths in 2011). These fires were responsible for 621 million United States dollars in direct 
property damage and 1,640 civilian injuries. Regulations requiring cigarettes to self-extinguish in Canada and the USA were 
associated with a 30% decline in fire-related deaths from 2003 to 2011. 

Cigarette butts are the most commonly discarded piece of waste globally and are the most frequent item of litter picked up on 
beaches and water edges worldwide. 14 The non-biodegradable cellulose acetate filter attached to most manufactured 
cigarettes is the main component of cigarette butt waste and trillions of filter-tipped butts are discarded annually. Assuming 
that each filter weighs 170 milligrams, the weight of all tobacco-attributable non-biodegradable (filter) waste discarded 
annually is about 175,200 tonnes. 

Hazardous substances have been identified in cigarette butts - including arsenic, lead, nicotine and ethyl phenol. These 
substances are leached from discarded butts into aquatic environments and soil. Although the environmental impact of this 
waste has not yet been quantified, the large quantity of discarded butts may allow leachates to affect the quality of drinking 
water. Other post-consumption wastes, such as medicines, pesticides and plastic microbeads from cosmetics, have been found 
in drinking water sources. It is possible that tobacco product waste may also prove to be a significant environmental 
contaminant and potential human health hazard through bioaccumulation in the food-chain. 

With 6 trillion cigarettes manufactured annually, about 300 billion packages (assuming 20 cigarettes per pack) are made for 
tobacco products. Assuming each empty pack weighs about six grams, this amounts to about 1,800,000 tonnes of packaging 
waste, composed of paper, ink, cellophane, foil and glue. The waste from cartons and boxes used for distribution and packing 
brings the total annual solid post-consumption waste to at least 2,000,000 tonnes. This compares with an estimated 1,830,000 
tonnes annually of plastic waste from mineral water bottles (estimation method available from the corresponding author). 

Electronic cigarettes may contain batteries that require special disposal as well as chemicals, packaging and other non- 
biodegradable materials. The US Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) has expressed concerns about the 
flammability and lack of product regulation of electronic cigarettes and their components. 

Tobacco smoking leads directly to the emission of 2,600,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide and about 5,200,000 tonnes of 
methane. Data from 66 low- and middle-income countries showed that tobacco growing and curing caused significant 
deforestation between 1990 and 1995, amounting to approximately 2,000 hectares - on average, 5% of each country’s 
estimated deforestation during that five-year period. Worldwide, approximately 13,000,000 hectares of forest are lost due to 
agriculture or natural causes each year, and of this, at least 200,000 hectares are for tobacco agriculture and curing. 1 
Deforestation is the second largest anthropogenic source of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere (approximately 20%), after 
fossil fuel combustion. One estimate of the impact of deforestation in tobacco agriculture and curing is that it causes almost 
5% of global greenhouse gas production. 

Despite their now well-known efforts to sow doubt among the public and policy-makers about anthropogenic climate change, 
tobacco companies have advertised their efforts to reduce carbon emissions. British American Tobacco estimated in 2006 that 
production of one million cigarettes produces 0.79 tonnes of carbon dioxide. According to this estimate, 4,740,000 tonnes of 
carbon dioxide would be emitted annually by global cigarette manufacturing. Other analyses assert that this is a gross 
underestimate of the greenhouse gas burden due to tobacco growing, manufacturing and transport.23 No estimates are as yet 
available on the extent of carbon dioxide emissions due to tobacco product transport." (438) 

Major Medical Outbreaks 

There are thousands of diseases on Earth which can affect Homo sapiens with only 26 available vaccines and 
another 24 vaccines in the pipeline being developed. (250) And although Polio will most likely be eradicated 
soon, as of 2017 smallpox was the only human infectious disease to have been completely eradicated. Does this 
not prove the resilience and evolutionary brilliance with which nature works, and how little Homo sapiens 
actually understand about nature? The XDR (extensively drug resistant) typhoid outbreak in Pakistan which 
began in November 2016 and other pathogens which have developed resistance to antibiotics or vaccines are 
also evidence of this as well. 

Modem medicine and lifestyle changes have halted the spread of some diseases and prevented a mass pandemic 
for nearly 100 years, but Homo sapiens activities have led to the emergence of zoonotic human pathogens 
including viruses, bacteria, protozoa, and rickettsia in addition to the spread of vector borne diseases. When the 
first large cities were beginning, diseases were rampant until chlorinated water and the introduction of sewers, 
but even today cities are breeding grounds for diseases. Modem medicine, science, and government 
import/export regulations have thus far prevented the spread of a major outbreak like Black Death, but could a 
new pathogen emerge that medicine and science cannot fight? Why have so many of these recent outbreaks 
originated from livestock operations and animal consumption? If these faunae were not being consumed in such 
mass quantities, could many of these outbreaks have been avoided? 

Major Medical Outbreaks in Recent History Involving Fauna and Homo sapiens 

1964 Aberdeen typhoid 

The 1967 United Kingdom foot-and-mouth outbreak was a major outbreak of foot and mouth 
disease in the United Kingdom. The In 1964 there was an outbreak of typhoid in the city of 

Aberdeen, Scotland. The first two cases were identified on 20 May 1964; eventually over 400 cases 
were diagnosed and the patients were quarantined at the City Hospital in Urquhart Road, but no 
fatalities resulted. Dr Ian MacQueen, the Medical Officer of Health for Aberdeen, became well 
known in the media for his twice-daily briefings. The outbreak was eventually traced to 
contaminated tinned corned beef from South America made by Fray Bentos and sold in the city's 
branch of the Scottish grocery chain William Low. 

Chronic wasting disease 
(CWD) 1967 

The origin and mode of transmission of the prions causing Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is 
unknown, but recent research indicates that prions can be excreted by deer and elk, and are 
transmitted by eating grass growing in contaminated soil. Animals bom in captivity and those bom 
in the wild have been affected with the disease. Based on epidemiology, transmission of CWD is 
thought to be lateral (from animal to animal). Maternal transmission may occur, although it appears 
to be relatively unimportant in maintaining epidemics. An infected deer's saliva is able to spread the 
CWD prions. Exposure between animals is associated with sharing food and water sources 
contaminated with CWD prions shed by diseased deer. 

The disease was first identified in 1967 in a closed herd of captive mule deer in contiguous portions 
of northeastern Colorado. In 1980, the disease was determined to be a TSE. It was first identified in 
wild elk and mules in 1981 in Colorado and Wyoming, and in farmed elk in 1997. In May 2001, 

CWD was also found in free-ranging deer in the southwestern corner of Nebraska (adjacent to 
Colorado and Wyoming) and later in additional areas in western Nebraska. The limited area of 
northern Colorado, southern Wyoming, and western Nebraska in which free-ranging deer, moose, 

and/or elk positive for CWD have been found is referred to as the endemic area. The area in 2006 
has expanded to six states, including parts of eastern Utah, southwestern South Dakota, and 
northwestern Kansas. Also, areas not contiguous (to the endemic area) areas in central Utah and 
central Nebraska have been found. The limits of the affected areas are not well defined, since the 
disease is at a low incidence and the amount of sampling may not be adequate to detect it. In 2002, 
CWD was detected in wild deer in south-central Wisconsin and northern Illinois and in an isolated 
area of southern New Mexico. In 2005, it was found in wild white-tailed deer in New York and in 
Hampshire County, West Virginia. In 2008, the first confirmed case of CWD in Michigan was 
discovered in an infected deer on an enclosed deer-breeding facility. It is also found in the Canadian 
provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan. In February 2011, the Maryland Department of Natural 
Resources reported the first confirmed case of the disease in that state. The affected animal was a 
white-tailed deer killed by a hunter. 

CWD has also been diagnosed in farmed elk and deer herds in a number of states and in two 

Canadian provinces. The first positive farmed elk herd in the United States was detected in 1997 in 
South Dakota. Since then, additional positive elk herds and farmed white-tailed deer herds have 
been found in South Dakota (7), Nebraska (4), Colorado (10), Oklahoma (1), Kansas (1), Minnesota 
(3), Montana (1), Wisconsin (6) and New York (2). As of fall of 2006, four positive elk herds in 
Colorado and a positive white-tailed deer herd in Wisconsin remain under state quarantine. All of 
the other herds have been depopulated or have been slaughtered and tested, and the quarantine has 
been lifted from one herd that underwent rigorous surveillance with no further evidence of disease. 
CWD also has been found in farmed elk in the Canadian provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta. A 
retrospective study also showed mule deer exported from Denver to the Toronto Zoo in the 1980s 
were affected. In June 2015, the disease was detected in a male white-tailed deer on a breeding 
ranch in Medina County, Texas. State officials euthanized 34 deer in an effort to contain a possible 

Species that have been affected with CWD include elk, mule deer, white-tailed deer, black-tailed 
deer, and moose. Other ruminant species, including wild ruminants and domestic cattle, sheep, and 
goats, have been housed in wildlife facilities in direct or indirect contact with CWD-affected deer 
and elk, with no evidence of disease transmission. However, experimental transmission of CWD 
into other ruminants by intracranial inoculation does result in disease, suggesting only a weak 
molecular species barrier exists. Research is ongoing to further explore the possibility of 
transmission of CWD to other species. By April 2016 CWD had been found in captive animals in 
South Korea; the disease arrived there with live elk that were imported for farming in the late 


In 2016, the first case of CWD in Europe was from the Nordfjella free ranging reindeer in Southern 
Norway. Scientists surveyed the diseased female reindeer until the reindeer died and used the 
carcass to isolate the prions. The main origin of CWD to Norway is still unknown, whereas 
importation of infected deer was the contamination source in South Korea. Norway has strict 
legislation and rules not allowing importation of live animals and cervids into the country. Norway 
has had a scrapie surveillance program since 1997; while no reports of scrapie within the range of 
Nordfjella reindeer sup population have been identified, sheep are herded through that region and 
are a potential source of infection. In each of May and June, infected wild moose were found 
around 300 km north from the first case, in Selbu. By the end of August, a fourth case had been 
confirmed in a wild reindeer shot in the same area as the first case in March. In 2017, the 

Environment Agency of the Norwegian government released guidelines for hunters hunting reindeer 
in the Nordfjella areas. The guidelines contain infonnation on identifying animals with CWD 
symptoms, instructions for minimizing the risk of contamination, as well as a list of supplies given 
to hunters to be used for taking and submitting samples from shot reindeer. 

1967 United Kingdom foot- 
and-mouth outbreak 

Over the course of six months, 430,000 animals across 2300 fanns were slaughtered. The average 
number of animals that were slaughtered in each confirmed case was around 200. The 1967 crisis 
saw the last reported case of human foot-and-mouth disease. The victim was a farm-worker who 
was believed to have contracted the virus by consuming contaminated milk. The disease was not 
life-threatening and they were able to recover within several weeks. 

1968 H3N2 outbreak AKA 
‘Hong Kong Flu’ 

The 1968 flu pandemic was a category 2 flu pandemic whose outbreak in 1968 and 1969 killed an 
estimated 1,000,000 people worldwide. Both the H2N2 and H3N2 pandemic flu strains contained 
genes from avian influenza viruses. The new subtypes arose in pigs coinfected with avian and 
human viruses and were soon transferred to humans. Swine were considered the original 
"intermediate host" for influenza, because they supported reassortment of divergent subtypes. 
However, other hosts appear capable of similar coinfection (e.g., many poultry species), and direct 
transmission of avian viruses to humans is possible. 

1976 Swine flu outbreak 

The 1976 swine flu outbreak, also known as the swine flu fiasco, or the swine flu debacle, was a 
strain of H1N1 influenza virus that appeared in 1976. Infectious morbidity was only detected from 

January 19 to February 9, and were not found outside Fort Dix. The outbreak is most remembered 
for the mass immunization that it prompted in the United States. The strain itself killed one person 
and hospitalized 13. However, side-effects from the vaccine are thought to have caused five 
hundred cases of Guillain-Barre syndrome and 25 deaths. 

1984 Rabbit haemorrhagic 
disease outbreak 

Rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD), also known as rabbit calicivirus disease (RCD) or viral 
haemorrhagic disease (VHD), is a highly infectious and often fatal disease that affects wild and 
domestic rabbits of the species Oryctolagus cuniculus. The infectious agent responsible for the 
disease is rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV), or rabbit calicivirus (RCV), genus Lagovirus 
of the family Caliciviridae. The virus infects only rabbits, and has been used in some countries to 
control rabbit populations. RHD first appeared in the Winter of 1983 in Jiangsu Province of the 
People's Republic of China. It was first isolated and characterized by S.J. Fiu et al. in 1984. The 
Chinese outbreak was spread by the angora rabbit, which had originated in Europe. Fourteen 
million domesticated rabbits died within nine months in the outbreak. In 1984 the virus that caused 
the disease was identified. The virus spread westward and reached Europe in 1988. The virus has 
since appeared in Mexico, Cuba, Australia, New Zealand and the United States. In 1992, the United 
Kingdom reported its first case of RHD in domestic show rabbits. By the late 1990s, RHD stretched 
to forty countries and had become endemic in wild and feral rabbit populations in Europe, Australia, 
New Zealand and Cuba. In Europe, there was a rapid increase in research into RHD, due to the 
importance of the commercial breeding of rabbits for meat and fur production. The first reported 
case in the United States was in Iowa on March 9, 2000. The affected breeds included Palominos 
and California Whites. By April 6, 25 of the 27 affected rabbits had died of the infection. In order to 
contain the disease, the remaining two rabbits were euthanized. No new introductions of rabbits 
were placed on the farm for two years after the discovery of RHD and August 1999 was the last 
time rabbits left and/or returned to the farm. The United States experienced other outbreaks of RHD 
in 2001 (Utah, Illinois, New York) and 2005 (Indiana). In 2010, a new virus variant called rabbit 
hemorrhagic disease virus 2 (RHDV2) emerged in France 

1985 California listeria 

The 1985 California listeria outbreak was in Mexican style soft cheese made by Jalisco in 

California. There were 52 confirmed deaths, including 19 stillbirths and 10 infant deaths. 

1985 United States 
salmonellosis outbreak 

The 1985 United States salmonellosis outbreak was Salmonella typhimurium in milk from the 
Hillfarm Dairy in Melrose Park, Illinois. Two people died and the infection was a contributing 
factor in the deaths of "four, possibly five, others". 

1998 United States listeriosis 

The 1998 United States listeriosis outbreak was the third deadliest outbreak of foodbome illness in 
the United States since the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention started tracking in the 1970s. 
There were 14 deaths and 4 miscarriages or stillbirths in a listeria outbreak in hot dogs and cold cuts 
from Sara Lee Corporation. Some sources put the death toll as high as 21. 

1993 Jack in the Box E. coli 

Health inspectors traced the contamination to the restaurants' "Monster Burger" sandwich which 
had been on a special promotion (using the slogan So good it's scary!) and sold at a discounted 
price. The ensuing high demand "overwhelmed" the restaurants and the product was not cooked for 
long enough or at a high enough temperature to kill the bacteria. At a 1993 press conference the 
president of Foodmaker (the parent company of Jack in the Box) blamed Vons Companies Inc. 
(supplier of their hamburger meat) for the E. coli epidemic. However, the Jack in the Box fast-food 
chain knew about but disregarded Washington state laws which required burgers to be cooked to 

155 °F (68 °C), the temperature necessary to completely kill E. coli. Instead, it adhered to the 
federal standard of 140 °F (60 °C). Had Jack in the Box followed the state cooking standard, the E. 
coli outbreak would have been prevented. 

1999 Nipah virus outbreak 

Nipah virus was identified in April 1999, when it caused an outbreak of neurological and respiratory 
disease on pig farms in peninsular Malaysia, resulting in 257 human cases, including 105 human 
deaths and the culling of one million pigs. In Singapore, 11 cases, including one death, occurred in 
abattoir workers exposed to pigs imported from the affected Malaysian farms. The Nipah virus has 
been classified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as a Category C agent. The name 
"Nipah" refers to the place, Kampung Baru Sungai Nipah in Port Dickson, Negeri Sembilan, the 
source of the human case from which Nipah virus was first isolated. Nipah virus is one of several 
viruses identified by WHO as a likely cause of a future epidemic in a new plan developed after the 
Ebola epidemic for urgent research and development before and during an epidemic toward new 
diagnostic tests, vaccines and medicines. 

The outbreak was originally mistaken for Japanese encephalitis (JE), however, physicians in the 
area noted that persons who had been vaccinated against JE were not protected, and the number of 
cases among adults was unusual. Despite the fact that these observations were recorded in the first 
month of the outbreak, the Ministry of Health failed to react accordingly, and instead launched a 
nationwide campaign to educate people on the dangers of JE and its vector, Culex mosquitoes. 

Symptoms of infection from the Malaysian outbreak were primarily encephalitic in humans and 
respiratory in pigs. Later outbreaks have caused respiratory illness in humans, increasing the 
likelihood of human-to-human transmission and indicating the existence of more dangerous strains 

of the virus. Based on seroprevalence data and virus isolations, the primary reservoir for Nipah 
virus was identified as Pteropid fruit bats, including Pteropus vampyrus (Large Flying Fox), and 
Pteropus hypomelanus (Small flying fox), both of which occur in Malaysia. 

The transmission of Nipah virus from flying foxes to pigs is thought to be due to an increasing 
overlap between bat habitats and piggeries in peninsular Malaysia. At the index farm, fruit orchards 
were in close proximity to the piggery, allowing the spillage of urine, faeces and partially eaten fruit 
onto the pigs. Retrospective studies demonstrate that viral spillover into pigs may have been 
occurring in Malaysia since 1996 without detection. During 1998, viral spread was aided by the 
transfer of infected pigs to other farms, where new outbreaks occurred. 

2000 Walkerton E. coli 

The water supply, drawn from groundwater, became contaminated with the highly dangerous 

0157:H7 strain of E. coli bacteria. This contamination was due to farm runoff into an adjacent 
water well that had been known for years to be vulnerable to groundwater contamination. The five 
people died directly from drinking the E. coli-contaminated water and about 2,500 became ill. 

2001 United Kingdom foot- 
and-mouth outbreak 

The outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in the United Kingdom in 2001 caused a crisis in British 
agriculture and tourism. This epizootic saw 2,000 cases of the disease in farms across most of the 
British countryside. Over 10 million sheep and cattle were killed in an eventually successful attempt 
to halt the disease. 

2002-2003 SARS outbreak 

A SARS outbreak occurred between November 2002 and July 2003. SARS is a relatively rare 
disease, with 8,273 cases as of 2003. In late May 2003, studies from samples of wild animals sold 
as food in the local market in Guangdong, China, found the SARS coronavirus could be isolated 
from masked palm civets (Paguma sp.), but the animals did not always show clinical signs. The 
preliminary conclusion was the SARS virus crossed the xenographic barrier from palm civet to 
humans, and more than 10,000 masked palm civets were killed in Guangdong Province. Virus was 
also later found in raccoon dogs (Nyctereuteus sp.), ferret badgers (Melogale spp.), and domestic 
cats. In 2005, two studies identified a number of SARS-like coronaviruses in Chinese bats. 
Phylogenetic analysis of these viruses indicated a high probability that SARS coronavirus 
originated in bats and spread to humans either directly or through animals held in Chinese markets. 

2003 U.S. Midwest monkeypox 

The 2003 Midwest monkeypox outbreak marked the first time monkeypox infection has appeared in 
the United States, and the first time in the Western Hemisphere. Beginning in May, 2003 a total of 

71 cases of human monkeypox were found in five Midwestern states including Wisconsin (39 
cases), Indiana (16), Illinois (12), Kansas (1), Missouri (2) and Ohio (1). The cause of the outbreak 
was traced to Gambian rats imported into the United States by an exotic animal importer in Texas. 

2003 H5N1 outbreak 

By midyear of 2003 outbreaks of poultry disease caused by H5N1 occurred in Asia, but were not 
recognized as such. That December animals in a Thai zoo died after eating infected chicken 
carcasses. Later that month H5N1 infection was detected in 3 flocks in the Republic of Korea. 

H5N1 in China in this and later periods is less than frilly reported. Blogs have described many 
discrepancies between official China government announcements concerning H5N1 and what 
people in China see with their own eyes. Many reports of total H5N1 cases exclude China due to 
widespread disbelief in China's official numbers. 

2004 H5N1 outbreak 

In January 2004 a major new outbreak of H5N1 surfaced in Vietnam and Thailand's poultry 
industry, and within weeks spread to ten countries and regions in Asia, including Indonesia, South 
Korea, Japan and China. In October 2004 researchers discovered H5N1 is far more dangerous than 
previously believed because waterfowl, especially ducks, were directly spreading the highly 
pathogenic strain of H5N1 to chickens, crows, pigeons, and other birds and that it was increasing its 
ability to infect mammals as well. From this point on, avian influenza experts increasingly refer to 
containment as a strategy that can delay but not prevent a future avian flu pandemic. 

2005 South Wales E. coli 0157 

It was the largest outbreak of E. coli 0157 in Wales and the second largest in the UK. 157 cases 
were identified in the outbreak; 31 people were hospitalized, and one child, 5-year old Mason Jones, 
died. Most of the 157 cases identified were children, attending 44 different schools across four 
different local authorities - Bridgend, Methry Tydfil, Caerphily and Rhondda Cynon Taf. Of those 
infected, 109 cases were identified as a strain of E. coli 0157 unique to this outbreak. The cause 
was a vacuum packing machine used to package both raw meat and cooked meat without being 
properly cleaned between batches resulting in cross-contamination. 

2005 H5N1 outbreak 

In January 2005 an outbreak of avian influenza affected thirty three out of sixty four cities and 
provinces in Vietnam, leading to the forced killing of nearly 1.2 million poultry. Up to 140 million 
birds are believed to have died or been killed because of the outbreak. In April 2005 there begins an 
unprecedented die-off of over 6,000 migratory birds at Qinghai Lake in central China over three 
months. This strain of H5N1 is the same strain as is spread west by migratory birds over at least the 
next ten months. In August 2005 H5N1 spread to Kazakhstan, Mongolia and Russia. On September 
29, 2005, David Nabarro, the newly appointed Senior United Nations System Coordinator for Avian 
and Human Influenza, warned the world that an outbreak of avian influenza could kill 5 to 150 
million people. David Nabarro later stated that as the virus had spread to migratory birds, an 
outbreak could start in Africa or the Middle East. Later in 2005 H5N1 spread to Turkey, Romania, 
Croatia and Kuwait. 

2006 H5N1 outbreak 

In the first two months of 2006 H5N1 spread to other Asian countries (such as India), north Africa, 
and Europe in wild bird populations possibly signaling the beginning of H5N1 being endemic in 
wild migratory bird populations on multiple continents for decades, permanently changing the way 
poultry are farmed. In July and August 2006 significantly increased numbers of bird deaths due to 
H5N1 were recorded in Cambodia, China, Laos, Nigeria, and Thailand while continuing unabated a 
rate unparalleled in Indonesia. In June, there was a human outbreak in Indonesia when 8 members 
of a family in Sumatra became infected and 7 died. The WHO reported that this may have been the 
first recorded instance of human-to-human transmission. In September, Egypt and Sudan joined the 
list of nations seeing a resurgence of bird deaths due to H5N1. In November and December, South 
Korea and Vietnam joined the list of nations seeing a resurgence of bird deaths due to H5N1. The 
first reports of bird flu in India came from the village of Navapur in the Nandurbar district of 
Maharashtra on 19 February 2006. Villagers reported a large number of bird deaths in the village. 
Soon after the presence of the virus was confirmed culling operations began. 253000 birds and 

587000 eggs were destroyed within 5 days. 

2006 North American E. coli 
0157:H7 outbreak 

A follow-up report by the CDC and a joint report by the California Department of Health Services 
(CDHS) and U.S. FDA concluded that the probable source of the outbreak was Paicines Ranch, an 
Angus cattle ranch that had leased land to spinach grower Mission Organics. The report found 26 
samples of E. coli “indistinguishable from the outbreak strain” in water and cattle manure on the 

San Benito County ranch, some within a mile from the tainted spinach fields. Although officials 
could not definitively say how the spinach became contaminated, both reports named the presence 
of wild pigs on the ranch and the proximity of surface waterways to irrigation wells as "potential 
environmental risk factors. 

2007 H5N1 outbreak 

In January, Japan, Hungary, Russia, and the United Kingdom joined the list of nations seeing a 
resurgence of bird deaths due to H5N1. In February, Pakistan, Turkey, Afghanistan, and Myamnar 
joined the list and Kuwait saw its first major outbreak of H5N1 avian influenza. In March 

Bangladesh and Saudi Arabia each saw their first major outbreak of H5N1 avian influenza and 

Ghana in May. As H5N1 continued killing many birds and a few people throughout the spring in 
countries where it is now endemic, in June Malaysia and Germany saw a resurgence of bird deaths 
due to H5N1, while the Czech Republic and Togo experienced their first major outbreak of H5N1 
avian influenza. In July France and India also saw a resurgence of bird deaths due to H5N1. 

2007 Central Luzon hog 
cholera outbreak 

An outbreak of classical swine fever (hog cholera) in the Philippine region of Central Luzon, 
particularly the provinces of Pampanga and Bulacan occurred in mid-2007, the Philippine 

Department of Agriculture (DA) confirmed. The outbreak was originally confined on early July to 
backyard farms in 3 towns but expanded to 43 barangays in 12 municipalities (of 21 municipalities 
and 3 cities) in Bulacan. Commercial fanns, which are 80% of the farms, were unaffected, 
according to provincial veterinarian Felipe Bartolome. Bartolome also dismissed the cases of foot- 
and-mouth disease in the province, and the hog cholera only affected about 3,000-5,000 sows. 

2008 H5N1 outbreak 

Hong Kong found the H5N1 bird flu virus at a poultry stall in Sham Shui Po. 2,700 birds were 
ordered to be killed by the local government. A new regulation requires all live chickens not sold by 
8pm to be killed. The chairman of the Hong Kong Poultry Wholesalers Association said the 
government's decision makes it very difficult for their business to continue. Retailers who keep live 
poultry after 8pm are now subject to a fine of HK$50,000 and six months imprisonment. 

2009 Flu Pandemic H1N1/09 

The 2009 flu pandemic or swine flu was an influenza pandemic, and the second of the two 
pandemics involving H1N1 influenza virus (the first of them being the 1918 flu pandemic), albeit in 
a new version. However, by 2012, research showed that as many as 579,000 people could have been 
killed by the disease, as only those fatalities confirmed by laboratory testing were included in the 
original number, and meant that many of those without access to health facilities went uncounted. 

The majority of these deaths occurred in Africa and Southeast Asia. Experts, including the WHO, 
have agreed that an estimated 284,500 people were killed by the disease, much higher than the 
initial death toll. On June 23, 2009, The New York Times reported that U.S. federal agriculture 
officials, "contrary to the popular assumption that the new swine flu pandemic arose on factory 
farms in Mexico," now believe that it "most likely emerged in pigs in Asia, but then traveled to 

North America in a human." They emphasized that there was no way to prove their hypothesis, but 
stated that there is no evidence that this new virus, which combines Eurasian and North American 
genes, has ever circulated in North American pigs, "while there is tantalizing evidence that a closely 
related 'sister virus' has circulated in Asia." 

2009 H5N1 outbreak 

H5N1 hits Nepal for first time. In a January 16 report to the World Organization for Animal Health 
(OIE), government officials in Nepal said the virus struck backyard poultry in a village in Jhapa 
district in the southeastern comer of Nepal. Though the Nepal Government announced that bird flu 
in the country's Kankarbhitta area is under control, avian virus surfaced again in Sharanamati of 

Jhapa district. Over 150 chickens died in the Indian border town, 35 km southwest of Kankarbhitta. 
The Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives declared the area surrounding Sharanamati a "bird-flu 
affected area" and increased surveillance along the border. A Rapid Response Team (RRT) was 
dispatched to control the virus. The government also banned the transportation of poultry products 
throughout the country. The first outbreak was confirmed in Kankarbhitta on January 16. 28,000 

chickens were killed in the area to control the virus 

2010 Japan foot-and-mouth 

The Japan foot-and-mouth outbreak was a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreak that occurred in 
2010, in Miyazaki Prefecture, affecting cattle, swine, sheep and goats and taking place ten years 
after a similar outbreak in 2000. On August 26, Miyazaki governor Higashikokubaru announced 
that the Foot-Mouth disease was eradicated. It took lives of about 290,000 cattle. 

2010-2012 South Korea foot- 
and-mouth outbreak 

A serious outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease occurred in South Korea in 2010-2011, leading to the 
culling of hundreds of thousands of pigs (as of January 2011) in an effort to contain it. The outbreak 
began in November 2010 in pig farms in Andong, Gyeongsangbuk-do, and has since spread in the 
country rapidly. More than 100 cases of foot-and-mouth disease have been confirmed in the country 
so far, and South Korean officials have started a mass cull of approximately 12 percent of the entire 
domestic pig population and 107,000 of three million cattle of the country to halt the outbreak. As 
parts of the culling process, it was reported by some sections of the English-language media that the 
South Korean government had decided to bury approximately 1.4 million pigs alive, which drew 
complaints from animal activists 

2013 Porcine epidemic diarrhea 
virus outbreak 

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PED virus or PEDV) is a coronavirus that infects the cells lining 
the small intestine of a pig, causing porcine epidemic diarrhoea, a condition of severe diarrhea and 
dehydration. Older hogs mostly get sick and lose weight after being infected, where as newborn 
piglets usually die within five days of contracting the virus. PEDV cannot be transmitted to humans, 
nor contaminate the human food supply. 

It was first discovered in Europe, but has become increasingly problematic in Asian countries, such 
as Korea, China, Japan, the Philippines, and Thailand. It has also spread to North America: In May 
2013, the virus was found in 27 U.S. states and eventually killed 6,000,000 piglets in less than a 
year, then it was discovered in Canada in the winter of 2014. In January 2014, a new variant strain 
of PEDV with three deletions, one insertion, and several mutations in S (spike) 1 region was 
identified in Ohio by the Animal Disease Diagnostic Lab of Ohio Department of Agriculture. 

2012-2014 Middle East 
respiratory syndrome 
coronavirus (MERS-CoV) or 
EMC/2012 outbreak 

Over 1,600 cases of MERS have been reported by 2015 and the case fatality rate is >30%. As of 

July 2015, MERS-CoV cases have been reported in over 21 countries, including Saudi Arabia, 

Jordan, Qatar, Egypt, the United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Turkey, Oman, Algeria, Bangladesh, 
Indonesia (none were confirmed), Austria, the United Kingdom, South Korea, the United States, 
Mainland China, Thailand, and the Philippines. At least one person who has fallen sick with MERS 
was known to have come into contact with camels or recently drank camel milk. Countries like 

Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates produce and consume large amounts of camel meat. The 
possibility exists that African or Australian bats harbor the virus and transmit it to camels. Imported 
camels from these regions might have carried the virus to the Middle East. 

2015 Indian swine flu outbreak 

2015 Indian swine flu outbreak refers to an outbreak of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus in India, 
which is still ongoing as of March 2015. The states of Gujarat and Rajasthan are the worst affected. 
India had reported 937 cases and 218 deaths from swine flu in the year 2014. By mid-February 

2015, the reported cases and deaths in 2015 had surpassed the previous numbers. The H1N1 virus 
outbreak had previously occurred India during the 2009 flu pandemic. The virus killed 981 people 
in 2009 and 1,763 in 2010. The mortality decreased in 2011 to 75. It claimed 405 lives in 2012 and 
699 lives in 2013. In 2014, a total of 218 people died from the H1N1 flu, India recorded 837 
laboratory confirmed cases in the year. Every year, there was a rise in number of cases and deaths 
during winter as temperature affects virus. During 2014-15 winter, there was a spurt in cases at the 
end 2014. In 2015, the outbreak became widespread through India. On 12 February 2015, Rajasthan 
declared an epidemic. The total number of laboratory confirmed cases crossed 33,000 mark with 
death of more than 2,000 people. 

2015 United States H5N2 

In 2015, an outbreak of avian influenza subtype H5N2 was identified in a series of chicken and 
turkey farming operations in the Midwestern region of the United States. As of May 30, more than 
43,000,000 birds in 15 states had been destroyed as a result of the outbreak, including nearly 
30,000,000 in Iowa alone, the nation's largest egg producer. When an infection is confirmed, all 
birds at the affected farm are destroyed per USD A guidelines. The birds are culled by pumping an 
expanding water-based foam into the barn houses, which suffocates them within minutes. The birds 
are then composted, usually at the location. 

2018 salmonella egg recall 

The 2018 US egg recall was a product recall for fresh chicken eggs in the United States beginning 
on April 13, 2018. The United States Department of Agriculture recalled more than 200 million 
eggs after a salmonella outbreak connected to Iowa egg farms, including Rose Acre Farms. It is the 
largest egg recall since 2010. 

SOURCE: Wikipedia (with some corrections, additions, and other edits) 

Over the last 100 years new bacteria and viruses have emerged causing a host of new diseases, Rift Valley fever 
(early 1900s), Chagas disease (1909), West Nile virus (1937), Zika virus (1947), Lassa fever (1950s), 
Chikungunya virus (1955), H2N2 Asian flu (1957), Monkeypox (1958), Usutu virus (1959), Enterovirus 68 

(1962), Marburg virus (1967), H3N2 Hong Kong flu (1968), Norovirus, (1972), Ebola virus (1976), AIDS virus 
(1981), BSE bovine spongiform encephalopathy aka Mad Cow Disease (1986), H5N1 avian flu (1997), Nipah 
virus (1998), SARS coronavirus (2003), H10N7 virus (2004), H1N1 swine flu (2009), MERS virus (2012), 
H7N9 virus (2013), and others. Viruses can only survive inside a living host unlike bacteria which live on most 
all surfaces. This means that these viruses have most likely been on Earth for millions of years in other fauna 
species awaiting exposure to Homo sapiens. Could there be an emergence of past diseases like the 1576 
Cocoliztli epidemic which killed 15,000,000 or more? Could some of these new diseases be a result of 
anthropogenic actions like deforestation, which disturb remote habitats and possibly expose these never before 
documented pathogens? Could the mass consumption of livestock or other flora and fauna exploitation act as 
future vectors or even incubators for other unknown pathogens? Some of these pathogens are have emerged in 
pigs, chickens, cows, or other livestock, so if fauna consumption ended would these types of pathogens be less 
likely to emerge? Have shorter winters resulting from global warning contribute to the rapid spreading of the 
invasive Aedes aegypti mosquito, and thus some of these vector-bome diseases? (e.g. West Nile virus, zika virus, 
and chikungunya virus spreading so rapidly and infecting so many in the United States) If Pseudogymnoascus 
and anthropogenic activities had not decimated United States bat populations, would the Zika virus have spread 
so rapidly? Previously unknown viruses frozen in Siberia for more than 30,000 years have been successfully 
revived, could global warming, mining, or other anthropogenic activities expose other ancient pathogens which 
lie dormant on Earth? (650) Could one of these viruses only be deadly to modem day Homo sapiens, whereas 
Homo sapiens thousands of years ago had a natural immunity? 

Older viruses which cause diseases like malaria, smallpox, measles, tuberculosis, etc. have plagued Homo 
sapiens for thousands of years, but appear to have begun flourishing around 10,000 years ago when Homo 
sapiens began practicing agriculture and domesticating faunae. Kristin Harper and George Amielagos remarked 

“If malaria was contracted by humans in the Pleistocene, it likely would have been in isolated incidences. For example, recent 
genetic analysis of the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase gene, some variants of which confer resistance to the infection, 
confirmed that malaria is a recent selective force in human populations, occurring within the last 10,000 years. Based on the 
mitochondrial genome of the parasite itself, Joy et al. concluded that though the parasite that causes falciparum malaria 
originated long ago (perhaps 50,000-100,000 YBP), a sudden increase in the population size of the parasite did not occur 
until around 10,000 years ago when humans began to practice agriculture. 

The disease-scape changed dramatically after the adoption of agriculture. New proximity to domestic animals created many 
opportunities for novel pathogens to infect, and eventually adapt, to humans. It has long been thought that many of our most 
feared diseases (anthrax, tuberculosis, Q fever, brucellosis, smallpox, measles, etc.) emerged at this time, evolving from 
progenitors contracted from goats, sheep, cattle, pigs, and fowl. Not all of these origin stories have held up under closer 
scrutiny. For example, analysis of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome rules out linear evolution of the human pathogen 
from M. bovis, the species that infects cattle and suggests that the former pathogen may actually have appeared prior to the 
latter, and not vice-versa. Nevertheless, it is clear that many important human infections did initially arise from close contact 
with domestic animals. Peri-domestic animals such as rodents and sparrows, which developed permanent habitats in and 
around human dwellings, could also represent important sources of disease, such as the bubonic plague, hantavirus, typhus, 
Salmonella, and histoplasmosis. 

The very act of farming may have resulted in exposure to novel pathogens as well as increasing the risk of contracting 
familiar infections. The cultivation of soil, which requires the breaking up of sod, may have exposed farmers to the chiggers 
that carry the bacterium Orientia tsutsugamushi, the causative agent of scrub typhus. Similarly, Livingstone argued that slash- 
and-burn agriculture in West Africa would have exposed populations to Anopheles gambiae, the mosquito that serves as the 
vector for Plasmodium falciparum, the cause of malaria. Slash-and-bum agriculture resulted in sedentary populations 
surrounded by the pools of sunlit water required for propagation of the Anophelese mosquito. Aedes aegypti, the vector that 
carries yellow and dengue fever, breeds in artificial containers; frequent contact with this mosquito is also likely to have 
begun and intensified around the time that sedentary settlements became common. Finally, agricultural practices such as 
irrigation and the use of human feces as fertilizer would have increased exposure to pathogens such as the one that causes 

Changes in nutrition and food handling would also have altered disease risk. The shift to agriculture resulted in a reduction of 
the dietary niche, which would have predisposed many individuals to dietary deficiencies uncommon in the Pleistocene. For 
example, porotic hyperostosis, a skeletal marker indicative of anemia (including that caused by iron-deficiency) first appears 
in the Upper Paleolithic, increasing throughout the Neolithic. Nutritional deficiencies, which alone were sufficient to cause 
disease, would also have altered host immune competence, making humans in this time-period more susceptible to infection 
following contact with a pathogen. Agriculture also resulted in regular food surpluses that had to be stored in large quantities 

and widely distributed, which probably resulted in outbreaks of food poisoning. 

In sum, Cohen and Armelagos provide a number of case studies that show a decline in health following the Neolithic 
transformation, suggesting that this period in human history (a period with different start and end points in different areas) 
could indeed be regarded justifiably as an age of pestilence and famine. The increasing class inequalities, epidemic diseases, 
and dietary insufficiencies would also have added mental stress to the list of illnesses that plagued agriculturalists.” (401) 

Government and Corporate Influence - ‘Whomever Has the Gold Makes the Rules’ 

Regardless of government type, since the invention of money and commerce there has always been some type of 
a financial scandal, price gouging, land dispute, outright theft, or other negative influence which has stolen from 
society as a whole. Today, there is a ‘revolving door ’ in nearly every sector of government and industry from 
defense to agriculture, and it has resulted in the United States becoming a sort of plutocracy with a quid pro quo 
political process which has also led to corporations, religions, and foreign-connected interests having vast 
influence and control of certain sectors of government through the use of SuperPACs and lobbyists. As of 
December 11, 2017, there were 1,692 groups organized as super PACs which reported total receipts of 
$108,318,639 in the 2018 cycle. (623) Regulatory capture has become common in many industries with lobbyist 
spending enormous sums of money to promote this failure of government. In 1998, there were 10,404 registered 
lobbyists which spent $1,450,000,000 on lobbying Washington D.C. politicians for a wide range of business 
sectors, social causes, and other various self-interest groups. By 2016, the amount of money more than doubled 
with 11,186 registered lobbyists spending $3,150,000,000. (294) But the real number is estimated to be closer to 
100,000 lobbyists spending $9,000,000,000 as lobbying has now gone underground and out of the spotlight 
making it less noticeable to the public eye. (293) More than 200 of these groups are affiliated with some religion 
and they spent $390,000,000 per year lobbying. (295) Is this not a serious conflict of interest regarding the 
separation of church and state? The mind maps at show just how connected corporate boards 
and the government are. 

Lobbying is protected under the First Amendment of the United States constitution, but should it not be more 
regulated and have more oversight and transparency to prevent the current level of abuse, obscurity, and 
manipulation of government regulations? Should not lobbying budgets be more limited? How can the 
government function reliably for the citizens if corporations are allowed to spend billions of dollars on lobbying 
and campaign contributions unchecked, which allows them to get laws passed to their benefit for tax breaks, less 
regulations, and other favors from politicians and government regulators? Why isn’t there a cooling-off period of 
36 months or more to prevent the door from revolving? Should not foreign nations be banned from hiring 
American lobbyists to prevent their attempts to influence the foreign policy of the United States? (e.g. In 2016 
Taiwanese officials hired Bob Dole to set up the famous controversial phone call between president-elect Donald 
Trump and Taiwanese President Tsai Ing-Wen) How can individuals like Dick Cheney, Meredith Attwell Baker, 
Linda Fisher, and so many others be allowed to serve in government and private sector jobs which have such 
conflicts of interests? Cannot businesses and interested individuals simply sit down with politicians and discuss 
what they want to ameliorate, instead of basing reform on money and a system where the highest bidder wins 
even with the most negative idea? If lobbying with money, other gifts, and other loopholes like Super PACs 
exist, then doesn’t this mean that government will always be for sale to the highest bidder? If the regulated are 
allowed to become the regulators, how will the regulatory system ever function properly? How can a democracy 
work with so much commercial lobbying and influence that leads to so much corruption and lawlessness? How 
can a government function unbiasedly when government regulators are former coiporate employees with active 
interests in that business sector? How can a government function when it becomes dominated by the coiporate 
industries it is supposed to be regulating? 

Perverse subsidies have become more prolific resulting in negative environmental impacts. In 2005, it was 
estimated that governments around the world spent $400,000,000,000 a year subsidizing transportation, fishing, 
energy, agriculture, and water related industries. (221) Why do well established industries, (e.g. oil and gas, 
pharmaceutical, agricultural, etc.) receive so many subsidies, while new and struggling industries receive little or 
no subsidies at all? Would these perverse subsidies not be better spent on environmental clean-up, education, 
conservation, infrastructure, healthcare, or other direct social improvements? 

Rampant conflicts of interest have also occurred in recent decades between government regulatory agencies and 
corporations. These conflicts of interest have affected all sectors of industry, but can be seen especially in the 
pharmaceutical, food, and energy industries. This influence on regulations, which are supposed to keep 
industries in check and protect consumers, has been corrupted and led to consumer health and safety issues, 
while also monopolizing industries even further. How can politics and a justice system ever function properly if 
money, greed, corporate, or personal interests are able to corrupt these systems? Why is Scott Pruitt, a lawyer 
with no scientific background, a global warming denier, and someone with known ties to the fossil fuel industry 
who has fought against the EPA for years allowed to be the Administrator of the Environmental Protection 
Agency? Why are politicians, lawyers, and businesspersons appointed to these positions when clearly someone 
with a scientific background would be more beneficial? Richard Hofstadter remarked that, 

“The Founding Fathers were sages, scientists, men of broad cultivation, many of them apt in classical learning, who used 
their wide reading in history, politics, and laws to solve the exigent problems of their time. No subsequent era in our history 
has produced so many men of knowledge among its political leaders as the age of John Adams, John Dickinson, Benjamin 
Franklin, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, George Mason, James Wilson, and George Wythe. One 
might have expected that such men, whose political achievements were part of the very fabric of the nation, would have stood 
as permanent and overwhelming testimonial to the truth that men of learning and intellect need not be bootless and 
impractical as political leaders. 

It is ironic that the United States should have been founded by intellectuals; for throughout most of our political history, the 
intellectual has been for the most part either an outsider, a servant, or a scapegoat.” (362) 

A new generation of politicians are about to come forth far more openminded, educated, and concerned about the 
conservation of Earth and the well-being of their fellow Homo sapiens. And although the old will undoubtedly 
go kicking and screaming they will ultimately be replaced, and with them their antiquated ideas and systems 
which did so much destruction to Earth and suppressed so many Homo sapiens will also be no more. A 
psychiatric review of biographical sources regarding mental illness of 37 United States Presidents between 1776 
and 1974 found that 18 Presidents met criteria suggesting they had a psychiatric disorder, the most common 
being depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, and alcoholism. In 10 of the instances, a psychiatric disorder was 
clearly evident during the timeframe when the individual held presidential office, and in most cases probably 
impaired their job performance. (649) If one examines the political leaders of the last 100 years or more, they will 
find that many of them were either mentally unstable, greedy, corrupt, self-centered, egotistical, racists, or just 
plain tyrannical who got into power by bullying, lying, cheating, and stealing. They were not true leaders and 
were not scientific or philosophically minded individuals. Why are these types of Homo sapiens elected to office 
and allowed to corrupt the government so openly and with no real consequences for their actions? What does this 
say about the public who elects them or allows them to be elected? Are they ignorant? Do they simply not care? 
Or are the politicians an actual reflection of the voters? One can imagine how brilliant a political leader would be 
if they were scientifically minded and highly educated using logical thought to make most decisions. If more 
scientists and other intellectuals were to get involved in politics and held more positions within the government, 
how would this change the world? Perhaps the public would be better served if the U.S. Senate Appointments 
Clause also required candidates to take an IQ test, or a combination of other psychological testing to analyze 
how intelligent and incompetent they truly are, what their moral standards are, and how they would react 
towards particular situations relating to the job. Albert Einstein wrote, 

“Private capital tends to become concentrated in few hands, partly because of competition among the capitalists, and partly 
because technological development and the increasing division of labor encourage the formation of larger units of production 
at the expense of the smaller ones. The result of these developments is an oligarchy of private capital the enormous power of 
which cannot be effectively checked even by a democratically organized political society. This is true since the members of 
legislative bodies are selected by political parties, largely financed or otherwise influenced by private capitalists who, for all 
practical purposes, separate the electorate from the legislature. The consequence is that the representatives of the people do 
not in fact sufficiently protect the interests of the underprivileged sections of the population. Moreover, under existing 
conditions, private capitalists inevitably control, directly or indirectly, the main sources of information (press, radio, 
education). It is thus extremely difficult, and indeed in most cases quite impossible, for the individual citizen to come to 
objective conclusions and to make intelligent use of his political rights.” (65) 

Avery small percentage of Americans are directly involved in or even aware of their government’s activities, 

and those that actually do vote elect a candidate during an election usually based on party affiliation never 
looking into their government’s activities and what legislation is being enacted or changed. A good example of 
this can be seen at how few comments there are on many of the proposals have 0 
comments. Another example can be seen in how few citizens actually attend the rare, if ever held at all, town hall 
meetings. The United States presidential voter turnout in 1890 was 80%, by 1907 it had fallen to 65%, and in the 
2016 election it was 55.5%. What does this say about society when only around half the population eligible to 
vote does not participate? Why do so few take part in the democratic political process, while it is supposedly 
cherished by so many? Are they complacent with their government, or do they simply not care? Have they given 
up as it seems hopeless and they see no point knowing that their vote can be overridden by the Electoral College 
like in the 2000 and 2016 presidential elections? How can an electoral college made up of 538 individuals 
override the choices of 100,000,000 Homo sapiens as they did in the 2000 and 2016 elections? Does it not make 
it easier for a political party to rig an election when the those who make up the electoral college are nominated 
either by state chapters of nationally oriented political parties, by voters in primaries, in party conventions, by 
the campaign committee of each candidate, by state legislatures, or appointed by the political parties themselves? 
How can an electoral college be considered a form of true democracy? How can such an injustice like this take 
place in a democracy? What good are electronic voting machines if they can be hacked and manipulated so 

Homo sapiens as a whole agree on the basic principles of democracy and freedom, this is clearly evident in how 
many democratic based governments have existed throughout all of history from the Greeks to present. But 
today, most United States citizens do not know the details of the Constitution nor the names of the current 
Supreme Court Justices, much less who the members of the Presidential cabinet are, in fact the vast majority do 
not even know who their Congressman, Senator, or other local government representatives are. The lack of 
citizen involvement in government can also be seen in how many uncontested elected offices there are in each 
election. During the November 2014 elections in 46 states, there were 6,057 state legislative districts with a seat 
up for election and 1,797 of the candidates faced no opposition during both the primary and general election. Out 
of the 6,057 seats up for election, 5,049 (83.4%) of the incumbents ran for re-election with 1,724 (34.1%) of 
them advancing through the 2014 elections without any opposition whatsoever. (171) Many other smaller local 
government offices also go uncontested during elections and are easily obtainable by one candidate, which much 
of time has no experience and is usually unqualified for the position. A study in 2015 found that 85% of 
incumbent prosecutors in the United States run unopposed, and interestingly 95% percent of the United States 
elected prosecutors are white and 83% percent are men. (l 12) There seems to be very little public discourse from 
the lack of public interest in political issues and about what the government is actually doing. Why do so many 
constantly complain about the government and yet never make any effort to get involved to change the 
government they are so critical of? 

Political dynasties have also had a great influence on the political decisions of the past, families like: the 
Adamses, Bushes, Clintons, Cuomos, Kennedys, Lees, Longs, Roosevelts, Tafts, Udalls, and Harrisons have all 
had major influence and control over the United States government during their reign. Aren’t these political 
dynasties contrary to democracy? Why has this been so accepted in a country of democracy which was founded 
on the exact opposite of this? Should there not be more diversity in government? When members of the Senate, 
Congress, and other high government positions remain in office for decades, does the government not seem more 
stagnant and less democratic? The only two major political parties, the republicans and the democrats, have been 
running the United States Government for the last 188 years, has this not created stagnation, corruption, 
deadlocks, and favoritism? How can self-interested politicians be allowed to govern the redistricting process and 
gerrymander the system, allowing the representative to choose their voters and not the voters choosing their 
representative? How can so many gullible Americans allow politicians to use demagogue like tactics to fool 
them with fearmongering and with such a negative message that is so blatantly negative, biased, and racists in 
nature? Would the Russian hacking, manipulation of social media, or fake news during the 2016 election have 
even mattered if more Americans weren’t so gullible? Why are there age of candidacy laws for the Presidency, 
Vice Presidency, Senate, House of Representatives, and some other elected offices? Is this not age 
discrimination? What will the political system of the United States be like in 50 years if more minorities are 
elected to positions in the local, state, and federal government? The number of presidential news conferences has 

fallen from an average of 72 press conferences per year when Calvin Coolidge was in office, to 20 press 
conferences per year during the Obama administration. (697) How can a president which is supposed to represent 
a government of the people, by the people, and for the people be so isolated from the people? Why is there a 
press secretary, shouldn’t the president address the American public directly on a daily basis, even if for 10 
minutes to briefly discuss what his daily activities consist of? How can the words of politicians be taken as 
honest and sincere when they are created by a team of speech writers and not by the one conveying the actual 

The presidential pardon was intended to correct judicial error with thousands of pardons and commutations 
having been issued over the last 240 years, but has since become a political tool to allow criminals to escape 
justice. Political expediency can be seen in the pardons of Richard Nixon, Roger Clinton, 1. Lewis Libby, Marc 
Rich, Caspar Weinberger, and others. Why is the public not more outraged when these convicted criminals 
receive a pardon or commutation? What point does it serve to convict a high-profile criminal when the criminal 
can get a pardon or commutation? The president is not an acting attorney or judge, and might also have very 
little legal experience, what right does a president have to pardon or commute the judicial sentence of a 
convicted criminal? How can the functioning justice system of a democracy be overridden by one individual as 
if it were an autocracy? Should not these legal cases go through the appeals process and ultimately to the 
Supreme Court to decide if need be, instead of being decided by a possibly unqualified, biased, or corrupt 

Ever since the Pentagon Papers were exposed in 1971 by Daniel Ellsberg, it has been widely known that the 
United States government operates secretively when it comes to some international and even domestic issues. 
The United States government hides information and facts by deeming anything they want kept secret as ‘Top 
Secret ’ or ‘Classified ’, while records and other evidence are sometimes destroyed or conveniently lost. And even 
with Executive Order 13526 and the Freedom of Information Act, documents and other reports 75 years old 
along with the truth remain hidden from the American public. When documents are released through the 
Freedom of Information Act, many times they are redacted to the point of being useless and making the release 
pointless. Why are so many government reports and government committee findings marked as classified and 
kept secret from the American public? (e.g. the Committee Study of the Central Intelligence Agency's Detention 
and Interrogation Program, a report compiled by the United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence 
(SSCI) about the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)'s Detention and Interrogation Program and the use of 
various forms of torture on detainees between 2001 and 2006 during the War on Terror’. Of the final 6,000 page 
report, a total of 525 pages have been released to the public) Fortunately, for the world, history, and those who 
seek the truth there are insiders like Edward Snowden, Bradley Edward Manning, Barrett Brown, Russ Tice, 
William Binney, Thomas A. Drake, Mark Klein, Joel Clement, and other whistleblowers along with the some 
news media and other organizations like ExposeFacts, OpenSecrets, GlobalLeaks, LiveLeak, Wikileaks, and 
others which help to expose the lies and spread the truth with factual evidence which has been hidden from the 

There must be 100% transparency if government is to ever truly be of the people, by the people, and for the 
people. Although there is far more transparency and accountability now than in years past, there is still much 
secrecy. Secret meetings like that of the Bilderberg Group with the political, business, and academia elite from 
Europe and North America have been occurring each year since 1954 and have always lacked transparency and 
accountability. Sometime in the late 1980s or early 1990s when computers and printers were becoming 
mainstream, United States government agencies in cooperation with printer manufacturers and a consortium of 
ha nks implemented a secret printer steganography tracking system utilizing hidden codes which can identify the 
exact printer used in printing any paper. This hidden technology has been used to catch counterfeiters, 
whistleblowers, kidnappers, and other criminals but was only recently discovered by consumer privacy 
advocates. (374) Why are the government and coiporations working together in secret to have the ability to track 
any piece of paper ever printed in the world? Would consumers have willingly accepted this tracking if they 
were initially informed of it? Why are global and domestic surveillance programs and tools like: STORMBREW, 
MUSCULAR, OAKSTAR, ICREACH, MARINA, Dropmire, TRAFFICTHIEF, MonsterMind, Fusion centers, 
MAINWAY, ECHELON, Frenchelon, Carnivore, PINWALE, Fairview, MYSTIC, DCSN, Tempora, PRISM, 

Boundless Informant, D1SHF1RE, Stingray, BULLRUN, XKeyscore, and others allowed to operate with so little 
public knowledge, oversight, and in such secrecy? Can a balance of security and privacy be achieved with global 
surveillance programs and tools if there is more transparency and oversight? How can government officials like 
J. Edgar Hoover be allowed to amass so much power while abusing it for more than 48 years? How could 
McCarthyism last for so long ruining the lives of so many in such a democratic and free nation? How could a 
government agency be allowed to conduct COINTELPRO projects against its own citizens, which attempted to 
surveil, infiltrate, discredit, and disrupt the Civil Rights Movement, Black Power movement, feminist 
organizations, anti-Vietnam War organizers, independence movements, other New Left organizations, or anyone 
else which the FBI deemed subversive? 

Many Homo sapiens around the world give a very large sum of their earned income to the government in the 
form of taxes, on average around 25%, but sometimes as high as 40%. (86) In most parts of the world this is in 
addition to the sales tax paid on nearly every item purchased and consumed including food, water, medicine, and 
other commodities. Furthermore, many pay taxes on things annually that they have already paid for in full and 
already paid a sales tax on such as a property or automobile, and if one inherits money they must again pay taxes 
on money that has already been taxed and collected on. With so many taxes it leaves very little left of the actual 
income to the one earning it. Some of the taxes collected are wasted on useless projects, exorbitant salaries, or 
other senseless expenses in a continuous cycle of mismanagement and greed. While taxes in the United States 
have remained relatively the same over the last decade the spending has increased dramatically. In 2000, there 
was a $236,000,000,000 surplus, by 2009 it turned into a $1,400,000,000,000 deficit with outlays more than 
doubling for national defense. Medicare, and other health programs. (87) With the Iraq and Afghanistan wars and 
a meat consuming population which has a healthcare industry based on profits, is there any wonder as to why 
this surplus turned into a deficit? How can the United States government, the wealthiest country in the world, 
have government shutdowns due to failed legislation? Why are political parties allowed to stop a functioning 
government and hold the government hostage in order to engage in their constant political tug-of-war? Shouldn’t 
the ultimate goal of every politician be to work towards the progression of government and not to hinder it? 

Poverty, Money, Greed, and Corporate Responsibility 

There is in fact very little in this world that has not been touched, changed, influenced, or corrupted by money, 
and it is usually is in the form of nature. There is nothing wrong with many of the ideas and systems that are 
already in place which organization and help manage society, but like anything it can be beneficial if used 
properly, or detrimental if abused. Take money for example, it has been in existence since the dawn of 
civilization in one form or another, be it seashells, cocoa beans, gold, paper, or data, and it will most likely 
continue to exist as it helps to facilitate trade and organize commerce among other things. But again, it can be 
used in a beneficial or detrimental way and the decision is up to the individual who possesses it. One could be 
like the wealthy individuals which use their acquired money for beneficial things that help many unfortunate 
Homo sapiens by promoting education, helping to cure diseases, helping to rebuild devastated areas, etc. Or one 
can be the total opposite and live like a fool squandering it on lavish useless things or hoarding their wealth for a 
lifetime while doing nothing with it to change the world in a positive way. Like most everything else, it is simply 
a matter of morals and individual choice which makes money bad, and only when those abuse it with greed and 
ignorance. If necessities in life like food, medicine, and government are based mainly on money and profits, and 
not on providing nutrition, medical care, and service to citizens, then they will most likely always be of poor 
quality, over-priced, and corrupt. Albert Einstein said, 

"I am absolutely convinced that no wealth in the world can help humanity forward, even in the hands of the most devoted 
worker in this cause. The example of great and pure individuals is the only thing that can lead us to noble thoughts and deeds. 
Money only appeals to selfishness and irresistibly invites abuse.” (55) 

"However, the production and distribution of commodities is entirely unorganized so that everybody must live in fear of being 
eliminated from the economic cycle, in this way suffering for the want of everything. Furthermore, people living in different 
countries kill each other at irregular time intervals, so that also for this reason anyone who thinks about the future must live in 
fear and terror. This is due to the fact that the intelligence and character of the masses are incomparably lower than the 
intelligence and character of the few who produce something valuable for the community.” (57) 

“The economic anarchy of capitalist society as it exists today is, in my opinion, the real source of the evil. We see before us a 
huge community of producers the members of which are unceasingly striving to deprive each other of the fruits of their 
collective labor-not by force, but on the whole in faithful compliance with legally established rules.” (64) 

There is an estimated $80,900,000,000,000 cash dollars in the world (167). In 2015, there were 1,826 billionaires 
(166) in the world with an estimated wealth of $7,100,000,000,000 and an estimated 15,360,000 millionaires with 
an estimated wealth of $58,700,000,000,000. (165) If this rich minority took out their worth in cash that would 
leave $15,000,000,000,000 for the remaining 7,150,000,000 Homo sapiens on Earth or around $2,098 per 
person. If one took $0.01 and doubled it every day for 30 days, they would have $10,737,418. Is money that easy 
to make? Does it really truly exist, or is it just what society deems it to be and really nothing more than a 
number? Is the monetary value of something what someone declares it is worth, or only what someone will pay 
for it? The Giving Pledge has 158 pledges, mostly billionaires, amounting to $365,000,000,000 dollars which 
has been pledged to be given to philanthropic causes during their lifetime or upon the pledges death. What is the 
point of pledging something and waiting so long, why can't a billionaire just keep enough to exist for the 
remainder of their lifetime and give the rest immediately to a philanthropic cause? What is the point of money if 
it is just sitting invested making interest, is it not meant to be spent? Why are antiquated monarchs even 
recognized with the descendants of kings and queens still given a thrown, real estate, and money? Why do the 
decedents of the king’s once subjects still honor and worship these antiquated socialites like they are out of some 
fairy tale? Do they forget how their ancestors where oppressed under the rule of the monarchy for hundreds of 

Percentage change in income since 1979, adjusted for inflation 









1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 

SOURCE: Congressional Budget Office - CBO finds that, between 1979 and 2007, income grew by: 275 percent for the top 1 percent of 
households; 65 percent for the next 19 percent; just under 40 percent for the next 60 percent; and 18 percent for the bottom 20 percent. - 
https://www.cbo. gov/miblication/42729#section0 

In the United States there were 38,900,000 cost-burdened households in 2015, with 11,100,000 renter 
households being severely cost burdened with at least half their incomes going towards housing, a 3,700,000 
increase from 2001. (657) As of December 2016, the total United States household indebtedness was 
$12,580,000,000,000, with 4.8% of outstanding debt being in some stage of delinquency. Of the 
$607,000,000,000 of debt which is delinquent, $412,000,000,000 is seriously delinquent being at least 90 days 
late. (470) In the United States 43,100,000 Homo sapiens live in poverty, and 4,400,000 of them have a disability. 
(172) How can 43,100,000 Homo sapiens be living in poverty in a country of such great wealth and prosperity 

like the United States? Homo sapiens seem to be not only addicted to money but to the fantasy of being instantly 
wealthy. In 2014, Homo sapiens in the United States spent $70,150,000,000 on lottery tickets, (183) in spite of 
them only having a 1 in 258,890,850 chance of winning a Mega Million jackpot. (184) The global gambling 
market in 2009 was $335,000,000,000 which included lotteries, casinos, and sports betting. (185) Why do so 
many spend so much on something that they have so little chance of winning at? By comparison, Americans 
spent $14,600,000,000 on books that same year. (183) The United States Congressional Budget Office issued a 
report in 2016 which stated, 

"In 2013, families in the top 10 percent of the wealth distribution held 76 percent of all family wealth, families in the 51st to 
the 90th percentiles held 23 percent, and those in the bottom half of the distribution held 1 percent." 

"For those at the bottom of the distribution of wealth between 1989 and 2013, but especially after 2007, the share of families 
that had more debt than assets increased, as did their average indebtedness. For instance, 8 percent of families had more debt 
than assets in 2007, and they were, on average, $20,000 in debt. By 2013, 12 percent of families had more debt than assets, 
and they were, on average, $32,000 in debt." 

"The distribution of wealth was more unequal in 2013 than it had been in 1989. In 2013, families in the top 10 percent held 
more than three-quarters of all family wealth, whereas in 1989, their counterparts had held two-thirds of all family wealth. 

Over the period, the share of wealth held by families in the 51st to the 90th percentiles declined from 30 percent to 23 
percent, and the share of wealth held by families in the bottom half of the distribution declined from 3 percent to 1 percent." 

"In 2013, those families were more in debt than their counterparts had been either in 1989 or in 2007. For instance, 8 percent 
of families were in debt in 2007 and, on average, their debt exceeded their assets by $20,000. By 2013, in the aftermath of the 
recession of 2007 to 2009, 12 percent of families were in debt and, on average, their debt exceeded their assets by $32,000. 

The increase in average indebtedness between 2007 and 2013 for families in debt was mainly the result of falling home 
equity and rising student loan balances. In 2007, 3 percent of families in debt had negative home equity: They owed, on 
average, $16,000 more than their homes were worth. In 2013, that share was 19 percent of families in debt, and they owed, on 
average, $45,000 more than their homes were worth. The share of families in debt that had outstanding student debt rose from 
56 percent in 2007 to 64 percent in 2013, and the average amount of their loan balances increased from $29,000 to $41,000." 


Figure 4. 

Number in Poverty and Poverty Rate: 1959 to 2015 

Numbers in millions Recession 

>— sr\ 

Number in poverty 

/ \ 

43.1 million 

13.5 percent 

1959 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 

Note: The data for 201 3 and beyond reflect the implementation of the redesigned income questions. The data points are placed at 
the midpoints of the respective years. For information on recessions, see Appendix A. For information on confidentiality protection, 
sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see < 6.pdf>. 
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 1960 to 2016 Annual Social and Economic Supplements. 

In 2016, the United Nations Human Settlements Programme estimated there were 881,000,000 urban residents 

living in slums throughout the world, a 28% increase from 689,000,000 in 1990. (292) In 2005, the United 
Nations estimated that there were 100,000,000 Homo sapiens throughout the world completely homeless. (301) In 
addition to this, UNESCO also estimates there are up to 150,000,000 ‘street children ’ currently living on the 
streets of the world, scavenging and begging as a result of being forced from a home by violence, the death of a 
parent, family breakdown, war, drug and alcohol abuse, socio-economic collapse, or natural disaster. (299) The 
2016 Annual Homeless Assessment Report (AHAR) delivered to the U.S. Congress by the U.S. Department of 
Housing and Urban Development reported that on a single night in January 2016 in the United States 549,928 
individuals were experiencing homelessness, a 15% decline from 647,258 in 2007. Of this total, 373,571 
individuals were staying in emergency shelters, transitional housing programs, or safe havens while the 
remaining 176,357 were staying in unsheltered locations with more than 52,890 of these individuals being 
chronically homeless. Of those individuals that experienced homelessness in 2016, some 120,819 or 22% were 
children, and 9 in 10 children experiencing homelessness were either staying in emergency shelters or 
transitional housing programs. In 2016, there were 867,102 year-round beds available in United States 
emergency shelters, transitional housing, permanent housing, safe havens, rapid rehousing, and other permanent 
supportive housing. (586) In the United States, since 1987, some cities have simply relocated their homeless to 
other mainland cities within the United States and sometimes even relocated them internationally passing the 
burden onto other cities and other countries. A comprehensive investigation done by the Guardian in 2017 
tracked 21,400 homeless bus relocations between 2011 and 20 1 7. (651) With so many available shelters and 
programs, why are so many in unsheltered locations? Why do so many thousands of individuals experience 
homelessness? One need only watch ‘Homeless Bound L.A. Skid Row ’ to see the 
true reality of homelessness in a nation which has so many resources and so much wealth while the homeless 
population has been ignored by most. Why are millions homeless in a world with millions of vacant houses, 
hotel rooms, and government buildings? If real estate is primarily based on monetary factors and not social use, 
there could always be chronic homelessness in a world of vacant buildings. When Philip Alston, the U.N.'s 
Special Rapporteur on extreme poverty and human rights, visited Alabama he saw inadequate sanitation and 
residents which often contract E. Coli and hookworm as a result and remarked that the sewage disposal crisis 
was the direst he had seen in any developed country. (621) A 2017 United Nations Human Rights report 
concluded that, 

"International and domestic financial institutions and markets are created and sustained by Governments and must be made 
accountable to States human rights obligations. Millions of foreclosures, evictions and displacements and more than a billion 
people living in grossly inadequate housing conditions and homelessness worldwide signal, among other things, the failure of 
States and of the international community to manage the interaction between financial actors and housing systems in 
accordance with the right to adequate housing. The value of global real estate is about US$ 217 trillion, nearly 60 per cent of 
the value of all global assets, with residential real estate comprising 75 per cent of the total. In the course of one year, from 
mid-2013 to mid-2014, corporate buying of larger properties in the top 100 recipient global cities rose from US$ 600 billion 
to US$ 1 trillion." 

"Elsewhere, fmancialization is linked to expanded credit and debt taken on by individual households made vulnerable to 
predatory lending practices and the volatility of markets, the result of which is unprecedented housing precarity. Financialized 
housing markets have caused displacement and evictions at an unparalleled scale: in the United States of America over the 
course of 5 years, over 13 million foreclosures resulted in more than 9 million households being evicted. In Spain, more than 
half a million foreclosures between 2008 and 2013 resulted in over 300,000 evictions. There were almost 1 million 
foreclosures between 2009 and 2012 in Hungary." 

"The 2008 global financial crisis revealed the fragility, volatility and predatory nature of financialized housing markets and 
the potential for catastrophic outcomes both for individual households and for the global economy. In the United States of 
America, there were an average of 10,000 foreclosures per day in 2008, and as many as 35 million individuals were affected 
by evictions over a five-year period. Not only had people lost their homes but they faced personal financial ruin." 

"Housing prices in so-called “hedge cities” like Hong Kong, London, Munich, Stockholm, Sydney and Vancouver have all 
increased by over 50 per cent since 2011, creating vast amounts of increased assets for the wealthy while making housing 
unaffordable for most households not already invested in the market." 

A significant portion of investor-owned homes are simply left empty. In Melbourne, Australia, for example, 82,000 or one 
fifth of investor-owned units lie empty. In the affluent boroughs of Chelsea and Kensington in the city of London, prime 
locations for wealthy foreign investors, the number of vacant units increased by 40 per cent between 2013 and 2014. In such 
markets, the value of housing is no longer based on its social use. The housing is as valuable whether it is vacant or occupied, 
lived in or devoid of life. Homes sit empty while homeless populations burgeon." 

"Corporate finance does not only profit from inflated prices in hedge cities, it also profits from housing crises. The global 
financial crisis created unprecedented opportunities for buying distressed housing and real estate debt, which was sold off at 
fire sale prices in countries such as Ireland, Spain, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United 
States of America. The Blackstone Group, the world’s largest real estate private equity firm, managing $102 billion worth of 
property, spent $10 billion to purchase repossessed properties in the United States of America at courthouses and in online 
auctions following the 2008 financial crisis, emerging as the largest rental landlord in the country. Other major institutional 
players invested $20 billion to purchase approximately 200,000 single-family homes in the United States between 2012 and 

"Many corporate owners of housing are nameless. In the first fiscal quarter of 2015, 58 per cent of all property purchases over 
$3 million in the United States were made by limited liability companies rather than named people, and the majority of those 
purchases were in cash, creating a greater level of anonymity." (300) 

In 2015 and 2017, some 24,900,000 documents were leaked dubbed the ‘Panama Papers ’ and Paradise 
Papers ’, which detail the secretive offshore financial world involving governments, businesses, and the wealthy 
elite while also implicating politicians, public officials, and their close associates. Some of the shell corporations 
were used for illegal activities like fraud, tax evasion, and to evade international sanctions. In 2011, 60 major 
U.S. coiporations funneled $166,000,000,000 to offshore locations allowing them to avoid taxes on more than 
40% of their annual profits. (191) Arecent study in 2017 of 258 Fortune 500 companies that were consistently 
profitable in each year between 2008 and 2015 found that many of the coiporations payed far less than the 35% 
federal income tax rate for profitable corporations and some paid nothing at all because of numerous tax 
loopholes and special breaks they receive. The study found that, 

"As a group, the 258 corporations paid an effective federal income tax rate of 21.2 percent over the eight-year period, slightly 
over half the statutory 35 percent tax rate. Eighteen of the corporations, including General Electric, International Paper, and PG&E, paid no federal income tax at all over the eight-year period. A fifth of the corporations (48) paid an 
effective tax rate of less than 10 percent over that period. Of those corporations in our sample with significant offshore 
profits, more than half paid higher corporate tax rates to foreign governments where they operate than they paid in the United 
States on their U.S. profits. 

One hundred of the 258 companies (39 percent of them) paid zero or less in federal income taxes in at least one year from 
2008 to 2015. The sectors with the lowest effective corporate tax rates over the eight-year period were Utilities, Gas and 
Electric (3.1 percent), Industrial Machinery (11.4 percent), Telecommunications (11.5 percent), Oil, Gas, and Pipelines (11.6 
percent), and Internet Services and Retailing (15.6 percent). Each of these industries paid, as a group, less than half the 
statutory 35 percent tax rate over this eight-year period. The tax breaks claimed by these companies are highly concentrated 
in the hands of a few very large corporations. Just 25 companies claimed $286 billion in tax breaks over the eight years 
between 2008 and 2015. That’s more than half the $527 billion in tax subsidies claimed by all of the 258 companies in our 
sample. Five companies — AT&T, Wells Fargo, J.P. Morgan Chase, Verizon, and IBM — enjoyed more than $130 billion in 
tax breaks during the eight-year period." (241) 

Global saving glut or cash hoarding by the minority of wealthy individuals and more especially by coiporations 
has increased dramatically. Moody's reported that the amount of cash which was held by non-financial 
companies in the United States was $1,840,000,000,000 in 2016, a 9.2% increase from the $1,680,000,000,000 
hoarded away in 2015. (589) If laws were enacted and enforced to help prevent this hoarding and hiding of 
money, how much lower would individual taxes be? How many positive things like education, medicine, 
conservation, etc. could this money have been spent on? 

Society’s prevailing ignorance is as apparent as it always has been throughout history in that negative things, 
(e.g. cigarettes, alcohol, guns, etc.) are legal and even encouraged and thus used even though it is known that 
they have a negative impact and can even cause death. This ignorance is often masked under the term ‘Freedom ’ 
or ‘A God Given Right Societies have laws and attempt to prevented things like murder and other activities 
which are deemed as crimes, so why is it that other negative things like cigarettes and guns are legal and often 
even encouraged? The government has many laws to protect citizens, so why are the tobacco, alcohol, meat and 
dairy, asbestos, oil, plastic, chemical, and other similar industries allowed to make money off a product that the 
government knows has killed millions of Homo sapiens or destroys Earth and continues to every day? Why does 
the government stop some harmful things, yet when it comes others which are based around money and profits it 
is ok to kill Homo sapiens ? Where is the justice for the millions of Homo sapiens which have died as a result of 
some companies knowingly and willingly selling deadly products and services to consumers they know could be 

potentially harmful to their health? What good is a scientific study for human health or environmental protection 
if it is done by the corporations themselves and not an independent scientifically accredited unbiased source? 
Many corporations have been irresponsible towards Earth and society all in the name of money and profit, they 
have lied and mislead the public through propaganda campaigns aimed at debunking scientific evidence and 
ultimately attempted to hide their true actions and the negative consequences which result from using their 
products. Most product packaging far out lasts the product which is contained within that product packaging, this 
is especially true for food products. Where is the corporate responsibility for the littering of trillions of pieces of 
product packaging that is now trash and pollutes the Earth? Shouldn't the company be held accountable to clean 
up the mess it created all in the name of profits? 

Modem society basing nearly everything around money and profits with little or no regard if it damages other 
Homo sapiens or the Earth, is a true ‘tragedy of the commons If governments and corporations continue to push 
for solutions with technology based around profits, and not solutions based on coexistence, conservation, 
sustainability, and moderation, will the environmental issues continue to occur and perhaps get even worse? If 
environmental issues occur and the pseudo solution is only further destruction, and not logically analyzing and 
solving the cause of the issue, how can the issues ever truly be solved? Why do Homo sapiens continuously 
attempt to solve avoidable issues with technology instead of coexisting on Earth by practicing conservation and 
using the precious limited resources cautiously? If manufacturers have the ability to make eco-friendly products 
and don’t want to willingly work towards conservation, then shouldn’t the government create more legislation 
which requires them to do so? If energy efficient appliances and electronics are available and have been for some 
time, why is there even a choice, why not a law requiring that all appliances and electronics be designed so they 
are energy efficient? If front-load washing machines are more efficient than top-load washing machines using 
half the amount of water, why then not enact a law requiring all washer machines be made in the front-style 
manner? Why are there not more environmental laws requiring commercial companies to make all their products 
eco-friendly, energy efficient, biodegradable, and more durable for a longer lifespan to use the product? Products 
in the past were made far more durable, and this was what companies often took pride in and what eliminated 
their competition. Most companies today base product manufacturing not on quality and lifespan use, but how 
many they can make, and how many they can get a consumer to purchase during their lifetime. Martin Luther 
King Jr. wrote, 

“The stability of the large world house which is ours will involve a revolution of values to accompany the scientific and 
freedom revolutions engulfing the earth. We must rapidly begin the shift from a “thing”-oriented society to a “person”- 
oriented society. When machines and computers profit motives and property rights are considered more important than 
people, the giant triplets of racism, materialism, and militarism are incapable of being conquered. A civilization can flounder 
as readily in the face of moral and spiritual bankruptcy as it can through financial bankruptcy. 

This revolution of values must go beyond traditional capitalism and Communism. We must honestly admit that capitalism has 
often left a gulf between superfluous wealth and abject poverty, has created conditions pennitting necessities to be taken from 
the many to give luxuries to the few and has encouraged smallhearted men to become cold and conscienceless so that, like 
Dives before Lazarus, they are unmoved by suffering, poverty-stricken humanity. The profit motive, when it is the sole basis 
of an economic system, encourage a cutthroat competition and selfish ambition that inspire men to be more I-centered than 
thou-centered.” (665) 

In the 1970s Americans were exposed to around 500 ads per day, in 2003 this number increased to 5,000 ads per 
day. (557) Today native advertising is replacing traditional advertising, and many times consumers are fooled into 
thinking that an advertisement is an actual news story or requested Internet content, with the mini words ‘ad’ 
often camouflaged which makes it nearly unnoticeable. If there were no commercial advertising and consumers 
simply sought out a product or service when they needed it, how much less consumption would there be? The 
PBS Frontline reports: ‘The Persuaders ’ November 9, 2004, ‘The Merchants of Cool ’ February 27, 2001, and 
‘Generation Like ’ February 18, 2004 all detail how corporations utilize marketing, and how through new 
technologies they are marketing and influencing a new generation of consumers. In addition, the BBC 
documentary ‘The Century of the Self by Adam Curtis 2002, explains how Edward Bemays used propaganda to 
help corporations influence consumer decisions. In Bemays 1928 book ‘Propaganda ’ he said. 

"The conscious and intelligent manipulation of the organized habits and opinions of the masses is an important element in 
democratic society. Those who manipulate this unseen mechanism of society constitute an invisible government which is the 

true ruling power of our country. 

We are governed, our minds are molded, our tastes formed, our ideas suggested, largely by men we have never heard of. This 
is a logical result of the way in which our democratic society is organized. Vast numbers of human beings must cooperate in 
this manner if they are to live together as a smoothly functioning society. 

In almost every act of our daily lives, whether in the sphere of politics or business, in our social conduct or our ethical 
thinking, we are dominated by the relatively small number of persons...who understand the mental processes and social 
patterns of the masses. It is they who pull the wires which control the public mind.” (33) 

Most current business models in today's society are based mainly on greed and profits through how many 
products can be sold, and it has ultimately led to the 'throw away and buy a new product' consumer habits and 
attitudes. This mentality was invented by corporations to bolster product consumption and increase profits, and it 
began being encouraged around 60 years ago by corporations through advertisements and even the mainstream 
news media with stories like the August 1955 LIFE magazine article titled ‘Throwaway Living’. Some products 
have built-in obsolescence to ensure that the product will become obsolete or unfashionable very soon after 
purchase, and thus force the consumer to buy the newer version. Many products are manufactured so cheaply 
that one piece of the product will fail, (e.g. a wheel, handle, zipper, battery, etc.) making the product useless, 
replacement parts are rarely if ever available, or are often more expensive than to buy a new one, so consumers 
have no choice but to discard the nearly usable product and buy a new one. Why are business models based on 
profits and not creating a good quality product? Shouldn’t businesses create products based on the following 
criteria: 1. How eco-friendly the product is, 2. How well the product functions, and 3. How long the product can 
be used? What if competition of commercial products was based on quality and environmentally friendliness 
versus advertising and pseudo information? To think of how some Homo sapiens running these corporations are 
acting towards not only the Earth, but to fellow Homo sapiens is beyond imagination. How can anyone take 
advantage of something solely for the profit of money, while killing nature and Homo sapiens alike 
indiscriminately and willingly? 

Perhaps at some point Homo sapiens will see the reality and want something different, and maybe then they will 
also see that the system is what needs fixing, old methods changed, and that those running it need replacing. 
Commercial companies, purely for profits are creating mass produced products and influencing consumers to 
think they want or need these products, when in fact they do not truly want or need them at all. If products are 
invented and manufactured based around consumption and money versus actual need and use, then there will be 
most likely be a continuous stream of mass produced junk serving no real purpose other than to pollute Earth and 
give consumers pseudo satisfaction. If this continues the mass consumption will continue, and the cycle of waste 
will perhaps never end and become even worse. If consumers can stop being so easily persuaded into purchasing 
needless products based on the propaganda of commercial companies, this will eliminate much of the mass 
consumption and waste. Will consumers ever wise up to corporate marketing tactics and see the reality that the 
corporations are engaged in to make the almighty dollar? Perhaps Homo sapiens will one day recognize they are 
being used and manipulated by corporations into living their current consumption-based lifestyles, and how they 
have allowed some coiporations to rule their lives and push unhealthy and environmentally destructive products 
and services on them for the last 100 years. Perhaps citizens will demand the government enact stricter 
conservation laws and force commercial companies to move towards more environmentally friendly practices 
like it has already begun to do, and thus the consumer will have no choice but to buy green products as that will 
be all that is available for consumption. Homo sapiens can be forced towards conservation by laws and no other 
option, but society would move far more willingly and rapidly if shown through education and by example the 
correct way of doing things. 

If things are to change either consumers will demand natural alternatives and change with their lifestyle choices, 
commercial companies will see the wrong of their actions, or commercial companies and citizens will be forced 
into change by the government through regulations enacted to help safeguard the environment and consumer 
health. Commercial companies very easily could use their current marketing techniques and make the 
mainstream choices for consumption more natural while still making money and profits, consumers will always 
be consuming, it is simply a matter of what is available to consume. Shouldn’t commercial companies who make 
the products available for consumption be responsible for not only making the product safe for consumers, but 

also making an environmentally friendly product by making it healthy, non-toxic, natural, and bio-degradable? It 
is a matter of the company either not caring about the side-effects and the negative consequences of their actions, 
or they do not see the wrong in their ways and are delusional to the point of thinking they are actually helping 
Homo sapiens, when in fact they are doing just the opposite. Paul Hawken wrote, 

"The ultimate purpose of business is not, or should not be, simply to make money. Nor is it merely a system of making and 
selling things. The promise of business is to increase the general well-being of humankind through service, a creative 
invention and ethical philosophy. Making money is, on its own terms, totally meaningless, an insufficient pursuit for the 
complex and decaying world we live in. We have reached an unsettling and portentous turning point in industrial 
civilization." (662) 

As a result of consolidations, acquisitions, mergers, forced bankruptcies, and other takeover methods many 
business sectors today are now oligopolies, and it has also created a monopoly in some industries affecting 
supply and demand, and ultimately allowed some corporations to practice price fixing while also exercising vast 
influence and control over consumer choices. This has also led to less quality, innovation, and over pricing in 
some industries and services, while also limiting consumer access to basic things like Internet access, medical 
services, education, etc. Profit margins are exorbitant on many necessities like food, medical care, funeral 
services, automobile repair, legal representation, etc. There seems to be no limit on how much profit an 
individual or companies are willing to make, leading to further greed and resulting in even more unfortunate 
victims of the greed. The exorbitant prices on many things is appalling, charging consumers $400 for an item 
that only cost $25 to manufacture, and even worse these vast profits go mostly to a few individuals and not those 
who actual invent, manufacture, transport, and sell the product. How can businesses practice price gouging 
during natural disasters or public gatherings? How can it be legal to charge $5 or more for a small bottle of water 
which is something that is a vital necessity to live? Why are there not more price ceilings enacted by the 
government on commodities to prevent such price gouging? 

Some businesses now force customers to purchase unnecessary and unwanted things, and some even charging 
for things that were previously free. (e.g. many restaurants are now forcing customers to buy bottled water and 
refusing to serve tap water) While other businesses make vast profits by charging for what they call a 
‘convenience fee or ser\’ice charge ’, one cannot even access their money without sometimes being charged an 
outlandish fee by their own and other banks. JP Morgan Chase, Ra nk of America, and Wells Fargo combined 
made $6,000,000,000 from ATM and overdraft fees in 2015. (227) Americans have around $750,000,000,000 in 
credit card debt, and with no legal limits on the amount of interest or fees that a credit card company can charge 
a consumer, it has helped to make credit cards one of the most profitable sectors for the banking industry. The 
November 2004 PBS Frontline program, ‘The Secret History of the Credit Card’ gives a detailed perspective and 
history on the credit card industry. 

The 2007 and 2008 world food price crises as well as the 2011 and 2012 world food price increases were blamed 
on oil prices, drought, overpopulation, low food surpluses, and other economic factors. After the food price 
increases in the United States, food prices rose, and many food companies in response made the product size less 
while maintaining the increased price point, a business practice called shrinkflation. In the United Kingdom, 
between 2012 and 2017, there were 2,529 retail products, 2,006 of which were food items, that decreased in size 
while the price of most products remained the same. (462) Could the increased food prices be in part caused by 
corporate greed? Five main exporters provide around 90% of maize, 80% of rice, and 70% of wheat to the world. 
If the world's main foods were more varied and not restricted to maize, rice, and wheat, could possible future 
food crises be avoided? 

Financial institution failures have become more commonplace recently. Between 1935 and 1942 there were 381 
financial institutions which completely failed, between 1980 and 1994 there were 2,354 financial institutions 
which failed completely, and 570 additional ones which received a government bailout to sustain operations. 
Between 2008 and 2014 there were 504 financial institutions which failed completely and 13 which required a 
government bailout to sustain operations. During the other years in between these financial crises there were on 
average less than 10 per year. (556) Perhaps this is a sign that capitalism in its current form can only go for so 
long with corruption and greed taking its toll until eventually the system has been plundered and must be reset 

with bailouts, the government must step in and change interest rates, and enact new laws to help prevent future 
manipulation and crashes. But as history has shown with corrupt financial systems that are constantly being 
manipulated negatively, the only thing that truly eliminates all greed and corruption is strict laws and most 
important, the refusal to take part in it. 

Some Major Financial Fiascos 

Tulip Mania 

Tulip mania was a period in the Dutch Golden Age during which contract prices for bulbs of the recently 
introduced tulip reached extraordinarily high levels and then suddenly collapsed. At the peak of tulip 
mania, in March 1637, some single tulip bulbs sold for more than 10 times the annual income of a 
skilled craftsman. It is generally considered the first recorded speculative bubble (or economic bubble), 
although some researchers have noted that the Kipper- und Wipperzeit episode in 1619-22, a Europe¬ 
wide chain of debasement of the metal content of coins to fund warfare, featured mania-like similarities 
to a bubble. Nearly a century later, during the crash of the Mississippi Company and the South Sea 
Company in about 1720, tulip mania appeared in satires of these manias. When Johann Beckmann first 
described tulip mania in the 1780s, he compared it to the failing lotteries of the time. In Goldgar's view, 
even many modern popular works about financial markets, such as Burton Malkiel's A Random Walk 
Down Wall Street (1973) and John Kenneth Galbraith's A Short History of Financial Euphoria (1990; 
written soon after the crash of 1987), used the tulip mania as a lesson in morality. Tulip mania again 
became a popular reference during the dot-com bubble of 1995-2001. 

Black Tuesday 

The Wall Street Crash of 1929, began on October 24, 1929 ("Black Tuesday"), and was the most 
devastating stock market crash in the history of the United States, when taking into consideration the full 
extent and duration of its after effects. The crash, which followed the London Stock Exchange's crash of 
September, signaled the beginning of the 12-year Great Depression that affected all Western 
industrialized countries. 

The Brothers 

The Brothers was a large investment operation in Costa Rica, from the late 1980s until 2002, eventually 
exposed as a Ponzi scheme. The fund was operated by brothers Luis Enrique and Osvaldo Villalobos. 
Investigators determined that the scam took in at least $400 million. Most of the clientele were American 
and Canadian retirees but some Costa Ricans also invested the minimum $10,000. About 6,300 
individuals ultimately were involved. Interest rates were 3% per month, usually paid in cash, or 2.8% 
compounded. The ability to pay such high interest was attributed to Luis Enrique Villalobos' existing 
agricultural aviation business, investment in unspecified European high yield funds, and loans to Coca 
Cola, among others. Osvaldo Villalobos' role was primarily to move money around a large number of 
shell companies and then pay investors. In May 2007, Osvaldo Villalobos was sentenced to 18 years in 
prison for fraud and illegal banking, while Luis Enrique Villalobos remains a fugitive. 

Jean Pierre Van Rossem 

In the 1980"s, Jean Pierre Van Rossem ran a stock market investment company called "Moneytron" in 
Belgium. The company was revealed to have been a scheme, Van Rossem had developed a so called 
model that could predict the stock market and beat the capitalist system, he invested for the very wealthy 
in the world and gatherd around 860 million dollars (34.692.321.673 Belgian Franc). Due to belief in the 
Moneytron system and also his sense of show and publicity he made large sums of money. He also 
traded duplicated stocks. In 1991, he was sentenced to 5 years in jail for scams; according to him, it was 
"Away to flick the system". 

MMM Ponzi Scheme 

MMM was a Russian company that perpetrated one of the world's largest Ponzi schemes of all time. By 
different estimates from 5 to 40 million people lost up to $10 billion. The company started attracting 
money from private investors, promising annual returns of up to 1000%. It is unclear whether a Ponzi 
scheme was the initial intention, as such extravagant returns might have been possible during the 

Russian hyperinflation in such commerce as import-export. 

Black Monday 

In finance, Black Monday refers to Monday, October 19, 1987, when stock markets around the world 
crashed, shedding a huge value in a very short time. The crash began in Hong Kong and spread west to 
Europe, hitting the United States after other markets had already declined by a significant margin. The 
Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) fell exactly 508 points to 1,738.74 (22.61%). 

Savings and Loan Crisis 

The savings and loan crisis of the 1980s and 1990s was the failure of 1,043 out of the 3,234 savings and 
loan associations in the United States from 1986 to 1995. A savings and loan or "thrift" is a financial 
institution that accepts savings deposits and makes mortgage, car and other personal loans to individual 
members (a cooperative venture known in the United Kingdom as a building society). By 1995, the RTC 
had closed 747 failed institutions nationwide, worth a total possible book value of between $402 and 
$407 billion. In 1996, the General Accounting Office estimated the total cost to be $160 billion, 
including $132.1 billion taken from taxpayers. The market share of S&Ls for single family mortgage 
loans went from 53% in 1975 to 30% in 1990. U.S. General Accounting Office estimated cost of the 
crisis to around $160.1 billion, about $124.6 billion of which was directly paid for by the U.S. 
government from 1986 to 1996. That figure does not include thrift insurance funds used before 1986 or 
after 1996. It also does not include state run thrift insurance funds or state bailouts. The federal 
government ultimately appropriated $105 billion to resolve the crisis. After banks repaid loans through 
various procedures, there was a net loss to taxpayers of approximately $124-132.1 billion by the end of 
1999. Keating's Lincoln Savings failed in 1989, costing the federal government over $3 billion and 

leaving 23,000 customers with worthless bonds. In the early 1990s, Keating was convicted in both 
federal and state courts of many counts of fraud, racketeering and conspiracy. He served four and a half 
years in prison before those convictions were overturned in 1996. In 1999, he pleaded guilty to a more 
limited set of wire fraud and bankruptcy fraud counts, and sentenced to the time he had already served. 
Neil Bush, the son of then Vice President of the United States George H. W. Bush, was on the Board of 
Directors of Silverado at the time. Neil Bush paid a $50,000 fine, paid for him by Republican supporters, 
and was banned from banking activities for his role in taking down Silverado, which cost taxpayers $1.3 
billion. An RTC suit against Bush and other Silverado officers was settled in 1991 for $26.5 million. 

Romanian Ponzi Scheme 

In Romania, between 1991 and 1994, the Caritas scheme run by the "Caritas" company of Cluj-Napoca, 
owned by loan Stoica promised eight times the money invested in six months. It attracted 400,000 
depositors from all over the country who invested 1,257 billion lei (about US$1 billion) before it finally 
went bankrupt on August 14, 1994, having a debt of US$450 million. The owner, loan Stoica, was 
sentenced in 1995 by the Cluj Court to a total of seven years in prison for fraud, but he appealed and it 
was reduced to two years; then he went on to the Supreme Court of Justice and the sentence was finally 
reduced to one year and a half. 

Towers Investors 

Towers Investors, a bill collection agency, collapsed in 1993; in 1995, chairman Steven Hoffenberg 
pleaded guilty to bilking investors out of $475 million. Judge Robert W. Sweet sentenced him to 20 
years in prison, plus a $1 million fine and $463 million in restitution. He settled a civil suit with the U.S. 
Securities and Exchange Commission for $60 million. He briefly was the owner of the New York Post. 

At the time the SEC considered the fraud to be "one of the largest Ponzi schemes in history." 

European Kings Club 

In late 1994, the European Kings Club collapsed, with ensuing losses of about $1.1 billion. This scam 
was led by Damara Bertges and Hans Gunther Spachtholz. In the Swiss canton of Uri and Glarus, it was 
estimated that about one adult in ten invested into the EKC. The scam involved buying "letters" valued 
at 1,400 Swiss francs that entitled buyers to receive 12 monthly payments of 200 Swiss francs. The 
organisation was based in Gelnhausen, Germany. 

Bre-X Gold Scheme 

Bre-X was a group of companies in Canada. Bre-X Minerals Ltd., a major part of Bre-X based in 

Calgary, was involved in a major gold mining scandal when it reported it was sitting on an enormous 
gold deposit at Busang, Indonesia (in Borneo). Bre-X bought the Busang site in March 1993 and in 
October 1995 announced significant amounts of gold had been discovered, sending its stock price 
soaring. Originally a penny stock, its stock price reached a peak at CAD $286.50 (split adjusted) in May 
1996 on the Toronto Stock Exchange (TSE), with a total capitalization of over CAD $6 billion. Bre-X 
Minerals collapsed in 1997 after the gold samples were found to be a fraud. By May, Bre-X faced a 
number of lawsuits and angry investors who had lost billions. Among the major losers were three 

Canadian public sector organizations: The Ontario Municipal Employees Retirement Board (loss of $45 
million), the Caisse de depot et placement du Quebec, the Quebec Public Sector Pension fluid ($70 
million), and the Ontario Teachers Pension Plan ($100 million). In 1999 the Royal Canadian Mounted 
Police (RCMP) announced it was ending its investigation without laying criminal charges against 

David Walsh founded Bre-X Minerals Ltd. in 1989 as a subsidiary of Bresea Resources Ltd. The 
company did not make a significant profit before 1993, when Walsh followed the advice of geologist 

John Felderhof and bought a property in the middle of a jungle near the Busang River in Kalimantan, 
Indonesia. The first estimate of the site by its project manager (Filipino geologist Michael de Guzman) 
was approximately 2 million Troy ounces. The fraud began to unravel rapidly on March 19, 1997, when 
Filipino Bre-X geologist Michael de Guzman reportedly committed suicide by jumping from a 
helicopter in Busang, Indonesia.] A body was found four days later in the jungle, missing the hands and 
feet, and with the penis "surgically removed". On the other hand the body was reportedly mostly eaten 
by animals and identified from molars and a thumbprint. (According to journalist John McBeth, a body 
had gone missing from the morgue of the town from which the helicopter flew. The remains of "de 
Guzman" were found only 400 metres from a logging road. No one saw the body except another Filipino 
geologist who claimed it was de Guzman. And one of the five women who considered themselves his 
wife was receiving monetary payments from somebody long after the supposed death of de Guzman. 

Walsh moved to the Bahamas in 1998, still professing his innocence. Two masked gunmen broke into 
his home in Nassau, tying him up, and threatened to shoot him unless he turned over all his money. The 
incident ended peacefully but three weeks later, on June 4, 1998, Walsh died of a brain aneurysm. 

Greater Ministries Scheme 

From 1993 until 1997, a church named Greater Ministries International in Tampa, Florida, headed by 
Gerald Payne bilked over 18,000 people out of $500 million. Payne and other church elders promised 
the church members double their money back, citing Biblical scripture. However, nearly all the money 
was lost or hidden away. Church leaders received prison sentences ranging from 13 to 27 years. 

Albanian Ponzi Scheme 

In the mid-1990s, Albania was transitioning into a liberalized market economy after years under a State- 
controlled economy reinforced by the cult of personality involving longtime Communist leader Enver 
Hoxha; the rudimentary financial system became dominated by pyramid schemes, and government 
officials tacitly endorsed a series of pyramid investment funds. Many Albanians, approximately two- 
thirds of the population, invested in them. In 1997, Albanians, who had lost $1.2 billion, took their 
protest to the streets where uncontainable rioting and attacks on government infrastructure led to the 

toppling of the government and the temporary existence of a stateless society. Although technically a 

Ponzi Scheme, the Albanian scams were commonly referred to as pyramid schemes both popularly and 
by the International Monetary Fund. 

National Heritage Life 
Insurance Company 


Sholam Weiss (also spelled Shalom Weiss; bom April 1, 1954) is an American former businessman and 
convicted felon. In 2000, he was convicted of multiple fraud and money laundering counts and 
sentenced to 845 years in prison for looting the National Heritage Life Insurance Company of over $450 
million. It was believed to be the largest insurance failure in history at the time.The sentence imposed on 
Weiss is believed to be the longest known to have ever been imposed for a white-collar crime. It is also 
believed to be the longest criminal sentence ever imposed at the federal level in American history. Weiss 
was convicted of 78 counts including racketeering, wire fraud, and money laundering and ordered to pay 
$125 million in restitution and $123 million in penalties. About a dozen individuals were convicted for 
involvement in the collapse; another defendant, Keith Pound, received a 750-year sentence, and $139 
million in restitution. Pound died in prison in 2004 at age 51. 

Slatkin Ponzi Scheme 

From 1986 to 2001, Slatkin raised approximately $593 million from about 800 wealthy investors. Using 
the funds from later investors, he paid one group of early investors $279M on their original $128M 
investment, citing investment success without actually making most of the claimed investments. He also 
distributed millions in fees to associates as "consultants". He successfully sustained the scheme until 

2001, when it was shut down by an investigation by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission 
(SEC). Slatkin pleaded guilty to mail fraud, wire fraud, money laundering, and obstruction of justice and 
on September 2, 2003, he was sentenced to fourteen years in federal prison. 

Dot-com Bubble 

The dot-com bubble was a historic speculative bubble covering roughly 1995-2001 during which stock 
markets in industrialized nations saw their equity value rise rapidly from growth in the Internet sector 
and related fields. While the latter part was a boom and bust cycle, the Internet boom is sometimes 
meant to refer to the steady commercial growth of the Internet with the advent of the World Wide Web, 
as exemplified by the first release of the Mosaic web browser in 1993, and continuing through the 

1990s. On March 10, 2000 the NASDAQ peaked at 5,132.52 intraday before closing at 5,048.62. 
Afterwards, the NASDAQ fell as much as 78%. The stock market crash of 2000-2002 caused the loss of 
$5 trillion in the market value of companies from March 2000 to October 2002,As of September 24, 

2002, the Dow Jones Industrial Average had lost 27% of the value it held on January 1, 2001: a total loss 
of 5 trillion dollars. The Dow Jones had already lost 9% of its peak value at the start of 2001, while the 
Nasdaq had lost 44%. At the March 2000 top, the sum in valuation of all NYSE-listed companies stood 
at $12.9 trillion, and the valuation sum of all NASDAQ-listed companies stood at $5.4 trillion, for a total 
market value of $18.3 trillion. The NASDAQ subsequently lost nearly 80% and the S&P 500 lost 50% to 
reach the October 2002 lows. The total market value of NYSE (7.2) and NASDAQ (1.8) companies at 
that time was only $9 trillion, for an overall market loss of $9.3 trillion. 

Haitian Ponzi Scheme 

In 2001, the Haitian population fell prey to Ponzi schemers offering rates up to 15%. The outfits, called 
"cooperatives", appeared to be implicitly backed by the government and became wildly popular in the 
population at large, who felt safe since the co-ops were openly advertising in the radio and TV ads using 
Haitian pop stars as spokespeople. It is estimated that more than $240 million was swindled from 
investors, equivalent to 60% of the country's government budget. 

Enron Scandal 

The Enron scandal, publicized in October 2001, eventually led to the bankruptcy of the Enron 

Corporation, an American energy company based in Houston, Texas, and the de facto dissolution of 

Arthur Andersen, which was one of the five largest audit and accountancy partnerships in the world. In 
addition to being the largest bankruptcy reorganization in American history at that time, Enron was cited 
as the biggest audit failure. Enron's shareholders lost $74 billion in the four years before the company's 
bankruptcy ($40 to $45 billion was attributed to fraud). As Enron had nearly $67 billion that it owed 
creditors, employees and shareholders received limited, if any, assistance aside from severance from 
Enron. To pay its creditors, Enron held auctions to sell assets including art, photographs, logo signs, and 
its pipelines. In May 2004, more than 20,000 of Enron's former employees won a suit of $85 million for 
compensation of $2 billion that was lost from their pensions. From the settlement, the employees each 
received about $3,100. The next year, investors received another settlement from several banks of $4.2 
billion. In September 2008, a $7.2-billion settlement from a $40-billion lawsuit, was reached on behalf 
of the shareholders. The settlement was distributed among the main plaintiff, University of California 
(UC), and 1.5 million individuals and groups. UC's law firm Coughlin Stoia Geller Rudman and 

Robbins, received $688 million in fees, the highest in a U.S. securities fraud case. Kenneth Lee Lay was 
the CEO and chairman of Enron Corporation. Lay was indicted by a grand jury and was found guilty of 

10 counts of securities fraud. Lay died while vacationing, three months before his October 23 
sentencing. A preliminary autopsy reported Lay had died of a heart attack caused by coronary artery 
disease and his conviction was vacated. Chase paid out over $2 billion in fines and legal settlements for 
their role in financing Enron Corporation with aiding and abetting Enron Corp.'s securities fraud, which 
collapsed amid a financial scandal in 2001. In 2003, Chase paid $ 160 million in fines and penalties to 
settle claims by the Securities and Exchange Commission and the Manhattan district attorney's office. In 
2005, Chase paid $2.2 billion to settle a lawsuit filed by investors in Enron. 

WorldCom Scandal 

Beginning modestly during mid-1999 and continuing at an accelerated pace through May 2002, the 
company—directed by Ebbers (as CEO), Scott Sullivan (CFO), David Myers (Controller), and Buford 

"Buddy" Yates (Director of General Accounting)—used fraudulent accounting methods to disguise its 
decreasing earnings to maintain the price of WorldCom’s stock. In 2002, a small team of internal 
auditors at WorldCom worked together, often at night and secretly, to investigate and reveal $3.8 billion 
worth of fraud. Soon thereafter, the company’s audit committee and board of directors were notified of 
the fraud and acted swiftly: Sullivan was dismissed, Myers resigned, Arthur Andersen withdrew its audit 
opinion for 2001, and the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) began an investigation into 
these matters on June 26, 2002 (see accounting scandal). By the end of 2003, it was estimated that the 
company's total assets had been inflated by about $11 billion. This made the WorldCom scandal the 
largest accounting fraud in American history until the exposure of Bernard Madoff s $64 billion Ponzi 
scheme in 2008. On March 15, 2005, Bernard Ebbers was found guilty of all charges and convicted of 
fraud, conspiracy and filing false documents with regulators — all related to the $11 billion accounting 
scandal. On July 13, 2005, Bernard Ebbers received a sentence that would keep him imprisoned for 25 
years. At time of sentencing, Ebbers was 63 years old. 

HcalthSouth Accounting 

The first of HealthSouth's accounting problems surfaced in late 2002 after CEO Richard M. Scrushy 
sold $75 million in stock several days before the company posted a large loss. HcalthSouth was accused 
by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) of an accounting scandal where the company's 
earnings were falsely inflated by $1.4 billion. In 1996, Scrushy allegedly instructed the company's senior 
officers and accountants to falsify company earnings reports in order to meet investor expectations and 
control the price of the company's stock. The fraud continued for seven years. In certain fiscal years, the 
company's income was overstated by as much as 4700%. The $1.4 billion represents more than 10% of 
the company's total assets. At one point, the company's corporate taxes—based on its fraudulent 
earnings—were higher than its actual earnings. In 1998, HcalthSouth was accused of violation of the 
Securities Exchange Act by failing to disclose negative trends and misrepresenting company's financial 

In March 2003, HealthSouth's CEO Richard M. Scrushy was charged with the accounting fraud and the 
SEC announced it was investigating whether Scrushy's stock sell was related to HcalthSouth posting a 
large loss. HcalthSouth hired an outside law firm to review Scrushy's stock sale, with the firm 
concluding that the sale and profit loss were not related, although this did not take the company off the 
SEC's radar. On the evening of March 18, 2003 FBI agents executed search warrants at the company's 
headquarters after the company's Chief Financial Officer William Owens agreed to wear a wire in a 
failed attempt to get Scrushy to talk about the fraud. In June 2005, Scrushy was acquitted on all 36 of the 
accounting fraud counts against him, most notably one count in violation of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. 
However, four years later, he was sued for fraud by HealthSouth investors and ordered to repay his 
company $2.8 billion. 

Bre-X Gold Scheme 

Bre-X was a group of companies in Canada. Bre-X Minerals Ltd., a major part of Bre-X based in 

Calgary, was involved in a major gold mining scandal when it reported it was sitting on an enormous 
gold deposit at Busang, Indonesia (in Borneo). Bre-X bought the Busang site in March 1993 and in 
October 1995 announced significant amounts of gold had been discovered, sending its stock price 
soaring. Originally a penny stock, its stock price reached a peak at CAD $286.50 (split adjusted) in May 
1996 on the Toronto Stock Exchange (TSE), with a total capitalization of over CAD $6 billion. Bre-X 
Minerals collapsed in 1997 after the gold samples were found to be a fraud. 

By May, Bre-X faced a number of lawsuits and angry investors who had lost billions. Among the major 
losers were three Canadian public sector organizations: The Ontario Municipal Employees Retirement 
Board (loss of $45 million), the Caisse de depot et placement du Quebec, the Quebec Public Sector 
Pension fund ($70 million), and the Ontario Teachers Pension Plan ($100 million). There was fallout in 
the Canadian financial sector also; the fraud proved a major embarrassment for Peter Munk, the head of 
Barrick Gold, as well as for the then-head of the Toronto Stock Exchange (resulting in his ousting by 
1999), and began a tumultuous realignment of the Canadian stock exchanges. 

Walsh moved to the Bahamas in 1998, still professing his innocence. Two masked gunmen broke into 
his home in Nassau, tying him up, and threatened to shoot him unless he turned over all his money. The 
incident ended peacefully but three weeks later, on June 4, 1998, Walsh died of a brain aneurysm. In 

1999 the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) announced it was ending its investigation without 
laying criminal charges against anyone. Critics charged that the RCMP was underfunded and 
understaffed to handle complex criminal fraud cases, and also charged that Canadian laws in this area 
were inadequate. However, despite the dropping of criminal charges, civil class action suits against Bre- 
X directors, advising financial firms and Kilbom continued. Bre-X went bankrupt November 5, 1997 
although some of its subsidiaries like Bro-X continued until 2003. In May 1999, the Ontario Securities 
Commission charged Felderhof with insider trading. No other member of Bre-X's board of directors, or 
others associated with the Busang project, were charged by the OSC. The OSC admitted that there is no 
evidence that Felderhof was either involved in the fraud or was aware of the fraud. 

Mutual Benefit Life 
Insurance Company Ponzi 

From 1994 to May 2004, Mutual Benefit Life Insurance Company purchased life insurance policies 
from the elderly and persons suffering from AIDS and other chronic illnesses which they then sold 


fractionalized interests in insurance policy death benefits, known as “viatical settlements,” to 30,000 
investors scamming more than $837 million. Mastermind lawyer Anthony Livoti was sentenced to 10 
years in prison and ordered to pay over $800 million in restitution to victims. 

2000s Energy Crisis 

From the mid-1980s to September 2003, the inflation-adjusted price of a barrel of crude oil on NYMEX 
was generally under US$25/barrel. During 2003, the price rose above $30, reached $60 by 11 August 

2005, and peaked at $147.30 in July 2008. During this timeframe in 2005, ExxonMobil surpassed Wal- 
Mart as the world's largest publicly held corporation when measured by revenue, although Wal-Mart 
remained the largest by number of employees. ExxonMobil's $340 billion revenues in 2005 were a 25.5 
percent increase over their 2004 revenues. In 2006, Wal-Mart recaptured the lead with revenues of 
$348.7 billion against ExxonMobil's $335.1. ExxonMobil continued to lead the world in both profits 
($39.5 billion in 2006) and market value ($460.43 billion). In 2007, ExxonMobil had a record net 
income of $40.61 billion on $404,552 billion of revenue, an increase largely due to escalating oil prices 
as their actual BOE production decreased by 1 percent, in part due to expropriation of their Venezuelan 
assets by the Chavez government. As of December 2013, ExxonMobil occupied five out of ten slots for 
Largest Corporate Annual Earnings of All Time and two out of ten on Largest Corporate Quarterly 

James Paul Lewis Jr. 

In May 2006, James Paul Lewis, Jr. was sentenced to 30 years in federal prison for running a $311 
million Ponzi scheme over a 20-year period. He operated under the name Financial Advisory 

Consultants from Lake Forest, California. 

Chinese Ant Fanns 


More than 1 million Chinese people lost over $1.2 billion in a scheme involving ant farming. The 

Yilishen Tianxi Group was a Chinese company established in 1999 which sold traditional Chinese 
medicine products made from ants. People invested money in the company, purchasing and raising 
boxes of ants with the promise that they could sell the ants back for a profit, before it was exposed as a 
ponzi scheme in 2007. In February 2008, another man was sentenced to death in the same province of 
China after defrauding investors of three billion yuan (US$417 million) in a similar ant-breeding 

Lou Pearlman 

On June 27, 2007, former boy band mogul Lou Pearlman was indicted by a grand jury on several counts 
of fraud and money laundering which for running a $500 million Ponzi scheme over 20 years; he 
pleaded guilty and was sentenced to 25 years imprisonment. Pearlman died while still in custody at the 
Federal Correctional Institution in Miami, Florida, on August 19, 2016 from cardiac arrest; he was 62 
years old. 

The Financial Crisis of 

The financial crisis of 2007-2008, also known as the global financial crisis and the 2008 financial crisis, 
is considered by many economists to have been the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of 
the 1930s. It began in 2007 with a crisis in the subprime mortgage market in the USA, and developed 
into a full-blown international banking crisis with the collapse of the investment bank Lehman Brothers 
on September 15, 2008. Excessive risk taking by banks such as Lehman Brothers helped to magnify the 
financial impact globally. Massive bail-outs of financial institutions and other palliative monetary and 
fiscal policies were employed to prevent a possible collapse of the world's financial system. The crisis 
was nonetheless followed by a global economic downturn, the Great Recession. The European debt 
crisis, a crisis in the banking system of the European countries using the euro, followed later. The US 
Senate's Levin-Coburn Report concluded that the crisis was the result of "high risk, complex financial 
products; undisclosed conflicts of interest; the failure of regulators, the credit rating agencies, and the 
market itself to rein in the excesses of Wall Street." There is a direct relationship between declines in 
wealth and declines in consumption and business investment, which along with government spending, 
represent the economic engine. Between June 2007 and November 2008, Americans lost an estimated 
average of more than a quarter of their collective net worth. By early November 2008, a broad US stock 
index the S&P 500, was down 45% from its 2007 high. Housing prices had dropped 20% from their 

2006 peak, with futures markets signaling a 30-35% potential drop. Total home equity in the United 

States, which was valued at $13 trillion at its peak in 2006, had dropped to $8.8 trillion by mid-2008 and 
was still falling in late 2008. Total retirement assets, Americans' second-largest household asset, dropped 
by 22%, from $10.3 trillion in 2006 to $8 trillion in mid-2008. During the same period, savings and 
investment assets (apart from retirement savings) lost $1.2 trillion and pension assets lost $1.3 trillion. 
Taken together, these losses total a staggering $8.3 trillion. Since peaking in the second quarter of 2007, 
household wealth is down $14 trillion. Further, US homeowners had extracted significant equity in their 
homes in the years leading up to the crisis, which they could no longer do once housing prices collapsed. 
Free cash used by consumers from home equity extraction doubled from $627 billion in 2001 to $1,428 
billion in 2005 as the housing bubble built, a total of nearly $5 trillion over the period. US home 
mortgage debt relative to GDP increased from an average of 46% during the 1990s to 73% during 2008, 
reaching $10.5 trillion. On February 9, 2012, it was announced that the five largest mortgage servicers 
(Ally/GMAC, Bank of America, Citi, JPMorgan Chase, and Wells Fargo) agreed to a historic settlement 
with the federal government and 49 states. The settlement, known as the National Mortgage Settlement 
(NMS), required the servicers to provide about $26 billion in relief to distressed homeowners and in 
direct payments to the states and federal government. This settlement amount makes the NMS the 
second largest civil settlement in U.S. history, only trailing the Tobacco Master Settlement Agreement. 

The five banks were also required to comply with 305 new mortgage servicing standards. Oklahoma 

held out and agreed to settle with the banks separately. During the 2007 subprime mortgage crisis, 
Goldman was able to profit from the collapse in subprime mortgage bonds in the summer of 2007 by 
short-selling subprime mortgage-backed securities. Two Goldman traders, Michael Swenson and Josh 
Birnbaum, are credited with being responsible for the firm's large profits during the crisis. The pair, 
members of Goldman's structured products group in New York, made a profit of $4 billion by "betting" 
on a collapse in the sub-prime market, and shorting mortgage-related securities. By summer 2007, they 
persuaded colleagues to see their point of view and convinced skeptical risk management executives. 

The firm initially avoided large subprime writedowns, and achieved a net profit due to significant losses 
on non-prime securitized loans being offset by gains on short mortgage positions. The firm's viability 
was later called into question as the crisis intensified in September 2008. Gary D. Cohn who was 

President and Co-Chief Operating Officer and director of Goldman Sachs at he time went on to become 
the chief economic advisor to President Donald Trump and Director of the National Economic Council. 

Washington Mutual Inc. 

Washington Mutual, Inc., abbreviated to WaMu, was a savings bank holding company and the fonner 
owner of Washington Mutual Bank, which was the United States' largest savings and loan association 
until its collapse in 2008. All assets but only some liabilities (including deposits, covered bonds, and 
other secured debt) of Washington Mutual Bank were assumed by JPMorgan Chase. Under the deal, 

JPMorgan Chase acquired all the banking operations of WaMu, including $307 billion in assets and 
$188 billion in deposits, for a price of $1.9 billion plus debt assumptions. 

Tom Petters 

On December 1, 2008, in Saint Cloud, Minnesota, celebrity businessman Tom Petters was charged by 
the Federal government as the mastermind behind a $3.65 billion Ponzi scheme that bilked investors 
over a 13-year period. Petters lived an extravagant lifestyle supported by his Ponzi scheme. Petters faced 
20 counts of wire and mail fraud, conspiracy, and money laundering for the alleged investment scheme 
that ran from 1995 through September 2008. He is expected to plead not guilty, but his co-conspirators 
in the Ponzi scheme, Deanna Coleman, Robert White, Michael Catain, and Larry Reynolds, have all 
pleaded guilty. The Petters Ponzi scheme came to an end when Petters' top co-conspirator Deanna 

Coleman turned government informant and wore a wire. Petters and the others were planning to flee to 
countries without extradition agreements with the U.S. Deanna Coleman and Michael Catain had 
properties in Costa Rica. On December 2, 2009, Tom Petters was found guilty in the U.S. District Court 
in St. Paul, Minnesota on 20 counts of wire and mail fraud. The US federal government is now seeking 
forfeiture of all Petters' assets. He later was convicted for turning Petters Group Worldwide into a $3.65 
billion Ponzi scheme and was sentenced to 50 years in federal prison. Reporters from the Minneapolis 

Star Tribune stated that it is extremely unlikely that Petters will ever again live as a free citizen. 

Stanford Ponzi Scheme 

Robert Allen Stanford is an American former financier and sponsor of professional sports who is serving 
a 110-year federal prison sentence, having been convicted of charges that his investment company was a 
massive Ponzi scheme and fraud. Stanford was the chairman of the now defunct Stanford Financial 

Group of Companies. A fifth-generation Texan who once resided in Saint Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, he 
holds dual citizenship, being a citizen of Antigua and Barbuda and the United States. He contributed 
millions of dollars to politicians in both Antigua and the United States amongst other countries. 

In early 2009, Stanford became the subject of several fraud investigations, and on February 17, 2009, 
was charged by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) with fraud and multiple violations 
of U.S. securities laws for alleged "massive ongoing fraud" involving $7 billion in certificates of 
deposits. The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) raided Stanford's offices in Houston, Texas; 

Memphis, Tennessee; and Tupelo, Mississippi. On February 27, 2009, the SEC amended its complaint to 
describe the alleged fraud as a "massive Ponzi scheme". He "voluntarily surrendered" to authorities on 
June 18, 2009. On March 6, 2012, Stanford was convicted on all charges except a single count of wire 
fraud. He is serving his 110-year sentence at United States Penitentiary, Coleman in Coleman, Florida. 

In September 2014, Stanford appealed his conviction; however, the appeals court rejected the appeal in 
October 2015. 

Madoff Ponzi Scheme 

Bernard Lawrence "Bernie" Madoff is an American fraudster and a former stockbroker, investment 
advisor, and financier. He is the former non-executive chairman of the NASDAQ stock market, and the 
admitted operator of a Ponzi scheme that is considered the largest financial fraud in U.S. history. He 
employed at the firm his brother Peter, as senior managing director and chief compliance officer; Peter's 
daughter Shana Madoff, as the firm's rules and compliance officer and attorney; and his sons Andrew 
and Mark. Peter has since been sentenced to 10 years in prison and Mark committed suicide by hanging 
exactly two years after his father's arrest. Andrew died of lymphoma on September 3, 2014. The Madoff 
investment scandal defrauded thousands of investors of billions of dollars. Madoff said he began the 

Ponzi scheme in the early 1990s. However, federal investigators believe the fraud began as early as the 
mid-1980s and may have begun as far back as the 1970s. Those charged with recovering the missing 
money believe the investment operation may never have been legitimate. The amount missing from 
client accounts, including fabricated gains, was almost $65 billion. The Securities Investor Protection 
Corporation (SIPC) trustee estimated actual losses to investors of $18 billion. On June 29, 2009, Madoff 
was sentenced to 150 years in prison, the maximum allowed. Madoff s right-hand man and financial 
chief, Frank DiPascali, pleaded guilty to 10 federal charges in 2009 and (like Friehling) testified for the 
government at the trial of five former colleagues, all of whom were convicted. DiPascali faced a 

sentence of up to 125 years, but he died of lung cancer in May 2015, before he could be sentenced. In 
the fall of 2013, JPMorgan began talks with prosecutors and regulators regarding compliance with anti¬ 
money-laundering and know-your-customer banking regulations in connection with Madoff. On January 

7, 2014, JPMorgan agreed to pay a total of $2.05 billion in fines and penalties to settle civil and criminal 
charges related to its role in the Madoff scandal. The government filed a two-count criminal infonnation 
charging JPMorgan with Bank Secrecy Act violations, but the charges will be dismissed within two 
years provided that JPMorgan refonns its anti-money laundering procedures and cooperates with the 
government in its investigation. The bank agreed to forfeit $1.7 billion. The lawsuit, which was filed on 
behalf of shareholders against Chief Executive Jamie Dimon and other high-ranking JPMorgan 
employees, used statements made by Bemie Madoff during interviews conducted while in prison in 

Butner, North Carolina claiming that JPMorgan officials knew of the fraud. The lawsuit stated that, 
"JPMorgan was uniquely positioned for 20 years to see Madoffs crimes and put a stop to them ... But 
faced with the prospect of shutting down Madoffs account and losing lucrative profits, JPMorgan - at its 
highest level - chose to turn a blind eye." JPMorgan also agreed to pay a $350 million fine to the Office 
of the Comptroller of the Currency and settle the suit filed against it by Picard for $543 million. 

Nicholas Cosmo 

On January 26, 2009, Nicholas Cosmo, founder of Agape World, surrendered to federal authorities in 
connection with a suspected $380 million Ponzi scheme. Previously convicted of fraud in 1999, Cosmo 
surrendered at the Long Island Railroad train station in Hicksville, N.Y. and was sentenced to 50 years 
imprisonment. In March 2009, a lawsuit was filed in New York against Bank of America, one of the 
largest banks in the United States, that claimed that Bank of America "established, equipped and staffed" 
a branch office in the headquarters of Mr. Cosmo's firm, Agape Merchant Advance. As a result, the 
lawsuit contends that the bank knowingly "assisted, facilitated and furthered" Mr. Cosmo's fraudulent 

Dreier, LLP Ponzi Scheme 

Marc Stuart Dreier is a fonner American lawyer who was sentenced to 20 years in federal prison in 2009 
for committing investment fraud using a Ponzi scheme. He is scheduled to be released from FCI 

Sandstone on October 26, 2026. On May 11, 2009, he pleaded guilty in the United States District Court 
for the Southern District of New York to eight charges of fraud, which included one count of conspiracy 
to commit securities fraud and wire fraud, one count of money laundering, one count of securities fraud, 
and five counts of wire fraud in a scheme to sell $700 million in fictitious promissory notes. Civil 
charges, filed in December 2008 by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, are pending. 

Troy Wragg and Amanda 

On November 16, 2009, the SEC charged four individuals and two companies for perpetrating a Ponzi 
scheme to defraud over 300 investors of $30 million. Pennsylvania-based Mantria Corporation, run by 
executives Troy Wragg and Amanda Knorr, supposedly focused on green initiatives such as a "carbon 
negative" housing community in Tennessee and an organic waste-derived "biochar" charcoal substitute 
production plant. Between September 2007 through November 2009, Mantria Corporation raised funds 
through Denver-based Speed of Wealth LLC, run by Wayde and Donna McKelvy. The SEC alleged that 
Mantria and Speed of Wealth exaggerated the scope and success of Mantria's operations. Subsequent 
charges estimate Mantria and Speed of Wealth raised $54 million, of which they paid $17.5 million to 
investors, using investors' own funds to pay those returns. 

Scott W. Rothstein 

Scott W. Rothstein, a disbarred lawyer and the former managing shareholder, chairman, and chief 
executive officer of the now-defunct Rothstein Rosenfeldt Adler law firm was accused of funding his 
philanthropy, political contributions, law firm salaries, and an extravagant lifestyle with a massive $1.4 
billion Ponzi scheme. Scott Rothstein turned himself in to federal authorities and was subsequently 
arrested on charges related to the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act (RICO). 

Rothstein was denied bond by U.S. Magistrate Judge Robin Rosenbaum, who ruled that due to his 
ability to forge documents, he was considered a flight risk. Although his arraignment plea was not guilty, 
Rothstein cooperated with the Government and reversed his plea to guilty of five federal crimes on 

January 27, 2010. He was sentenced to 50 years, despite the prosecution asking for 40 years. 

Nevin Shapiro 

On September 15, 2010, Nevin Shapiro pleaded guilty to a 2005-2009 Ponzi scheme in a Newark, New 
Jersey court. The scheme brought in approximately $880 million. Headquartered in Miami, the scheme 
was based on an import/export grocery business but was diverting investments to attract new investors. 
Among the items seized as a result of his plea were a $5 million Miami mansion and a yacht. He was 
known as "Lil Luke" because of his relationship with the Miami Hurricanes football team. This was a 
tribute to Luther Campbell, a famous fonner Hurricanes booster. On August 16, 2011, in a story broken 
by Yahoo! Sports, Shapiro stated that his support of the team included cash, entertainment, prostitutes, 
and gifts, all against NCAA mles. 

Zeek Rewards 

On August 17, 2012, the SEC filed a federal case against defendants Paul Burks and Zeek Rewards, 
based out of North Carolina. Paul Burks ran the entity of Zeek Rewards, a fraudulent investment 
opportunity that promised investors returns as high as 1.5% per day by sharing in the profits of Zeekler, 
a penny auction. Investors were encouraged to recruit new members to increase their returns. New 
investors had to pay a monthly "subscription" of up to $99/month and an initial investment of up to 
$10,000. The higher the initial investment, the higher the returns appeared. The Zeekler entity was an 
online penny auction that served as a front for the Zeek Rewards entity. Investors in the Zeek Rewards 
scheme were promised payouts from the profits made on Zeekler by recruiting new members and giving 
out "bids" that customers would use on the penny auction. While the Zeekler website did bring in 

revenue, it was only about 1% of what investors believed was being brought into the Zeek Rewards 
company. The vast majority of dispersed funds were paid out from newly recruited investors. It is 
believed that the Ponzi scheme was a $600,000,000 enterprise and the number of affected investors was 
1,000,000 when the SEC filed suit. This made Zeek Rewards the largest ponzi scheme in history by 
number of affected investors, even though numerous other ponzi schemes have had larger enterprise 
values. Paul Burks paid $4M to the SEC and agreed to cooperate. It remains unknown how much, if any, 
of the funds lost in the scheme will be returned to affected investors, as of August 2012. 

2015-16 stock market 

The Dow Jones fell 888 points during a two-day period, 1300 points from August 18-21. On Monday, 
August 24, world stock markets were down substantially, wiping out all gains made in 2015, with 
interlinked drops in commodities such as oil, which hit a six-year price low, copper, and most of Asian 
currencies, but the Japanese yen, losing value against the United States dollar. With this plunge, an 
estimated ten trillion dollars had been wiped off the books on global markets since June. 

Aftennath of the United 
Kingdom European Union 
membership referendum, 

World Markets tumble after the United Kingdom voted to leave the European Union. Investors lost more 
than the equivalent of 2 trillion United States dollars on 24 June 2016, making this day the worst single 
day drop in history, in absolute terms, according to data from S&P Global. The losses were extended to a 
combined total of the equivalent of 3 trillion dollars by additional selling on 27 June 2016 according to 
data from S&P Global. 

| SOURCE: Wikipedia (with some corrections, additions, and other edits) | 

Where did all the money from these financial fiascos go, the trillions of dollars stolen from millions of hard¬ 
working victims who were sold lies? How many billions of dollars has been stolen by others who misled 
investors in similar legal pyramid, get-rich-quick, or other Ponzi type schemes? Why do so few of those actually 
responsible get prosecuted for their blatant criminal actions towards so many? Why do so many corporate 
wrongdoers get massive multi-million-dollar payouts and severance packages when they commit unethical and 
criminal acts, while also usually avoiding any prosecution by the law or receive an extremely light sentence for 
their acts? How many of those responsible are still spending the money they stole? Why are corporations and the 
corrupt individuals running them, which have a known history of fraud, allowed to simply pay a fine and/or 
settle a lawsuit and then continue doing business as usual only to repeat a similar criminal action later? Why has 
America had a continuous economic boom and bust history since 1929? How can a few be allowed to so easily 
rob nearly the whole society and get away with it? The PBS frontline reports: ‘Inside the Meltdown ’ February 
17, 2009, ‘Ten Trillion and Counting’ March 24, 2009, 'Breaking the Bank ’ June 16, 2009, ‘Money, Power and 
Wall Street’ April 24, 2012, ‘The Untouchables ’ January 22, 2013, and ‘Black Money ’ April 7, 2009 all focus on 
the recent financial fiascos which were caused by corporate greed combined with lax oversight and regulations. 
And Mark Archbar's 2003 documentary 'The Corporation' gives a detailed history of corporations. 

These financial fiascos are constant reminders that the capitalist monetary system can be manipulated by the 
greedy, and that it will always need strict government regulations and oversight, not less, if it is to ever be a 
successful system. Between the financial crises and the rising global food prices it shows how easily 
manipulated the monetary system is by the few while controlling the basic necessities in life of the majority. 

Why are exorbitant profits allowed to be made on things which are vital to life and a functioning society like 
medicine, food, water, shelter, electricity, Internet, waste removal, etc.? When coiporations begin charging so 
much for the necessities in life, and Homo sapiens and the Earth itself is suffering as a result, shouldn’t the 
government intervene to protect citizens and the environment? If corporations don’t want to offer these basic 
services to citizens for a reasonable amount of money, then why can’t the government offer them instead as it 
has in the past before it began outsourcing nearly everything to independent contractors, often times with little to 
no oversight? How can food speculation be allowed in financial markets when it could cause price swings in 
staple foods like wheat, maize, and soy? How much better would the world function without a focus on money 
and profits? Couldn’t all consumers have the same products and quality services which are only available to the 
few? The same quality housing? Is this Utopian future even remotely possible? Perhaps it would look something 
like a science-fiction movie, all the Homo sapiens are dressed nearly identical, they live in nearly identical 
skyscrapers, food, medicine, and shelter are freely available to all Homo sapiens, with almost all tasks being 
automated and done by robots allowing Homo sapiens to devote their work hours towards fields they have a 
talent or interest in, and they are motivated by knowledge and discovery, not money and profit. Perhaps Homo 
sapiens will revert back to a barter system which is prevalent in many traditional societies even today and has 
found renewed use on the Internet. What would happen if consumers stopped consuming as much, would the 
world economy collapse or just shrink? Would the world just have a surplus of products like many Western 

countries have now? What would happen if businesses simply broke even, instead of making exorbitant profits 
from marking up the cost of commodities and other goods that only cost a small fraction of the profits to 
manufacture? Why can't a business break even and make no profit, every employee being paid a good salary 
based on performance, and not a pay scale based on irrelevant education, seniority, gender, or other favoritism? 


Society has experienced peace and war transitioning from one to the other throughout the history of civilization, 
and in nearly every society during one time or another there have always been warmongers who cause this 
instability in their attempts to suppress, manipulate, and rule the world. Until the establishment of true 
democracy in modem times, the entire history of major large civilizations has been mainly based on aristocracy, 
monarchy, oligarchy, theocracy, communism, or fascism type system of rule, be it the Mayan, Aztec, Asian, 
Egyptian, Greek, Hun, Roman, USSR, Nazi, or other. And no matter the title be it an emperor, czar, king, 
dictator, sultan, or puppet government, the few and powerful with the largest military have always attempted to 
rule the world by sovereign means, many of them while under the delusion of being in power as an instrument of 
God. And as history has shown they have done nothing but destroy the civilized world with their actions, 
ultimately hindering the progress of Homo sapiens as a whole, because to a despot human life is cheap. War 
never stops if madmen have power and are in control, it only pauses to wait for new victims. Stop giving the 
madmen power and the tools with which to wage war, and wars will end. Albert Einstein made the following 
remarks about war, 

“For force always attracts men of low morality, and I believe it to be an invariable rule that tyrants of genius are succeeded by 

“This topic brings me to that worst outcrop of herd life, the military system, which I abhor. That a man can take pleasure in 
marching in fours to the strains of a band is enough to make me despise him. He has only been given his big brain by mistake; 
unprotected spinal marrow was all he needed. This plaguespot of civilization ought to be abolished with all possible speed. 

Heroism on command, senseless violence, and all the loathsome nonsense that goes by the name of patriotism-how 
passionately I hate them! How vile and despicable seems war to me! I would rather be hacked in pieces than take part in such 
an abominable business. My opinion of the human race is high enough that I believe this bogey would have disappeared long 
ago, had the sound sense of the peoples not been systematically corrupted by commercial and political interests acting through 
the schools and the Press.” (52) 

"In two weeks the sheep like masses of any country can be worked up by the newspapers into such a state of excited fury that 
men are prepared to put on unifonns and kill and be killed, for the sake of the sordid ends of a few interested parties. 

Compulsory military service seems to me the most disgraceful symptom of that deficiency in personal dignity from which 
civilized mankind is suffering today.” (56) 

"One has to realize that the powerful industrial groups concerned in the manufacture of arms are doing their best in all 
countries to prevent the peaceful settlement of international disputes, and that rulers can only achieve this great end if they are 
sure of the vigorous support of the majority of their people." 

"The armament industry is indeed one of the greatest dangers that beset mankind. It is the hidden evil power behind the 
nationalism which is rampant everywhere..." 

"And those who have an interest in keeping the machinery of war going are a very powerful body; they will stop at nothing to 
make public opinion subservient to their murderous ends.” (62) 

Homo sapiens have had a history of either wanting to assimilate, change, or obliterate things it does not frilly 
understand. Based on 2010 data from the Political Instability Task Force, there have been at least 43 genocides 
since 1956 which resulted in the deaths of at least 50,000,000 Homo sapiens. One can still see the scars left 
behind by the meaningless conquests of the few greedy tyrants for power over the world which would never 
fully submit. How many millions of ignorant Homo sapiens were led to their deaths having followed war 
mongering idiots who convinced them to fight for a futile senseless cause, be it a pseudo religion, political 
views, hate, greed, revenge, or other worthless purpose? Why do the modern-day politicians and military leaders 
who declare war never actually fight during the war, they only lead others to their death? How could a war be 
fought if everyone refused to fight and no one took part in any battles? What does it say when a government 
must enact a policy of conscription in order to obtain soldiers to wage its war? Each day 18 to 22 American 

veterans commit suicide, what does this say about the mental consequences of war on the soldiers who fight in 
these wars? (182) 

One could argue that Americans have always had a military mentality from the conquering and assimilation of 
the indigenous, to the controversial claims made on the western states with Mexico. But the true modern-day 
American military mentality came as a result of World War 11, and it has persisted and grown even more 
powerful over time into the Korean, Vietnam, Iraq, and Afghanistan wars, while continually being justified as an 
act done to preserve America’s freedom, and labeling it a ‘a cold war’, ‘the war against communism or ‘the 
war on terrorism Albert Einstein described the American military mentality in saying, 

"The tendencies we have mentioned are something new for America. They arose when, under the influence of the two World 
Wars and the consequent concentration of all forces on a military goal, a predominantly military mentality developed, which 
with the almost sudden victory became even more accentuated. The characteristic feature of this mentality is that people place 
the importance of what Bertrand Russell so tellingly terms "naked power" far above all other factors which affect the relations 
between peoples. The Germans, misled by Bismarck's successes in particular, underwent just such a transformation of their 
mentality-in consequence of which they were entirely ruined in less than a hundred years." 

“Instead, the military mentality raises "naked power" as a goal in itself one of the strangest illusions to which men can 
succumb.” (63) 

2017 United States Military Spending Compared with other Agencies 

Dept, of Defense and Dept of Veterans Affairs 


Dept, of Agriculture 


Dept, of Education 


Dept, of Housing and Urban Development 


Dept, of Energy 


National Aeronautics and Space Administration 


U.S. Agency for International Development 


Department of Labor 


Dept, of the Interior 


National Science Foundation 


Environmental Protection Agency 


Millennium Challenge Corporation 


National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities 


Smithsonian Institution 



In 2016, the total world military expenditures were $1,686,000,000,000 with the top 5 countries spending 2/3 of 
the total, and the United States alone spending 1/3 of the total at $611,000,000,000. The remaining 4 countries 
were: China $215,000,000,000 - Russia $69,200,000,000 - Saudi Arabia $63,700,000,000 - and India 
$55,900,000,000. (432) Would it not be more logical to spend this money on education, environmental protection, 
science, and humanitarian assistance instead of war, destruction, and excessive unnecessary preparedness? If the 
United States spent even half of what it does for defense and war on international development and humanitarian 
assistance instead, would it not be viewed as more of a compassionate nation instead of a warmongering and 
destructive one who polices the world? Martin Luther King Jr. wrote, 

“One day we must come to see that peace is not merely a distant goal that we seek but a means by which we arrive at that 
goal. We must pursue peaceful ends through peaceful means. How much longer must we play at deadly war games before we 
heed the plaintive please of the unnumbered dead and maimed of past wars?...Wisdom bom out of experience should tell us 
that war is obsolete.” 

“Therefore I suggest that the philosophy and strategy of nonviolence become immediately a subject for study and for serious 
experimentation in every field of human conflict, by no means excluding the relations between nations. It is, after all, nation¬ 
states which make war, which have produced the weapons that threaten the survival of mankind and which are both genocidal 
and suicidal in character.” 

“It is not enough to say, “We must not wage war.” It is necessary to love peace and sacrifice for it. We must concentrate not 
merely on the eradication of war but on the affirmation of peace.” (230) 

From Ahimsa to Martin Luther King Jr., the anti-war and anti-violence message has existed for thousands of 
years, but it is perhaps more prevalent and popular now than at any other point during history. And while wars 
and violent conflicts are fewer than in centuries past, the many antiwar and protest songs that Phil Ochs wrote 
and sang 50 years ago are still very relevant today, along with similar antiwar messages reiterated in other songs 
like: John Lennon’s ‘Imagine’, The Plastic Ono Band's 'GivePeace a Chance', Edwin Star’s ‘War’, Rage 
Against the Machine's 'Bulls on Parade', 'Zombie' by: The Cranberries, Paul McCartney's 'Pipes of Peace', Black 
Sabbath’s ‘War Pigs’, Marvin Gaye's 'What’s Going On', Bob Dylan's 'Masters of War', Metallica’s ‘One’, Pink 
Floyd's 'The Dogs of War 1 , several songs by The Clash, Bob Marley's 'No More Trouble', Peace Train' by: Cat 
Stevens, and a few hundred others. There are numerous antiwar literary works from early Greek works like 
Aristophanes's comedy 'Lysistrata', to Emery Reves's 1945 book 'The Anatomy of Peace' and Smedley Butler's 
1935 war profiteering expose 'War is a Racket’. There are even thousands of movies and other media promoting 
peace and love, but it is too often overshadowed by the overwhelming amount of media which encourages war 
and violence. War is promoted, glamorized, and glorified in movies, games, and other entertainment, children’s 
toys represent the tools of war while children are encouraged from an early age to accept war as just another part 
of life and something to have fun with. Entertainment and even the mainstream news media very rarely, if at all, 
show the actual reality or the consequences of war, the dead bodies, injured civilians, the chaos, and destruction. 
Instead war is often shown as a glamorous explosion or a bloody fight in which no one is injured, and everything 
is alright in the end, and if someone does die it is usually the bad guy who deserved it or the hero who died 
trying to save the world, and to whom everyone should now look up to and try to be more like. The mainstream 
news media too often shows the acts of war from afar on a point of view camera attached to the bomb itself or 
from a camera attached to the aircraft dropping the bomb, but rarely if ever is the real aftermath shown up close 
and in detail. The United States Armed Forces award various medals, service ribbons, and badges for a wide 
range of things, but it is in effect an award system based in part on violence, destruction, and death. Yearly 
holidays remind the world of the past wars, and war is memorialized with monuments and in museums showing 
the tools of war as amazing, awe-inspiring, and something to be cherished. Why are there so many monuments 
memorializing war, violence, and destruction while so few are dedicated to peace, non-violence, and love? Ina 
Corrine Brown wrote, 

“We award metals to the men who are most successful in killing enemies in wartime and we honor the dead who lose their 
own lives in an effort to take the lives of their adversaries. Thus in one set of circumstances, the man who takes a life is a 
criminal but in a different set of circumstances he is a hero. There are many peoples in the world to whom these particular 
distinctions are utterly meaningless. Some Eskimos, who readily justified one man's killing another in a quarrel and who 
considered it a duty to end the lives of one's aged and infirm parents, found it impossible to conceive of wars between villages 
and tribes. When a European tried to explain to a Melanesian cannibal the large number of causalities in World War I, the 
cannibal was completely bewildered to learn that the annies fought to kill but that neither side ate the victims-to him, it was 
both immoral and stupidly wasteful to kill more people than you could or would eat.” (25) 

It isn't considered a war crime when a civilian is killed as a result of war, it is considered by those waging the 
war as just collateral damage. Incidents like the infamous ‘2007 Collateral Murder’ are considered by the 
military to be nothing more than accidental mistakes of war and just an inevitable part of war, while justice is 
never served in incidents like the ‘Mai Lai Massacre ’. Since recorded history, an estimated 315,232,919 to 
754,733,827 Homo sapiens have died as a result of all the wars ever fought. (130) UNICEF reports that tens of 
thousands of children are recruited and used as soldiers in armed conflicts around the world, some of them as 
young as 8 years old. (265) How many millions of children through either brainwashing or use of force, have 
fought and died in all the wars over the last 5,000 years? Wars are now fought on a much smaller scale than in 
the past which involved military supeipowers marching millions of soldiers to their deaths. Today’s military uses 
technological weapons to kill their enemies in silence from afar without any warning, and like all weapons of 

war do, with no regard if the final target also includes innocent civilians. Since World War II, most military 
conflicts have been called ‘police actions ’, and with no formal declaration of war proxy wars have also become 
far more common and are sometimes fought for decades. These new wars are funded by world supeipowers 
which use other nations like the chessboard in which to play their deadly and destructive game of war. Between 
1991 and 2017 the United States and British military forces launched 2,217 Tomahawk cruise missiles, all 
without warning and with little regard for innocent civilians. 

By operating more than 100 black site prisons in 28 countries since the War on Terror began in 2001, the United 
States has circumvented the Geneva Conventions of 1949, War Crimes Act of 1996, the 1984 UN Convention 
against Torture, and other international laws regarding torture and how prisoners of war are treated. The Central 
Intelligence Agency (CIA), the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), and various divisions of the U.S. Armed 
Forces engaged in a program of systematic torture called ‘Enhanced Interrogation Techniques ’. Methods of 
interrogation included: beating, binding in contorted stress positions, hooding, subjection to deafening noise, 
sleep deprivation to the point of hallucination, deprivation of food and drink, withholding medical care for 
wounds, waterboarding, walling, sexual humiliation, subjection to extreme heat or extreme cold, confinement in 
small coffin-like boxes, and repeated slapping. In 2010, it was estimated there were 26,000 prisoners being held 
at black site prisons, with most of the terrorist, or enemy combatants as they are labeled, being detained 
indefinitely without due process. Since 2002, Guantanamo Bay Detention Camp has served as a primary 
detention facility, or military prison, where prisoners of the War on Terror have been severely tortured while a 
world is forced to watch from afar. The Obama administration reduced the number of inmates at Guantanamo 
Bay to 41 as of January 2017, but the prison still remains in operation. (359) How has a prison and torture facility 
with no regard for human rights been allowed to operate for so long, especially after so many known human 
rights violations and incidents of torture have occurred? 

After World War II, the United States launched ‘Operation Paperclip ’ to gain a military advantage by recruiting 
and bringing more than 1,600 German scientists, engineers, and technicians, many of which were former 
registered members of the Nazi Party, some of which also had leadership roles in the Nazi Party. Similarly, 
Russia launched ‘Operation Osoaviakhim ’ recruiting more than 2,000 German specialists. How could so many 
war criminals be simply ignored and allowed to escape justice? Was the knowledge really worth the price of 
letting known war criminals go free and having a prosperous life in the United States? 

The 2003 Iraq war was unjustified and based on lies. How can a United States president and his administration 
lie to the world about a country possessing chemical weapons and being a threat, invade that country, and then 
admit that it was all based on bad intelligence? Why have none of these officials who are responsible ever been 
charged with war crimes? The October 2003 PBS Frontline program, ‘Truth, War, and Consequences ’ explains 
exactly how the Bush administration pulled off one of the greatest lies ever told to Americans with no 
consequences whatsoever. There are also two documentaries by Errol Morris, ‘The Fog of War: Eleven Lessons 
from the Life of Robert S. McNamara ’, 2003 and ‘The Unknown Known ’,2013 which offer a rare glimpse inside 
the minds of former United States Defense secretaries Donald Rumsfeld and Robert S. McNamara. Another 
excellent perspective on war is the 2017 documentary ‘The Vietnam War ’by: Ken Bums and Lynn Novick. 

| List of Recent Major Military Conflicts Involving the United States j 


Estimated Total Tons of Bombs Dropped 

World War II 

3,500,000 tons 

Korean War 

635,000 tons 

Vietnam War 

7,662,000 tons 

1991 Iraq War 

88,500 tons 

2001-present War on Terror Afghanistan 

No official statistics. But the Bureau of Investigative Journalism (BOIJ) estimates 
1,542 drone strikes from 2015 - early 2017 with between 2,538 - 3270 casualties. 


2002-present War on Terror Yemen 

No official statistics. But BOIJ estimates 146 drone strikes from 2002 - early 2017 
with between 603 - 873 casualties. (243) 

2003-2011 Iraq War 

No official or estimated statistics on the number of bombs dropped or the total 
tons of bombs dropped, but Seymour Hersh of the New Yorker stated, “Oh, my 

God, it's the total X factor. There's been no public discussion by this 
administration of airpower in terms of how many missions, how much tonnage. 

During the Vietnam War—I'm long of tooth, and I remember that—we used to get a 
daily account of how many sorties—That's one flight, by one bomber—how many 
sorties, how much tonnage, and one could get a sense of what—how—where—the 
air war was very intense then. And here only you get anecdotal stuff. The one 
statistic we found is really quite amazing. A Marine Air Wing, which is 
responsible for close air support of the Marines in the field, reported that between 
fall of'03 and late fall of'04, about 15 months, it expended 500,000 tons of 
ordnance, and that is two million, 500-pound bombs—two million, 500-pound 
bombs—one Marine Air Wing. We have many more Air Wings that are being flown 
by the Air Force and by the Navy.” (128) 

2004-present War on Terror Northwest Pakistan 

No official statistics but BOIJ estimates 425 drone strikes from 2004 - early 2017 
with between 2,501 - 4,003 casualties. It should also be noted that under George 
Bush there were 51 drone strikes compared with 373 drone strikes under Barack 
Obama, a 631% increase. (243) 

2011 -present Syrian Civil War AKA War on ISIS 

No official or estimated statistics but the US has fired off more than 20,000 
missiles and bombs and General Mark Welsh stated they were, “expending 
munitions faster than we can replenish them... B-1 s have dropped bombs in record 
numbers.” (129) A November 16, 2017 New York Times article stated that the 
coalition has conducted more than 27,500 air strikes to date in Iraq and Syria 
against ISIS, with a variety of air power from Predator drones to B-52s. (596) 

2011 -present War on Terror Somalia 

No official statistics. But BOIJ estimates 32 drone strikes from 2011 - early 2017 
with between 242 - 418 casualties. (243) 

TOTAL: 11,885,500 tons ofbombs or 2,377,100 Elephants 

SOURCE: Wikipedia (with some corrections, additions, and other edits) NOTE: Elephant comparison is based on a 5-ton average 

Less than 20 nations, mainly the United States, Russia, Syria, Iran, Iraq, Libya, India, China, Japan, Germany, 
North Korea, and United Kingdom have either developed and tested, stockpiled, sold, or used chemical and/ or 
biological weapons. Chemical weapons over the last 105 years have killed, injured, or permanently disabled 
millions of Homo sapiens. The United States military alone dropped about 388,000 tons of napalm bombs in 
Indochina between 1963 and 1973, during the Korean War 32,357 tons, and 16,500 tons on Japan during World 
War II. (576) After World War II the United States, United Kingdom, and Russia disposed of many chemical 
weapons by dumping them in the ocean, an estimated 1,000,000 metric tons of chemical weapons still lie on the 
ocean floor. (25 1) How can chemical weapons like tear gas still be used by local law enforcement for riot control, 
and yet these lachrymatory agents are prohibited during wartime by international treaties for chemical weapons? 

In 2017, there were an estimated 110,000,000 million landmines which were left from previous wars and 
conflicts in Egypt, Iran, Afghanistan, Angola, China, Vietnam, Iraq, Cambodia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and 
Kuwait. Since 1975 more than 1,000,000 Homo sapiens have died and millions of other have been maimed as a 
result of these mines exploding without warning, and every month an estimated 800 more die and hundreds of 
others are maimed. (264) In the United States and at overseas U.S. facilities, there are 1,400 locations covering 
10,000,000 acres which contain unexploded munitions dating back to World War I. (263) Thousands of 
unexploded munitions are also discovered each year during construction projects worldwide, but more especially 
in Europe as a result of the munitions dropped during World War II. How many thousands of bombs and other 
similar unexploded munitions are there left waiting to be discovered and possibly explode killing or maiming 
even more Homo sapiens ? How many unexploded munitions lie at the bottom of the Ocean with old Navy ships 
sunk during wartime? 

An often-overlooked consequence of war is the affect it has on the Earth’s landscapes and also the large number 
of florae and faunae which are destroyed by using scorched-Earth tactics, from the bombs being dropped, the 
tanks and other vehicles traveling through ecosystems, and even the thousands of troops marching to their 
deaths. Direct and intentional environmental destruction has also been used as a war tactic. Agent Orange was 
used by the British military in Malaya during the Malayan Emergency and by the United States during the 
Vietnam War to deforest large areas. Military training exercises and weapons testing can also be destructive to 
the environment, sometimes more so than actual war as an area of nature is constantly being impacted. The 
environmental effects of the military and war are an issue which has received little attention, as the subjects are 
surrounded by much secrecy, few regulations, and no real accountability. From the early wars fought on horses 

to modern-day wars fought with technology, there has always been destruction to nature resulting from the chaos 
of war. 

As of 2017, there are still dozens of abandoned military bases around the world, most of which have left a toxic 
legacy like Bluie East Two and Camp Century in Greenland. (176) This easily preventable environmental 
destruction is a result of the United States military having left all the trash and other waste which accumulated 
during operations. Camp Century is one of the worst. It was part of project leeworm, an elaborate secret military 
plan to build an underground military complex in Greenland covering an area of 52,000 square miles to house 
600 nuclear missiles. The project eventually failed, and Camp Century was abandoned along with the biological, 
chemical, and radioactive waste based on the assumption that peipetual snowfall would bury the waste forever. 
Global warming and the melting of the ice sheets is now threatening to expose the toxic waste. Depleted uranium 
has been used to manufacture some ammunition since the first Gulf War, 1,200 tonnes of depleted uranium was 
dropped on Iraq between 1991 and 2003, and an enormous amount of depleted uranium has no doubt also been 
used during the Afghanistan War as well. A 2013 study concluded that, 

“Iraq is suffering from depleted uranium (DU) pollution in many regions and the effects of this may hann public health 
through poisoning and increased incidence of various cancers and birth defects. DU is a known carcinogenic agent. About 
1200 tonnes of ammunition were dropped on Iraq during the Gulf Wars of 1991 and 2003. As a result, contamination occurred 
in more than 350 sites in Iraq. Currently, Iraqis are facing about 140,000 cases of cancer, with 7000 to 8000 new ones 
registered each year. In Baghdad cancer incidences per 100,000 population have increased, just as they have also increased in 
Basra. The overall incidence of breast and lung cancer. Leukaemia and Lymphoma, has doubled even tripled. The situation in 
Mosul city is similar to other regions. Before the Gulf Wars Mosul had a higher rate of cancer, but the rate of cancer has 
further increased since the Gulf Wars.” (177) 

During the first Gulf War in 1991, the Iraqi military forces engaged in a scorched Earth policy and started the 
Kuwait oil fires and the Gulf War oil spill releasing an estimated 42,000,000,000 to 63,000,000,000 gallons of 
oil into the environment. During World War 11 allied forces conducted 623 air raids on Nazi Germany oil 
refineries and storage facilities in what is known as the ‘Oil Campaign of World War II How many millions of 
gallons of oil burned during these targeted air raids? During the last 5,000 years, how many millions of florae 
and faunae have perished as a result of all the wars, military exercises, and other clandestine operations? What if 
the military forces of the world took all their money and resources for war, and instead of destroying the planet 
they became an environmental protection force? Could not the great world military powers of the U.S., China, 
Russia, U.K, France, India, Pakistan, Korea, Australia, and others unite to help combat global environmental 
threats instead of preparing to fight each other? What about an international Navy to patrol and protect the 
oceans and other hydrosphere resources from Homo sapiens depredations? 

SOURCE: National Museum of the US Air Force - Images taken during World War II while conducting ‘Operation Tidal Wave a 
strategic bombing mission and part of the ‘oil campaign ’ to deny petroleum-based fuel to the Axis. 

SOURCE: U.S. Navy and U.S. Air Force - Although the weapons have become more advanced, these photos of United States war planes 
flying over burning oil fields in Kuwait during the Gulf War are an eerie reminder of a not too distant past. 

The environmental impacts of war and terrorism can be felt long after the actual battle or attack has taken place. 
As a result of the September 11 terrorist attacks, there are still the lingering health issues which currently affect 
37,000 Homo sapiens and have killed more than 1,000. These rescue workers and others who were at ground 
zero now have a wide range of health issues resulting from the inhalation and skin exposure to the toxic ash and 
dust. They were even assured by Christine Todd Whitman, the then head of the Environmental Protection 
Agency (EPA), that the air was safe. She has since said she was mistaken. ( 218 ) 

Based on data from the International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS), in 2017 the militaries of the world 
consisted of: 104,476 main battle tanks, 29,730 military aircraft and attack helicopters, 511 nuclear and non¬ 
nuclear submarines, and 976 other water vessels (aircraft carriers, amphibious warfare ships, cruisers, destroyers, 
frigates, corvettes, etc.) How much environmental damage do all of these weapons of war unleash each day just 
preparing and waiting for war? A 2014 Guardian news report on the impact of modem war by Karl Mathiesen 

“The US Department of Defence is the country’s largest consumer of fossil fuels. Research from 2007 showed the military 
used 20.9bn litres of fuel each year. This results in similar CO 2 emissions to a mid-sized European country such as Denmark. 

And that’s before they go to war. The carbon footprint of a deployed modern army is typically enormous. One report 
suggested the US military, with its tanks and Bradley fighting vehicles, used 190.8m litres of oil every month during the 
invasion of Iraq. An estimated two thirds of this fuel is used delivering more fuel to the vehicles at the battlefront.” 

’During the Rwandan civil war almost three-quarters of a million people lived in camps on the edge of Virunga national park. 

According to the Worldwatch Institute around 1,000 tonnes of wood was removed from the park every day for two years in 
order to build shelters, feed cooking fires and created charcoal for sale. By the time the conflict ended 105 sq km of forest 
had been damaged and 35 sq km stripped bare. “ 

“Ian Redmond, a wildlife consultant for Born Free says in the disorder and desperation of war the protections for precious 
wildlife habitats like Virunga evaporate. “War is bad for wildlife in as many ways as for people. Conservation suffers because 
rangers often have to flee the fighting, and may be attacked because rebel annies covet their vehicles, radios and guns. 

Moreover, rebels often feed their troops on bushmeat and finance their ops with ivory, timber, charcoal and minerals from 
protected areas.” The massive influx of high-powered weaponry into these areas means that during and after conflict, the 
scale of poaching can increase dramatically. In just two months in 2006, Mai-Mai rebels in the DRC slaughtered almost the 
entire hippopotamus population of two of Virunga’s rivers - changing the ecosystem forever. 

In Afghanistan too, wildlife and habitats have disappeared. The past 30 years of war has stripped the country of its trees, 
including precious native pistachio woodlands. The Costs of War Project says illegal logging by US-backed warlords and 
wood harvesting by refugees caused more than one-third of Afghanistan’s forests to vanish between 1990 and 2007. Drought, 
desertification and species loss have resulted. The number of migratory birds passing through Afghanistan has fallen by 85%. 

Many of the above examples could be considered violations of international law. The Geneva Convention places restrictions 
on methods of warfare “which are intended, or may be expected, to cause widespread, long-tenn and severe damage to the 
natural environment”. But Marie Jacobsson, a special rapporteur to the UN’s International Law Commission charged with 
assessing how legal frameworks can protect the environment from anned conflict, says the international legal protections are 
“rudimentary”.” (178) 

The United States has spent more than $4,400,000,000,000 and counting, on wars in the Middle East since the 
September 11 terrorist attacks, and the War on Terror is far from over with a constant cycle of new extremist 
leaders taking the place of their dead predecessors as soon as they are killed. Terrorism and other forms of 
tyranny will most likely continue in small pockets around the globe for some time, so long as violence is used as 
the main solution to combat these negative elements of society versus peace, intellect, patience, understanding, 
and compromise. The tyrants who wage wars have always existed throughout history, but they have all fallen and 
never outlasted time or the power of social change through democracy. War and violence are never the answer no 
matter the circumstances and there will never be a valid justification for war, as there is always a peaceful 
alternative. War itself has been obsolete since its inception, as nothing negative will ever be successful in the 
end. Martin Luther King Jr. wrote the following remarks about violence, 

“The ultimate weakness of violence is that it is a descending spiral, begetting the very thing it seeks to destroy. Instead of 
diminishing evil, it multiplies it. Through violence you may murder the liar, but you cannot murder the lie, nor establish the 
truth. Through violence you may murder the hater, but you do not murder hate. In fact, violence for violence multiplies 
violence, adding deeper darkness to a night already devoid of stars. Darkness cannot dive out darkness: only light can do that. 

Hate cannot drive out hate: only love can do that. 

The beauty of nonviolence is that in its own way and in its own time it seeks to break the chain reaction of evil. With a 
majestic sense of spiritual power, it seeks to elevate truth, beauty and goodness to the throne.” 

"Hate is just as injurious to the hater as it is to the hated. Like an unchecked cancer, hate corrodes the personality and eats 
away its vial unity. Many of our inner conflicts are rooted in hate. This is why the psychiatrist says, “Love or perish.” ... Hate 
is too great a burden to bear. 

Of course, you may say, this is not practical ; life is a matter of getting even, of hitting back, of dog eat dog. Maybe in some 
distant Utopia, you say, that idea will work, but not in the hard, cold world in which we live. My only answer is that mankind 
has followed the so-called practical way for a long time now, and it has led inexorably to deeper confusion and chaos. Time is 
cluttered with the wreckage of individuals and communities that surrendered to hatred and violence. For the salvation of our 
nation and salvation of mankind, we must follow another way.” 

“Violence has been the inseparable twin of materialism, the hallmark of its grandeur and misery. This is the one thing about 
modem civilization that I do not care to imitate. 

Humanity is waiting for something other than blind imitation of the past. If we want truly to advance a step further, if we 
want to turn over a new leaf and really set a new man afoot, we must begin to turn mankind away from the long and desolate 
night of violence.” (313) 

An Incarcerated and Policed Society Living with Unwarranted Fear 

In 2015, Amnesty International confirmed at least 1,634 executions, 573 more than in 2014 and the most carried 

out since 1989. These numbers exclude data from Belarus, China, Vietnam, Laos, Malaysia, North Korea, Syria 
and Yemen where it remains unavailable, incomplete, or is classified. (388) Capital punishment in the United 
States is performed by some states, even though it contradicts the Eighth Amendment of the United States 
Constitution prohibiting cruel and unusual punishment. Is it not cruel and unusual to take the life of anyone in 
any form, under any circumstance be it murder, war, or vengeance? Isn’t execution nothing more than 
vengeance? Does it serve any real purpose, or does it only perpetuate the negative cycle of violence? Does 
execution deter a possible future murderer or does simply instilling better morals from an early age? Is the 
morality of society any better than the criminals committing the crime when the punishment is the same action as 
the crime, in that of taking a life? If killing is illegal how can it be justifiable to kill the killer? Would not the 
moral and logical choice of rehabilitation through education and incarceration, if necessary, be the way to 
address the issue? What is the point of executing a small number of criminals while thousands of others remain 
incarcerated for life? It costs a tremendous amount of money for a state to engage in capital punishment. In 2011, 
the L.A. Times reported that in California alone, 

“Taxpayers have spent more than $4 billion on capital punishment in California since it was reinstated in 1978, or about $308 

million for each of the 13 executions carried out since then, according to a comprehensive analysis of the death penalty's 


The state's 714 death row prisoners cost $184 million more per year than those sentenced to life in prison without the 

possibility of parole.” (164) 

Prisons vary around the world from supermax prisons in the United States to the El penal de San Pedro in La 
Paz, Bolivia which holds more than 1,500 inmates with no guards inside the prison and is run by the prisoners 
themselves, and some wives and children of convicted criminals also living inside the prison walls. The current 
system of mass incarceration, if replaced with rehabilitation and education like Bastoy Prison in Norway, could 
benefit the incarcerated far more than the current system of justice practiced almost universally, which is the 
mentality of ‘Lock them up and throw away the key. ’ This approach has shown to be ineffective, as many of the 
incarcerated are either drug addicts, have mental issues, and/or are individuals which lacked proper morals being 
instilled at an early age and are nothing more than a product of a dysfunctional society or a result of the 
inhospitable environment which they were fostered in. They simply need to be educated and shown how, through 
example, to become positive members of society. Worldwide there are an estimated 10,357,134 Homo sapiens 
which are held in prisons, either as pre-trial detainees or those who have been convicted and sentenced. The 
United states incarcerates the most with 2,217,000 prisoners, an increase from 1,937,482 prisoners in 2000. The 
world prison population has increased by 19.5% since about 2000. (501) Why has the prison population 
increased, is it from an increase in excessive policing, stricter laws, or from moral erosion within the society? 
Shouldn’t the world prison population be decreasing as the world today is more modem and educated than at any 
point in history? How is it possible that there are so many prisoners in the United States, a free and democratic 
nation with such a just system of laws? Are there too many antiquated or irrelevant laws which incarcerate 
individuals for unjust crimes like smoking cannabis? How many incarcerations are alcohol related? 

Many prisons in the United States are not only extremely unhealthy for the incarcerated, but also severely 
depredate the environment around them. A June 2017 Moyers and Company report, ‘America’s Toxic Prisons: 
The Environmental Injustices of Mass Incarceration ’, reported that over the last decade 3,500 California 
prisoners have contracted valley fever with more than 50 dying from it. In Texas state officials acknowledged 
that 22 hyperthermia deaths occurred, and yet 79 of the 108 state prison units still lacked air-conditioning as of 
2017. At SCI Fayette prison, in LaBelle, Pennsylvania, prisoners reported the water always had a brown tint to it, 
and at the Wallace Pack Unit in Texas the water was also brown, until a federal judge ordered the state to provide 
the prisoners with safe drinking water. As of 2017, there were 589 federal and state prisons which are located 
within 3 miles of a toxic Superfund cleanup site. Over the past 5 years there were prisons in around 30 states 
which had more than 1,000 violations of federal environmental laws. The California Men’s Colony state prison 
(CMC), near San Luis Obispo, has had a legacy of water pollution from dumping more than 240,000 gallons of 
sewage into Chorro Creek which flows into the protected marine estuary Morro Bay. Between 2008 and 2015 the 
Monroe Correctional Complex in Washington dumped around 500,000 gallons of contaminated water polluting 
nearby rivers and wetlands. Federal and state agencies over the last 5 years, utilizing the Clean Water Act, have 

brought 132 informal actions and 28 formal actions against prisons. During this same time, the EPA under the 
Clean Air Act, has brought 92 informal actions and 51 formal actions against prisons, jails, and detention centers. 

There are undoubtedly thousands of wrongly convicted Homo sapiens that have been victims of an inadequate 
justice system which has the potential to make errors and become corrupt from within. Lack of professionalism, 
training, and standards have also led to easily preventable wrongful convictions, and in some cases even death. 

In 2015, the FBI issued a press release which stated, 

"The United States Department of Justice (DOJ), the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the Innocence Project, and the 
National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers (NACDL) reported today that the FBI has concluded that the examiners’ 
testimony in at least 90 percent of trial transcripts the Bureau analyzed as part of its Microscopic Hair Comparison Analysis 
Review contained erroneous statements. Twenty-six of 28 FBI agent/analysts provided either testimony with erroneous 
statements or submitted laboratory reports with erroneous statements... 

...The review encompasses cases where FBI microscopic hair comparison was used to link a defendant to a crime and covers 
cases in both federal and state court systems. It does not, however, cover cases where hair comparison was conducted by state 
and local crime labs, whose examiners may have been trained by the FBI. The FBI has trained hundreds of state hair 
examiners in annual two-week training courses. 

The government identified nearly 3,000 cases in which FBI examiners may have submitted reports or testified in trials using 
microscopic hair analysis. As of March 2015, the FBI had reviewed approximately 500 cases. The majority of these cases 
were trials and the transcript of examiner testimony was reviewed. Some of these cases ended in guilty pleas, limiting the 
review to the original lab report. In the 268 cases where examiners provided testimony used to inculpate a defendant at trial, 
erroneous statements were made in 257 (96 percent) of the cases. Defendants in at least 35 of these cases received the death 
penalty and errors were identified in 33 (94 percent) of those cases. Nine of these defendants have already been executed and 
five died of other causes while on death row. The states with capital cases included Arizona, California, Florida, Indiana, 

Missouri, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, and Texas. It should be noted that this is an ongoing process and that 
the numbers referenced above will change." (549) 

DNA has been used to exonerate more than 220 wrongfully convicted Homo sapiens since 1989. Forensics is 
used now more than ever, and while forensics can be a potentially good addition to the justice system, it has been 
shown that it is sometimes performed by unqualified individuals who have no education, training, or experience, 
are not experts in any field of science, and often use confusing or misleading language to cover-up the fact that 
the evidence is not 100% certain and could potentially be flawed. A 2016 recommendation by The National 
Commission on Forensic Science to the Attorney General stated, 

"Forensic discipline conclusions are often testified to as being held “to a reasonable degree of scientific certainty” or “to a 
reasonable degree of [discipline] certainty.” These terms have no scientific meaning and may mislead factfinders about the 
level of objectivity involved in the analysis, its scientific reliability and limitations, and the ability of the analysis to reach an 
individualized conclusion. Forensic scientists, medical professionals and other scientists do not routinely express opinions or 
conclusions “to a reasonable scientific certainty” outside of the courts. Neither the Daubertn or Frye test of scientific 
admissibility requires its use, and consideration of caselaw from around the country confirms that use of the phrase is not 
required by law and is primarily a relic of custom and practice. There are additional problems with this phrase, including: 

There is no common definition within science disciplines as to what threshold establishes “reasonable” certainty. Therefore, 
whether couched as “scientific certainty” or “[discipline] certainty,” the tenn is idiosyncratic to the witness. 

The term invites confusion when presented with testimony expressed in probabilistic tenns. How is a layperson, without 
either scientific or legal training, to understand an expert’s “reasonable scientific certainty” that evidence is “probably” or 
possibly linked to a particular source?" (550) 

And a 2012 National Institute of Standards and Technology interagency/intemal report stated, 

"Outside the courtroom, however, scientists do not communicate their findings in this fashion. An astronomer who reports the 
discovery of an exoplanet does not characterize the finding as satisfying some “reasonable degree of scientific certainty.” A 
chemist who deduces the identity of a compound from its nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum has no table of degrees of 
scientific certainty with which to label the deduction. Scientists might refer to personal degrees of confidence in a finding or 
to the degree of controversy surrounding it, but there is no generally accepted or working definition of a “reasonable degree 
of certainty” in scientific discourse." (551) 

Some techniques which are used in forensic science also allow the results to be easily tainted by accident, as 
there are few established protocols in place. Other areas of forensic science which have been developed in a 
crime laboratory to aid in a criminal case are not based on any scientific standards at all. There have been 
numerous instances of wrongfully convicted Homo sapiens and some have even been executed by mistake. 

Some jurors are also now tainted before the trial even begins as a result of watching so much police drama 
television that they have what has been dubbed as the ‘CSIEffect’. A 2009 National Research Council committee 

"The increased use of DNA analysis as a more reliable approach to matching crime scene evidence with suspects and victims 
has resulted in the reevaluation of older cases that retained biological evidence that could be analyzed by DNA. The number 
of exonerations resulting from the analysis of DNA has grown across the country in recent years, uncovering a disturbing 
number of wrongful convictions—some for capital crimes—and exposing serious limitations in some of the forensic science 
approaches commonly used in the United States. 

According to The Innocence Project, there have been 223 postconviction DNA exonerations in the United States since 1989 
(as of November 2008). Some have contested the percentage of exonerated defendants whose convictions allegedly were 
based on faulty science. Although the Innocence Project figures are disputed by forensic scientists who have reexamined the 
data, even those who are critical of the conclusions of The Innocence Project acknowledge that faulty forensic science has, on 
occasion, contributed to the wrongful conviction of innocent persons. 

The fact is that many forensic tests—such as those used to infer the source of toolmarks or bite marks—have never been 
exposed to stringent scientific scrutiny. Most of these techniques were developed in crime laboratories to aid in the 
investigation of evidence from a particular crime scene, and researching their limitations and foundations was never a top 
priority. There is some logic behind the application of these techniques; practitioners worked hard to improve their methods, 
and results from other evidence have combined with these tests to give forensic scientists a degree of confidence in their 
probative value. Before the first offering of the use of DNA in forensic science in 1986, no concerted effort had been made to 
determine the reliability of these tests, and some in the forensic science and law enforcement communities believed that 
scientists’ ability to withstand cross-examination in court when giving testimony related to these tests was sufficient to 
demonstrate the tests’ reliability. However, although the precise error rates of these forensic tests are still unknown, 
comparison of their results with DNA testing in the same cases has revealed that some of these analyses, as currently 
performed, produce erroneous results. The conclusions of forensic examiners may or may not be right—depending on the 
case—but each wrongful conviction based on improperly interpreted evidence is serious, both for the innocent person and 
also for society, because of the threat that may be posed by a guilty person going free. Some non-DNA forensic tests do not 
meet the fundamental requirements of science, in terms of reproducibility, validity, and falsifiability. 

Even fingerprint analysis has been called into question. For nearly a century, fingerprint examiners have been comparing 
partial latent fingerprints found at crime scenes to inked fingerprints taken directly from suspects. Fingerprint identifications 
have been viewed as exact means of associating a suspect with a crime scene print and rarely were questioned. 

Recently, however, the scientific foundation of the fingerprint field has been questioned, and the suggestion has been made 
that latent fingerprint identifications may not be as reliable as previously assumed. The question is less a matter of whether 
each person’s fingerprints are permanent and unique—uniqueness is commonly assumed—and more a matter of whether one 
can determine with adequate reliability that the finger that left an imperfect impression at a crime scene is the same finger 
that left an impression (with different imperfections) in a file of fingerprints. In October 2007, Baltimore County Circuit 
Judge Susan M. Souder refused to allow a fingerprint analyst to testify that a latent print was made by the defendant 
in a death penalty trial. In her ruling, Judge Souder found the traditional method of fingerprint analysis to be “a subjective, 
untested, unverifiable identification procedure that purports to be infallible.” 

Some forensic science methods have as their goal the “individualization” of specific types of evidence (typically shoe and tire 
impressions, dennal ridge prints, toolmarks and firearms, and handwriting). Analysts using such methods believe that unique 
markings are acquired by a source item in random fashion and that such uniqueness is faithfully transmitted from 
the source item to the evidence item being examined (or in the case of handwriting, that individuals acquire habits that result 
in unique handwriting). When the evidence and putative source items are compared, a conclusion of individualization implies 
that the evidence originated from that source, to the exclusion of all other possible sources. The determination of uniqueness 
requires measurements of object attributes, data collected on the population frequency of variation in these attributes, testing 
of attribute independence, and calculations of the probability that different objects share a common set of observable 
attributes. Importantly, the results of research must be made public so that they can be reviewed, checked by others, 
criticized, and then revised, and this has not been done for some of the forensic science disciplines. As recently as September 
2008, the Detroit Police crime laboratory was shut down following a Michigan State Police audit that found a 10 percent 
error rate in ballistic evidence. 

The forensic science community has had little opportunity to pursue or become proficient in the research that is needed to 
support what it does. Few sources of funding exist for independent forensic research. Most of the studies are commissioned 
by DOJ and conducted by crime laboratories with little or no participation by the traditional scientific community. In 
addition, most disciplines in the profession are hindered by a lack of enforceable standards for interpretation of data. 

In recent years, the integrity of crime laboratories increasingly has been called into question, with some highly publicized 
cases highlighting the sometimes lax standards of laboratories that have generated questionable or fraudulent evidence and 
that have lacked quality control measures that would have detected the questionable evidence. In one notorious case, a 
state-mandated review of analyses conducted by West Virginia State Police laboratory employee Fred Zain revealed that the 
convictions of more than 100 people were in doubt because Zain had repeatedly falsified evidence in criminal prosecutions. 
At least 10 men had their convictions overturned as a result. Subsequent reviews questioned whether Zain was ever qualified 
to perform scientific examinations. 

Other scandals, such as one involving the Houston Crime Laboratory in 2003, highlight the sometimes blatant lack of proper 
education and training of forensic examiners. In the Houston case, several DNA experts went public with accusations that the 
DNA/Serology Unit of the Houston Police Department Crime Laboratory was performing grossly incompetent work and was 
presenting findings in a misleading manner designed to unfairly help prosecutors obtain convictions. An audit by the Texas 
Department of Public Safety confirmed serious inadequacies in the laboratory’s procedures, including “routine failure to run 
essential scientific controls, failure to take adequate measures to prevent contamination of samples, failure to adequately 
document work performed and results obtained, and routine failure to follow correct procedures for computing statistical 

The Innocence Project has documented instances of both intentional and unintentional laboratory errors that have led to 
wrongful convictions, including: 

- In the laboratory—contamination and mislabeling of evidence. 

- In information provided in forensics reports—falsified results (including “drylabbing,” i.e., providing conclusions from 
tests that were never conducted), and misinterpretation of evidence. 

- In the courtroom—suppression of exculpatory evidence; providing a statistical exaggeration of the results of a test 
conducted on evidence; and providing false testimony about test results. 

Saks and Koehler have written that the testimony of forensic scientists is one of many problems in criminal cases today.30 
They cite the norms of science, which emphasize “methodological rigor, openness, and cautious interpretation of data,” as 
nonns that often are absent from the forensic science disciplines. 

Although cases of fraud appear to be rare, perhaps of more concern is the lack of good data on the accuracy of the analyses 
conducted in forensic science disciplines and the significant potential for bias that is present in some cases. For example, the 
FBI was accused of bias in the case of the Madrid bombing suspect Brandon Mayfield. In that case, the Inspector General of 
DOJ launched an investigation. The FBI conducted its own review by a panel of independent experts. The reviews concluded 
that the problem was not the quality of the digital images reviewed, but rather the bias and “circular reasoning” of the FBI 

Parts of the forensic science community have resisted the implications of the mounting criticism of the reliability of forensic 
analyses by investigative units such as Inspector General reports, The Innocence Project, and studies in the published 
literature. In testimony before the committee, it was clear that some members of the forensic science community will 
not concede that there could be less than perfect accuracy either in given laboratories or in specific disciplines, and experts 
testified to the committee that disagreement remains regarding even what constitutes an error. For example, if the limitations 
of a given technology lead to an examiner declaring a “match” that is found by subsequent technology (e.g., DNA 
analysis) to be a “mismatch,” there is disagreement within the forensic science community about whether the original 
determination constitutes an error. Failure to acknowledge uncertainty in findings is common: Many examiners claim in 
testimony that others in their field would come to the exact same conclusions about the evidence they have analyzed. 
Assertions of a “100 percent match” contradict the findings of proficiency tests that find substantial rates of erroneous results 
in some disciplines (i.e., voice identification, bite mark analysis). 

As an example, in a FBI publication on the correlation of microscopic and mitochondrial DNA hair comparisons, the authors 
found that even competent hair examiners can make significant errors. In this study, the authors found that in 11 percent of 
the cases in which the hair examiners declared two hairs to be “similar,” subsequent DNA testing revealed that the hairs did 
not match, which refers either to the competency or the relative ability of the two divergent techniques to identify differences 
in hair samples, as well as to the probative value of each test. 

The insistence by some forensic practitioners that their disciplines employ methodologies that have perfect accuracy and 
produce no errors has hampered efforts to evaluate the usefulness of the forensic science disciplines. And, although DNA 
analysis is considered the most reliable forensic tool available today, laboratories nonetheless can make errors working with 
either nuclear DNA or mtDNA—errors such as mislabeling samples, losing samples, or misinterpreting the data. 

Standard setting, accreditation of laboratories, and certification of individuals aim to address many of these problems, and 
although many laboratories have excellent training and quality control programs, even accredited laboratories make mistakes. 

Furthermore, accreditation is a voluntary program, except in a few jurisdictions in which it is required (New York, Oklahoma, 
and Texas). 

Media attention has focused recently on what is being called the “CSI Effect,” named for popular television shows (such as 
Crime Scene Investigation) that are focused on police forensic evidence investigation. The fictional characters in these 
dramas often present an unrealistic portrayal of the daily operations of crime scene investigators and crime laboratories 
(including their instrumentation, analytical technologies, and capabilities). Cases are solved in an hour, highly technical 
analyses are accomplished in minutes, and laboratory and instrumental capabilities are often exaggerated, misrepresented, or 
entirely fabricated. In courtroom scenes, forensic examiners state their findings or a match (between evidence and suspect) 
with unfailing certainty, often demonstrating the technique used to make the determination. The dramas suggest that 
convictions are quick and no mistakes are made. 

The CSI Effect specifically refers to the real-life consequences of exposure to Hollywood’s version of law and order. Jurists 
and crime laboratory directors anecdotally report that jurors have come to expect the presentation of forensic evidence in 
every case, and they expect it to be conclusive. A recent study by Schweitzer and Saks found that compared to those who 
do not watch CSI, CSI viewers were “more critical of the forensic evidence presented at the trial, finding it less believable. 
Forensic science viewers expressed more confidence in their verdicts than did nonviewers.” Prosecutors and defense 
attorneys have reported jurors second guessing them in the courtroom, citing “reasonable doubt” and refusing to convict 
because they believed that other evidence was available and not adequately examined. 

Schweitzer and Saks found that the CSI Effect is changing the manner in which forensic evidence is presented in court, with 
some prosecutors believing they must make their presentation as visually interesting and appealing as such presentations 
appear to be on television. Some are concerned that the conclusiveness and finality of the manner in which forensic evidence 
is presented on television results in jurors giving more or less credence to the forensic experts and their testimony than they 
should, raising expectations, and possibly resulting in a miscarriage of justice. The true effects of the popularization of 
forensic science disciplines will not be fully understood for some time, but it is apparent that it has increased pressure and 
attention on the forensic science community in the use and interpretation of evidence in the courtroom. 

Fragmented and Inconsistent Medicolegal Death Investigation The medicolegal death investigation system is a fragmented 
organization of state and local entities called upon to investigate deaths and to certify the cause and manner of unnatural and 
unexplained deaths. About 1 percent of the U.S. population (about 2.6 million people) dies each year. Medical examiner and 
coroner offices receive nearly 1 million reports of deaths, constituting between 30 to 40 percent of all U.S. deaths in 2004, 
and accept about one half of those (500,000, or 1 in 5 deaths) for further investigation and certification.41 In carrying out this 
role, medical examiners and coroners are required to decide the scope and course of a death investigation, which may include 
assessing the scene of death, examining the body, determining whether to perform an autopsy, and ordering other medical 
tests, forensic analyses, and procedures as needed. Yet the training and skill of medical examiners and coroners and the 
systems that support them vary greatly. Medical examiners may be physicians, pathologists, or forensic pathologists with 
jurisdiction within a county, district, or state. A coroner is an elected or appointed official who might not be a physician or 
have had any medical training. Coroners typically serve a single county. 

Since 1877, in the United States, there have been efforts to replace the coroner system with a medical examiner system. In 
fact, more than 80 years ago, the National Academy of Sciences identified concerns regarding the lack of standardization in 
death investigations and called for the abolishment of the coroner’s office, noting that the office “has conclusively 
demonstrated its incapacity to perform the functions customarily required of it.” In its place, the report called for well-staffed 
offices of a medical examiner, led by a pathologist. In strong terns, the 1928 committee called for the professionalization of 
death investigation, with medical science at its center. 

Despite these calls, efforts to move away from a coroner system in the United States have stalled. Currently, 11 states have 
coroner-only systems, 22 states have medical examiner systems, and 18 states have mixed systems—in which some counties 
have coroners and others have medical examiners. Some of these states have a referral system, in which the coroner refers 
cases to medical examiners for autopsy. According to a 2003 Institute of Medicine report, in addition to the variety of systems 
in the United States, the location and authority of the medical examiner or coroner office also varies, with 43 percent of the 
U.S. population served by a medical examiner or coroner housed in a separate city, county, or state government office. Other 
arrangements involve an office under public safety or law enforcement. The least common placement is under a forensic 
laboratory or health department. 

Variability also is evident in terns of accreditation of death investigation systems. As of August 2008, 54 of the medical 
examiner offices in the United States (serving 23 percent of the population) have been accredited by the National Association 
of Medical Examiners, the professional organization of physician medical examiners. Most of the country is served by offices 
lacking accreditation. Similarly, requirements for training are not mandatory. About 36 percent of the population lives where 
minimal or no special training is required to conduct death investigations. Recently, an 18-year-old high school student was 
elected a deputy coroner in Indiana after completing a short training course." (548) 

In 1973, the drug field test was patented, and police departments began implementing use of the test even though 

the tests are extremely unreliable, as they can give a false-positive result from exposure to more than 80 other 
compounds besides illegal drugs. And while there are no official or comprehensive statistics on wrongful 
convictions because of errors in field drug tests, thousands of cases have been dismissed because of a false¬ 
positive field drug test, (482) and thousands of other innocent citizens have most likely been wrongfully 
convicted as a result of a false-positive field drug test. A 2013 federal survey of United States forensic 
laboratories, found that 8 out of 10 responding laboratories reported that they don’t analyze all drug cases which 
are submitted to them. (483) Why are drug field tests admissible in some courts when they can give such an easy 
false-positive result, shouldn’t a secondary more definitive technique such as mass spectrometry be used to 
confirm the initial results? How many thousands of Homo sapiens have been wrongly accused and possibly even 
convicted because of these tests? Why are so many incarcerated in the United States because of unjust 
mandatory minimum sentences, a technicality, and other minor infractions or non-violent crimes? How many 
millions of American citizens have been incarcerated since the 1970s as a result of the failing War on Drugs? 
(387) Why aren’t more comprehensive databases and statistics kept by the government on injustices so that the 
continual cause can be corrected, instead of just accepting it as a part of the justice system and that innocence 
will at some point prevail? Isn’t the United States criminal justice system first and foremost based on that the 
crime must be proven beyond a reasonable doubt? If a forensic technique has be shown to be flawed on 
numerous occasions shouldn’t it be abandon? How just is a system with so many errors being allowed to occur? 
As of 2017 Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, Delaware, Georgia, Idaho, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Nevada, New 
Mexico, North Dakota, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, and Wyoming do 
not have any compensation statutes, will these states ever give the wrongly convicted the financial support, 
housing, education, food, medical services, and other assistance that they are owed? 

After the September 11 terrorist attacks, there was a mentality of fear spread by demagogues and their paranoid 
followers that more terrorist attacks even worse than the September 11 terrorist attacks would follow, and that 
Americans must be prepared with more cameras and more police with a larger and more military style arsenal. 
But the reality is, that in the United States after the September 11 terrorist attacks up until 2015, only 95 Homo 
sapiens were killed as a result of jihadist-based terrorism, while over that same time frame 410,522 Homo 
sapiens died as a result of a domestic firearms, (e.g. accidents, homicide, suicide, etc.) (278) Between 1977 and 
2016 anti-abortion extremists committed 11 murders, 26 attempted murders, 42 bombings, 186 arson attacks, 98 
attempted bombings or arson attacks, 411 invasions, 1,643 acts of vandalism, 100 butyric acid attacks, 663 
anthrax or bioterrorism threats, 239 assault and battery incidents, 545 death threats or threats of harm, 4 
kidnappings, 255 burglaries, and 583 incidents of stalking. (533) Hari Sreenivasan on the PBS NewsHour 
reported that, 

"Despite the nation’s intense national focus on Islamic terrorism since 9/11, homegrown, right wing extremists have also 
killed dozens of Americans. The groups include white supremacist and neo-Nazi groups and anti-federalists militias. Since 
2001, the number of violent attacks on U.S. soil inspired by far-right ideology has spiked to an average of more than 300 a 
year, according to a study by the Combating Terrorism Center at West Point. 

A 2015 survey of U.S. law enforcement groups found they consider anti-government violent extremists to be a more severe 
threat than radicalized Muslims. And while jihadist terrorists have killed 95 people in the U.S. since 9/11, far-right extremists 
have killed 68 during the same time, including the car attack in Charlottesville." (498) 

In the United States, there are some 33,000 violent street gangs, motorcycle gangs, and prison gangs with about 
1,400,000 members which are criminally active. (600) Should not more federal money and resources be allocated 
to eliminating violent political and religious extremists, domestic terrorism, gangs, and other criminal 
organizations through education and societal changes, instead of arming the police to fight terrorist with 
weapons that will most likely never be used except during training? Since the September 11 terrorist attacks, 
there has been a militarization of police departments throughout the United States with many officers becoming 
even more military in their appearance by utilizing billions of dollars’ worth of recycled military equipment. 
Some police departments have in essence created a secret police state by their actions and abuses of power. In 
September 2014, the Washington Post published their findings from an investigation it did about a dramatic 
increase of illegal police search and seizures after the September 11 terrorist attacks. During their investigation 
they found that, 

“There have been 61,998 cash seizures made on highways and elsewhere since 9/11 without search warrants or indictments 
through the Equitable Sharing Program, totaling more than $2.5 billion. State and local authorities kept more than $1.7 billion 
of that while Justice, Homeland Security and other federal agencies received $800 million. Half of the seizures were below 
$8,800. Only a sixth of the seizures were legally challenged, in part because of the costs of legal action against the 
government. But in 41 percent of cases — 4,455 — where there was a challenge, the government agreed to return money. The 
appeals process took more than a year in 40 percent of those cases and often required owners of the cash to sign agreements 
not to sue police over the seizures.” (173) 

Currently there are no federal government entities which collect data on all criminal arrests of law enforcement 
officers, nor are there any federal government entities which monitor all police shootings which occur, therefore 
most statistical data on these subjects has been primarily gathered from news reports or concerned organizations. 
Between 1976 and 2011, the police in the United States killed at least 14,012 Homo sapiens, perhaps even more. 
(210) In 2015, there were 1,146 Homo sapiens killed by police in the United States, 230 of them were unarmed, 
and in 2016 there were 1,093 police shootings which resulted in a death. (211) In 2015, the Washington Post and 
Bowling Green State University researched police killings in the United States, they found that since 2005 out of 
the thousands of killings by the police, and even with evidence that hundreds of the victims were unarmed and 
some even shot in the back, only 53 officers were ever charged with a crime. Out of those officers charged, 21 
were not convicted, 11 were convicted, 19 were pending cases, and 3 made other deals. (212) When a police 
shootout occurs, it often results in mass quantities of bullets being fired, like when 13 Cleveland police officers 
fired 137 shots into a car killing the unarmed driver and passenger, with one officer alone firing 49 of the shots. 
(476) The U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency was established in 2003, it now employs 56,000 agents, 
177 of which were arrested for official misconduct, between 2004 and 2015. (477) A 2016 study, of only state and 
local law enforcement agencies, identified 6,724 arrest cases between 2005 and 2011 which involved 5,545 
sworn law enforcement officers engaged in either sex-related, drug-related, alcohol-related, profit-motivated, or 
violence-related crimes. Many of these officers were never prosecuted and remained law enforcement officers, 
the study found, 

“-Sex-related police crime included 1,475 arrest cases of 1,070 sworn officers 

- Alcohol-related police crime included 1,405 arrest cases of 1,283 sworn officers 

- Drug-related police crime included 739 arrest cases of 665 sworn officers 

- Violence-related police crime included 3,328 arrest cases of 2,586 sworn officers 

- Profit-motivated police crime included 1,592 cases of 1,396 sworn officers” 

"The study identified a total of 422 forcible or statutory rapes, 352 cases of forcible fondling, and 94 sodomy arrest cases. 

Children seem to be particularly vulnerable to law enforcement officers who perpetrate sex crimes. Almost one-half of the 
known victims were children, and the second-most commonly occurring category in terms of the victim's relationship to the 
arrested officer was an unrelated child. Arrested officers were criminally convicted on at least one charge in four-fifths (80%) 
of the sex-related cases in which conviction data were available." 

"For example, many of the police DUI arrest cases involved traffic accidents (51%) often resulting in victim injury (24.1%) 
or fatalities (4%). Arrested officers are known to have lost their jobs as sworn law enforcement officers in less than one-third 
(29.8%) of the police DUI arrest cases." 

"More than two-thirds of the sworn law enforcement officers arrested for profit-motivated crime lost their jobs (67%) and 
more than half of the profit-motivated arrest cases resulted in conviction (57.4%)." (478) 

Why are so many trigger-happy individuals and criminals allowed to become officers of the law? Could these 
murders and criminal acts be eliminated if police officers were initially evaluated and screened more thoroughly 
for possible psychological issues? Should there not be more policing of the police which wield so much power 
over society? How many other thousands of criminal acts have police done and gotten away with? Why isn’t 
precise data involving police crimes and shootings collected and disseminated by the federal government? Why 
are only a small portion of the police officers prosecuted for their crimes? How pure is a justice system that has 
statues of limitations for so many crimes, especially when clear evidence so plainly exists many times in the 
form of a confession from the criminal? What does it say about the morals and trust of society, when security 
systems like armed guards, locks, alarm systems, and cameras must be implemented to maintain order and civil 
stability? Can members of society not have better morals instilled by being fostered and educated not only by 
their parents or mentors, but also by an example set by society as a whole? 


Since 1872, the National Rifle Association has lobbied in Washington D.C. for legislation which promotes the 
sale and possession of guns, while also fighting against gun-control policies. There are an estimated 875,000,000 
small arms in the world, 200,000,000 which arm the militaries, 25,000,000 held by the police, and 650,000,000 
possessed by individual civilian gun enthusiasts and criminals. (567) In 2017, in the United States, there were an 
estimated 265,000,000 guns possessed by 17% of the population, and each year the number of guns 
manufactured continues to rise while the number of individual gun owners falls. Half of the guns in the United 
States are possessed by just 3% of American adults, with these super gun owners possessing between 8 and 140 
guns each. (464) United States gun manufacturers made 3,040,934 guns in 1986, and this number increased to 
10,884,792 guns in 2013. (330) 

In the United States, between 2001 and 2015, there were 177,731 reported unintentional nonfatal injuries 
resulting from a BB or pellet gunshot, in addition to 236,783 unintentional firearm gunshot injuries. (500) 
Between 1968 and 2011, there were 1,400,000 firearm deaths in the United States. (331) There were 58,546 
violent incidents in the United States involving a gun in 2016 which resulted in 15,053 deaths. A joint 
investigation by the Associated Press and USA Today, found that during the first months of 2016 every other day 
a minor died as a result of an accidental shooting, either at their own hands or at the hands of other children or 
adults. (499) In the United States, there were 274 mass shootings in 2014, in 2016 the number of mass shootings 
increased to 384. (332) The two deadliest mass shooting in United States history occurred less than 16 months 
apart, the June 2016 Pulse nightclub shooting which killed 49 and injured 58 others, and the October 2017 Las 
Vegas Route 91 Harvest music festival shooting which killed 58 and injured 546. Then in November 2017, the 
deadliest shooting in Texas history occurred at a church leaving 26 dead and 20 others injured. Between 2013 
and 2016, there were more than 200 school shootings in the United States. (334) Are the hundreds of mass 
shootings each year, and children taking guns to school and killing other children, not enough evidence that there 
is a major failure in government with regard to gun legislation? Why are a minority of tyrannical gun enthusiast 
allowed to put the rest of the population in potential danger? Are there not enough guns in existence, why must 
guns continue to be manufactured? When 4 United States Presidents have been assassinated by gunshots, 2 
United States Presidents have been injured during attempted assassinations by gunshots, and others like John 
Lennon, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Luther King Jr., Peter Tosh, and thousands of other peaceful Homo sapiens 
have also been assassinated or murdered in cold blood with a gun, is this not enough evidence there should be 
major reforms to gun legislation? 

Guns are justified as being a part of freedom, for use to hunt animals, for protection, and crime prevention. In 
Spain, Cyprus, Hong Kong, China, Japan, Philippines, Taiwan, Germany, Greece, Romania, United Kingdom, 
Australia, and some other countries where gun legislation has been enacted to control and ban firearms, there are 
far lower rates of accidental shootings, mass shootings, armed robberies, murders, and other crimes committed 
with firearms. And yet in the United States where guns are legal more gun related crimes occur. Logical sensible 
Homo sapiens don't own guns, they call 911. Neighborhood watch groups were designed to be the eyes and ears 
of police and nothing more, now, where the laws allow, thousands of these trigger-happy volunteers pack a 
variety of guns. Trayvon Martin, who was unarmed, was murdered in 2012 by neighborhood watch volunteer 
George Zimmerman, a violent gun owner known to police with a prior history of violence with guns, who was 
also told to wait for police but did not. 

Why are things like bump stocks legal? Why are the mentally ill allowed to own guns? Why are military style 
weapons even legal? What good are background checks if they aren’t universal and can easily be circumvented 
through private sales? What purpose do guns ever serve other than to kill? Must one own a gun for protection, 
are the police not enough protection? Can society not simply educate and impress good morals onto itself to 
prevent crime? Do guns really symbolize freedom, or nothing more than paranoia and intimidation? Is there a 
real need for guns because of an old antiquated constitutional provision which allows the population to rise up 
against an old form of government, military, and police force? Is it even possible for today’s society to rise up 
against the government and revolt, do these fanatical gun owners not see the impossibility of such an uprising, 
when the government with a much larger force and far superior weapons could so easily subdue any rebellion? 

Martin Luther King Jr. wrote, 

“They fail to see that no internal revolution has ever succeeded in overthrowing a government by violence unless the 
government had already lost the allegiance and effective control of its anned forces. Anyone in his right mind knows that this 
will not happen in the United States. In a violent racial situation, the power structure has the local police, the state troopers, 
the national guard and finally the army to call on...” (333) 


Religions have attempted to help maintain the societal order and answer questions about the unknown, but have 
failed miserably for over 10,000 years. The exploitation of religious followers some by televangelist 
personalities like Jimmy Swaggart, Pat Robertson, Jim Bakker, Billy Graham, Jerry Falwell, Robert Schuller, 
Benny Hinn, Oral Roberts, and others is further clear evidence of how fraudulent these modern-day religions 
truly are. Religion has become just another business where a religion can make vast sums of money, usually in 
the form of cash, and always tax exempt. The economic value of religion in the United States alone is 
$1,000,000,000,000 a year based on the revenues of faith-based organizations, the fair market value of goods 
and services provided by religious organizations, and on businesses with religious roots. (377) Do any of these 
devout worshipers ever question what their weekly tithing was spent on? How many billions of dollars has been 
wasted because of mismanagement, embezzlement, or other fraud? How many billions of dollars has been spent 
by the leaders of these religious organizations on their self-indulgent lifestyles? 

Most religious leaders have also been silent and neutral when it comes to the destruction of Earth, and some even 
encourage it through the message they preach during their sermons, which continuously focuses on the inevitable 
pseudo apocalypse. If it ever happens at all, the end of days which the Bible and other religions speak of with the 
natural world destroying Earth and Homo sapiens, will only be the self-inflicted one which is created by Homo 
sapiens depredations. Some Christians even justify their depredations of Earth with Bible passages like Genesis 
1:28 which states, ‘God blessed them; and God said to them, “Be fruitful and multiply, and fill the earth, and 
subdue it; and rule over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the sky and over every living thing that moves on 
the earth. ”’lf one thinks the end of the world is coming, as many religious followers believe, what motivation 
do they have for being a good steward of Earth? If one believes that the Earth was given to them by God to do 
with what they please, how can they ever be expected to coexist on Earth? Religions talk of thou shalt not do this 
or that, and if you do then wrath of God will be brought down upon you, and yet most of these religious 
followers continuously destroy Earth. Is it not a contradiction to worship God, but then depredate the Earth 
which is God’s supposed creation? Would not their supposed God be more ecstatic if Homo sapiens treated the 
Earth with more respect and admiration for which it was created? How can religious Homo sapiens all in the 
name of greed, power, and progress willingly and hypocritically destroy a perfect creation like the Earth, which 
their supposed God created? Is it not disrespectful and sacrilegious in a sense to depredate the Earth which your 
supposed God created? Perhaps Homo sapiens have had so much fear of God instilled into them over several 
thousand years that it just doesn't matter anymore, and there is no true fear nor respect for their supposed God. 

Some Homo sapiens appear to be abandoning traditional religions around the world and are seeking something 
more factual to believe in and ponder. Could a revived connection with nature help those with questions about 
the meaning of life to find the answers from within? Nature has what most everyone is seeking, truth and purity, 
and this will never be matched by the religious creations of Homo sapiens. Perhaps one-day Homo sapiens will 
acknowledge this, coexist on Earth, and learn from it. Maybe a new religion will emerge in the near future based 
on nature and the environment. If this new type of environmental based religion does emerge and takes hold 
anywhere near the way religions of the past have, it would bring billions of Homo sapiens back to their roots 
with nature and perhaps initiate more coexistence on Earth. Perhaps Homo sapiens will fully abandon the current 
religions after thousands of years like the mythological and sacrificial religions before them. As of 2010, 
estimated religious statistics for the world were: Christian 31.4%, Muslim 23.2%, Hindu 15%, Buddhist 7.1%, 
folk religions 5.9%, Jewish 0.2%, other 0.8%, unaffiliated 16.4%. But it should also be noted, that some of those 
who claim a religious affiliation do not practice the religion actively and are simply responding to the question 
with the religion that was forced on them as a child. The unaffiliated percentage has steadily risen over time and 
will perhaps be the majority in the near future. (124) In 2011, Daniel M. Abrams, Haley A. Yaple, and Richard J. 

Wiener released, ‘Dynamics of Social Group Competition: Modeling the Decline of Religious Affiliation', in it, 
they stated, 

"People claiming no religious affiliation constitute the fastest growing religious minority in many countries throughout the 
world. Americans without religious affiliation comprise the only religious group growing in all 50 states; in 2008 those 
claiming no religion rose to 15% nationwide, with a maximum in Vermont at 34%.In the Netherlands nearly half the 
population is religiously unaffiliated." 

"We found that a particular case of the solution fits census data on competition between religious and irreligious segments of 
modem secular societies in 85 regions around the world. The model indicates that in these societies the perceived utility of 
religious nonaffiliation is greater than that of adhering to a religion, and therefore predicts continued growth of nonaffiliation, 
tending toward the disappearance of religion." (614) 

It all began with the enlightenment or intellectual movement which spawned out of the Renaissance era 500 
years ago, it was the beginning of favoring rational inquiry over the long-established dogma, science along with 
logic, truth, and knowledge could be suppressed no more. Science will ultimately succeed in the end, because of 
scientists and philosophers which are logical and rational in their thinking, (e.g. Lucretius, Hippocrates, 
Pythagoras, Socrates, Aristotle, Plato, Copernicus, Spinoza, Galileo, Kepler, Newton, Darwin, Einstein, and so 
many others) Some of them spent time in jail, exile, or were killed as a result of their work. Today thanks to 
these pioneers of science and logical thought, and even modem-day specialty debunkers, all pseudo things like 
religions, pseudoscience, myths, wise tales, rumors, hoaxes, and the like are eventually replaced with the truth 
through logical thought and scientific factual evidence. Will science, knowledge, the power of the Internet, and 
time result in less mainstream religions and eventually make them just another thing of the past like Greek 
mythology? Perhaps the charlatans, fear-mongers, alarmists, and other ‘Franz von Walseggs ’ of the world who 
peipetuate these lies will also disappear with time as well. What would the world be like if every religious 
follower first read Thomas Paine’s ‘The Age of Reason ’ before so blindly following such religions? 

Some Homo sapiens still possess an Orthodox or other religious viewpoint about society. Earth, and even the 
Universe. Religion based purely on faith discourages logic and seems to ignore it as if it isn't applicable. A future 
observer might see this as foolish, given Homo sapiens level of technological and scientific advancements over 
the last 100 years. One can understand science and believe that something created the entire universe, call it God 
or whatever name suits you, but the question will forever linger as to what created the creator, and thus the God 
and creation loop is forever infinite. And it is precisely this type of uncertainty which perpetuates religions still 
to this day, as most all religions are based not on fact, but on faith in fiction, superstition, myth, magic, or 
mysticism. In 1930, Albert Einstein wrote an article about religion and science for the New York Times 
Magazine, in it he made the following remarks, 

"In this sense I am speaking of a religion of fear. This, though not created, is in an important degree stabilized by the 
formation of a special priestly caste which sets itself up as a mediator between the people and the beings they fear, and erects 
a hegemony on this basis. In many cases a leader or ruler or a privileged class whose position rests on other factors combines 
priestly functions with its secular authority in order to make the latter more secure; or the political rulers and the priestly caste 
make common cause in their own interests." 

"But there is a third stage of religious experience which belongs to all of them, even though it is rarely found in a pure form: I 
shall call it cosmic religious feeling. It is very difficult to elucidate this feeling to anyone who is entirely without it, especially 
as there is no anthropomorphic conception of God corresponding to it. 

The individual feels the futility of human desires and aims and the sublimity and marvelous order which reveal themselves 
both in nature and in the world of thought. Individual existence impresses him as a sort of prison and he wants to experience 
the universe as a single significant whole." 

"The religious geniuses of all ages have been distinguished by this kind of religious feeling, which knows no dogma and no 
God conceived in man's image; so that there can be no church whose central teachings are based on it. Hence it is precisely 
among the heretics of every age that we find men who were filled with this highest kind of religious feeling and were in many 
cases regarded by their contemporaries as atheists, sometimes also as saints. Looked at in this light, men like Democritus, 
Francis of Assisi, and Spinoza are closely akin to one another. 

How can cosmic religious feeling be communicated from one person to another, if it can give rise to no definite notion of a 
God and no theology? In my view, it is the most important function of art and science to awaken this feeling and keep it alive 
in those who are receptive to it." 

"The man who is thoroughly convinced of the universal operation of the law of causation cannot for a moment entertain the 
idea of a being who interferes in the course of events provided, of course, that he takes the hypothesis of causality really 
seriously. He has no use for the religion of fear and equally little for social or moral religion. A God who rewards and 
punishes is inconceivable to him for the simple reason that a man's actions are determined by necessity, external and internal, 
so that in God's eyes he cannot be responsible, any more than an inanimate object is responsible for the motions it undergoes. 
Science has therefore been charged with undermining morality, but the charge is unjust. A man's ethical behavior should be 
based effectually on sympathy, education, and social ties and needs; no religious basis is necessary. Man would indeed be in a 
poor way if he had to be restrained by fear of punishment and hope of reward after death. 

It is therefore easy to see why the churches have always fought science and persecuted its devotees. On the other hand, I 
maintain that the cosmic religious feeling is the strongest and noblest motive for scientific research. Only those who realize 
the immense efforts and, above all, the devotion without which pioneer work in theoretical science cannot be achieved are 
able to grasp the strength of the emotion out of which alone such work, remote as it is from the immediate realities of life, 
can issue. What a deep conviction of the rationality of the universe and what a yearning to understand, were it but a feeble 
reflection of the mind revealed in this world, Kepler and Newton must have had to enable them to spend years of solitary 
labor in disentangling the principles of celestial mechanics! Those whose acquaintance with scientific research is derived 
chiefly from its practical results easily develop a completely false notion of the mentality of the men who, surrounded by a 
skeptical world, have shown the way to kindred spirits scattered wide through the world and the centuries. Only one who has 
devoted his life to similar ends can have a vivid realization of what has inspired these men and given them the strength to 
remain true to their purpose in spite of countless failures. It is cosmic religious feeling that gives a man such strength. A 
contemporary has said, not unjustly, that in this materialistic age of ours the serious scientific workers are the only 
profoundly religious people." (58) 

Most religions have also helped to bring about a false justification of patriarchy, with God so often referred to as 
‘He ’ and never ‘She Most religions are nothing more than a tyrannical form of control based on faith and fear 
of the unknown, and religions have always used their power to control or in an attempt to control Homo sapiens. 
How can billions of Homo sapiens still follow these mainstream antiquated religions that have committed so 
many horrendous deeds over the last 2,000 years? Do these followers not know the history of their religion 
which they follow so blindly? How can one follow and believe in such a hypocrisy that has done nothing more 
than suppress and exploit Homo sapiens throughout history? Why would anyone follow a religion which has a 
known history of cruelty, murder, prejudice, and deception? Perhaps more research of the factual historic 
evidence would enlighten followers to how truly evil the religions they worship are. Since 2004, more than 3,400 
credible cases of sexual abuse towards children by Catholic priests have been reported to the Vatican. And 
although there is irrefutable evidence and even confessions in some cases, only a small number of these priests 
have gone to trial and have avoided true justice in a court of law. Instead the Vatican has delivered pseudo justice 
in the form of 848 priests having been defrocked, or returned to the lay state, and another 2,572 have been given 
a lifetime of penance and prayer or another lesser sanction. (485) Between 2007 and 2015, the New York 
Catholic Conference spent more than $2,100,000 on lobbying, in part to work on blocking child-sex law reforms 
involving the statute of limitations and timelines for commencing certain civil actions related to sex offenses. 
(486) It is interesting to examine the perspective of Christianity by that of a non-believer and who does not take 
part in organized religion, a perspective like that of an Indian such as Ishi. Theodora Kroeber wrote that, 

“Christian doctrine interested him, and seemed to him to be for the most part reasonable and understandable. He held to the 
conviction that the White God would not care to have Indians in His home, for all Loudy told him to the contrary. It may have 
occurred to him that the souls of white men would fit but poorly into a round dance of Yana dead. If so, he was too polite to 
say so...When Ishi saw the cinema of Passion Play, which moved him and which he found beautiful, he assumed that Christ 
was the “badman” whose crucifixion was justified.” (100) 

If Homo sapiens are to ever truly progress forward as a whole, traditional religions will most likely need to be 
abandoned completely. The time and energy that Homo sapiens would acquire by the abandonment of these time 
consuming pointless activities would be exponential. What could be accomplished if instead of wasting time 
worshiping and idolizing myths for hours on end, individuals became more scientifically educated, devoted time 
to resolving social issues, or helped to clean-up Earth? Billions of minds are simply waiting to be exposed to 
scientific truth and knowledge, and perhaps when that happens the scientific disciplines will have far more input 

from additional minds helping to unravel the scientific mysteries of the universe. In 1941 at a Symposium on 
science, philosophy, and religion Albert Einstein said, 

"The further the spiritual evolution of mankind advances, the more certain it seems to me that the path to genuine religiosity 
does not lie through the fear of life, and the fear of death, and blind faith, but through striving after rational knowledge.” (60) 

By definition, all religions are cults, and they engage in deception, brainwashing, and other manipulative actions 
over their followers, and it is nothing more than fear and ignorance which peipetuates these religions. 
Organizations like Scientology, Aryan Nations, Branch Davidians, Heaven's Gate, Unification Church, Peoples 
Temple, and thousands of other groups claim or claimed to be religions, and yet they have been known or were 
known to engage in either racism, terrorism, follower abuse, harassment, extortion, or other illegal activities. 
Even more ludicrous are some of the foundations these cults are based on, like extraterrestrials and doomsday 
prophecies. L. Ron Hubbard’s Scientology uses alien Gods named Xenu and Rael, which founded the Raelism 
cult on his supposed December 13, 1973 encounter with an extraterrestrial. How can an organization like 
Scientology be allowed to operate so secretively posing as a religion, when they are known to engage in criminal 
activities? The documentary series ‘Leah Remini: Scientology and the Aftermath ’2016, explains exactly how 
this modem-day cult manipulates its followers and seeks to destroy its critics. These negative cults are allowed 
to thrive while the followers of positive and peaceful spiritual practices like Tibetan Buddhism and Falun Gong 
are persecuted, jailed, and even executed by the Chinese government. Robert Pirsig wrote, 

‘‘An insane delusion can't be held by a group at all. A person isn't considered insane if there are a number of people who 
believe the same way. Insanity isn't supposed to be a communicable disease. If one other person starts to believe him, or 
maybe two or three, then it's a religion." 

“The current subject-object point of view of religion, conventionally muted so as not to stir up the fanatics, is that religious 
mysticism and insanity are the same. Religious mysticism is intellectual garbage. It's a vestige of the old superstitious Dark 
Ages when nobody knew anything and the whole world was sinking deeper and deeper into filth and disease and poverty and 
ignorance. It is one of those delusions that isn't called insane only because there are so many people involved.” ( 428 ) 

The occult has been in existence longer than modem religions and is still practiced by millions around the world 
today in some lesser form than that of 5,000 years ago. The ancient Egyptians are thought to have worshipped 
faunae so much so that they imagined them as Gods, mummifying millions of cats, birds, and other faunae. Even 
today occultists focus on bizarre foolish magical rituals sometimes involving the sacrifice of living florae or 
faunae. Occultists often claim to have some connection to the Universe or nature and attempt to derive powers 
from nature by offering nature itself as the sacrifice, but they in fact do not respect nature and cannot derive any 
powers from nature, nor do they have any magical or special connection to it. 

Instead of worshiping, idolizing, and celebrating antiquated religions, perhaps future generations will celebrate 
the beauty, perfection, diversity, and evolutionary brilliance within nature. Nature is capable of giving Homo 
sapiens enlightenment on a scale far greater than any religion could ever come close to. If one wants to meet 
God or go to church, go out into the wilds of nature and meet God up close and personal, it was all scientifically 
engineered to perfection using the laws of nature, and you can get no closer to a God if one exists. Nature and 
everything contained in the Universe is a direct result of a perfect formula and is an example of the only true 
perfection which is possible throughout the Universe. God if it exists, could be best described as a naturalist with 
an extremely logical thought process which set the Universe itself into motion and is allowing things to evolve 
without intervention, for none is necessary, as the laws of nature and that which make up the Universe are 
perfect, and evidence of this can be seen in every aspect of nature and even the Universe itself. One need only 
look at nature to see the beauty and perfection with which it has evolved into over billions of years. Thomas 
Paine wrote, 

"All the knowledge man has of science and of machinery, by the aid of which his existence is rendered comfortable upon 
earth, and without which he would be scarcely distinguishable in appearance and condition from a common animal, comes 
from the great machine and structure of the universe. The constant and unwearied observations of our ancestors upon the 
movements and revolutions of the heavenly bodies, in what are supposed to have been the early ages of the world, have 
brought this knowledge upon earth. It is not Moses and the prophets, nor Jesus Christ, nor his apostles, that have done it. The 
Almighty is the great mechanic of the creation; the first philosopher and original teacher of all science. Let us, then, learn to 

reverence our master, and let us not forget the labors of our ancestors. 

Had we, at this day, no knowledge of machinery, and were it possible that man could have a view, as I have before described, 
of the structure and machinery of the universe, he would soon conceive the idea of constructing some at least of the 
mechanical works we now have; and the idea so conceived would progressively advance in practice. Or could a model of the 
universe, such as is called an orrery, be presented before him and put in motion, his mind would arrive at the same idea. Such 
an object and such a subject would, while it improved him in knowledge useful to himself as a man and a member of society, 
as well as entertaining, afford far better matter for impressing him with a knowledge of, and a belief in, the Creator, and of 
the reverence and gratitude that man owes to him, than the stupid texts of the Bible and of the Testament from which, be the 
talents of the preacher what they may, only stupid sermons can be preached. If man must preach, let him preach something 
that is edifying, and from texts that are known to be true. 

The Bible of the creation is inexhaustible in texts. Every part of science, whether connected with the geometry of the 
universe, with the systems of animal and vegetable life, or with the properties of inanimate matter, is a text as well for 
devotion as for philosophy-for gratitude as for human improvement. It will perhaps be said, that if such a revolution in the 
system of religion takes place, every preacher ought to be a philosopher. Most certainly; and every house of devotion a school 
of science." (630) 

How can Homo sapiens engage in religions when they are based on such an obvious lie and on faith and not 
fact? What would the world be like if Homo sapiens simply respected Earth and the other species which inhabit 
the planet instead of practicing illogical religions? What would religious followers be like if they simply spent 
time in nature instead of going to church on Sunday? The majority of religions around the world be it 
Christianity, Judaism, Islam, or other place no real emphasis on the natural world, which is the purest connection 
that one can have with God or the Universe at large. What would the world be like today if society had not tried 
to make God a reflective image of Homo sapiens, and instead understood nature as the true and only reflection of 
God that exists on Earth? How much more enlightened would the world be if more children were given the 
scientific truth to read versus fictional biblical entertainment? Why can’t more Homo sapiens see the scientific 
brilliance with which the Universe was created? Does not Darwin’s ‘On the Origin of Species by Means of 
Natural Selection ’ disprove all the organized religions through the scientific evidence of evolution? Albert 
Einstein said, 

“The most beautiful experience we can have is the mysterious. It is the fundamental emotion which stands at the cradle of true 
art and true science. Whoever does not know it and can no longer wonder, no longer marvel, is as good as dead, and his eyes 
are dimmed. It was the experience of mystery-even if mixed with fear-that engendered religion. A knowledge of the existence 
of something we cannot penetrate, our perceptions of the profoundest reason and the most radiant beauty, which only in their 
most primitive forms are accessible to our minds-it is this knowledge and this emotion that constitute true religiosity; in this 
sense, and in this alone, I am a deeply religious man. I cannot conceive of a God who rewards and punishes his creatures, or 
has a will of the kind that we experience in ourselves. Neither can I nor would I want to conceive of an individual that 
survives his physical death; let feeble souls, from fear or absurd egoism, cherish such thoughts. I am satisfied with the 
mystery of the eternity of life and with the awareness and a glimpse of the marvelous structure of the existing world, together 
with the devoted striving to comprehend a portion, be it ever so tiny, of the Reason that manifests itself in nature.” (53) 

Furthermore, Albert Einstein said, 

“What is the meaning of human life, or, for that matter, of the life of any creature? To know an answer to this question means 
to be religious. You ask: Does it make any sense, then, to pose this question? I answer: The man who regards his own life and 
that of his fellow creatures as meaningless is not merely unhappy but hardly fit for life.” (53) 

The destructive godlike mentality which some Homo sapiens have in thinking that they can do anything, 
including depredate Earth, must be changed if true progress for humanity is to ever be made. To be born into this 
world and assume that it is rational and logical that Homo sapiens are Godlike creatures on Earth is a very 
erroneous assumption to make. Religions have only led Homo sapiens in a negative direction and down path of 
lies for thousands of years. To follow a mythical legend passed down for thousands of years and not ever 
question or even research history is a disservice to the self. Religion has been so good at brainwashing followers 
it’s no wonder that more Homo sapiens have not seen the facade which has been perpetuated for thousands of 
years. The traditional religions have been proven again and again to be antiquated through scientific facts and 
simple logic, but they have always managed to adapt their teachings to include evolution and other selected parts 
of science which can be interwoven to be included into their web of lies. Even if extraterrestrials came down 
from outer space organized religious followers would most likely say it was the devil or just another thing God 

was doing to test their faith. In what Albert Einstein referred to as the 'Religious Spirit of Science' he wrote, 

But the scientist is possessed by the sense of universal causation. The future, to him, is every whit as necessary and 
determined as the past. There is nothing divine about morality; it is a purely human affair. His religious feeling takes the fonn 
of a rapturous amazement at the harmony of natural law, which reveals an intelligence of such superiority that, compared with 
it, all the systematic thinking and acting of human beings is an utterly insignificant reflection. This feeling is the guiding 
principle of his life and work, in so far as he succeeds in keeping himself from the shackles of selfish desire. It is beyond 
question closely akin to that which has possessed the religious geniuses of all ages." (59) 

Perhaps in the near future, through science, all religions will finally be definitively proven impossible and shown 
for what they truly are, which is nothing more than a fallacy. The fatal flaw with most religions is that they are 
based on legends and rely on the faith of the ignorant to survive. Most religions are still relying on old conquest 
and conversion tactics which only work on their ignorant naive followers. Some use simple logical deductions 
combined with scientific thought based on all known scientific knowledge, factual and theoretical, to formulate a 
more original and meaningful postulation about religion and the meaning of life. Perhaps in the future religion 
will be based on facts and become something more meaningful by doing far more positive things within society 
and for the conservation of Earth. What a waste of life when one thinks of all the millions of Homo sapiens who 
have been tortured, murdered, sacrificed, or were martyrs all in the name of a God that that was created by Homo 
sapiens. Religions no longer have ultimate power over Homo sapiens and they can no longer can suppress and 
destroy knowledge, nor imprison or murder the scientists who progress that knowledge. 

Most all ancient religions that past cultures invented throughout history worshiped the powers of nature, but it 
was more of a respect based on fear, and not reverence based on coexistence. The irony is, that after 10,000 years 
Homo sapiens have again come full circle to the source of it all, nature. There is nothing wrong with some of the 
ethics which have been taught through religions, but one could just as easily get a moral standard from a 
philosophy like Confucianism, which existed 500 years before Jesus and 1,000 years before Muhammad. As 
Confucianism is purely philosophical and non-religious, it has been described as definitively pantheistic, 
nontheistic, and humanistic. Perhaps it will be by rediscovering this ancient philosophy that will help to change 
Homo sapiens ethics, or perhaps it will be through New Age shamanistic works like Carlos Castaneda's 12 book 
series with don Juan Matus which draws on many ancient religious concepts. Society and future generations 
already appear to be gravitating towards a Confucianism and humanism type society as any observer can clearly 
see by societies focus on knowledge, science, history, human rights, freedom, and truth. What would the world 
be like if everyone lived by the simple Ahimsa virtue of nonviolence and respected all living things? Have the 
plethora of new social activities already begun to substitute traditional religious activities? Are celebrities now 
worshiped more than Jesus? Is social media being used more than the Bible? Has entertainment and technology 
already begun to replace mainstream religions? 

Suppression of History and Knowledge 

History has often been written by the winners of wars. The destruction of art and history has been done 
throughout history by conquering tyrants or by the religions which backed them, and it was usually done out of 
unwarranted fear, in order to spread lies, erase history and truth, and ultimately to convert the now ignorant 
humble masses to follow the new ruler and a new faith. These tyrants and religious fanatics have always 
attempted to silence the truth by controlling knowledge and rewriting history. And although they have erased 
some history, they have all failed in the end and only made the thirst for truth and knowledge even stronger. How 
much more advanced and enlightened would humanity be if science and history would have not been suppressed 
so much throughout history? How much history and knowledge was suppressed and erased all in the name of 
religion and politics? What type of art could have been created by Michelangelo and other artists if they would 
have had total creative freedom instead of religious tyrants forcing them to create religious art works based on 

The Library of Alexandria containing thousands of scrolls and books, was destroyed partially or completely 
several times throughout history. The amount of history and knowledge that was destroyed in the New World by 
the conquistadors and the Catholic priests which accompanied them is incalculable. Of the thousands of Maya 

Codices that once existed, only the Madrid Codex, Dresden Codex, and Paris Codex now remain, and other 
ancient knowledge like the Rongorongo glyphs were also destroyed. Recent history witnessed 3,000 books from 
the Library of Congress used by the English to ignite the United States Capitol during the Burning of 
Washington in 1813. In 1873 fanatical petty tyrant Anthony Comstock founded the New York Society for the 
Suppression of Vice, and managed to bum 15 tons of books, 284,000 pounds of plates for printing books, and 
nearly 4,000,000 pictures he deemed lewd. Between 1933 and 1945, the Nazi regime burned millions of books, 
many were only copies, but some were not. Also included in these Nazi burnings were the personal papers, art, 
photos, letters, journals, and other writings of many individuals. An eccentric scientist Wilhelm Reich may have 
been, but it did not justify the destruction of his invention, nor the burning of his 6 tons of books and papers by 
the United States government in 1957. In 1973, the Chilean fascist dictator Augusto Pinochet burned hundreds of 
books to foster repression and censorship. In 1981, the Sinhalese police and paramilitaries burned the Jaffna 
Public Library in Sri Lanka, resulting in the loss of nearly 100,000 Tamil books and rare documents. As of 2017, 
the Texas Department of Criminal Justice was still banning some 10,000 published titles from the nearly 150,000 
inmates which reside in the state prison system. (611) How could a country with rights guaranteeing freedom of 
speech and thought still be engaged in such blatant censorship? 

There will always be those who spread the truth with comedy like Bill Hicks, George Carlin, Richard Pryor, 
Howard Stem, Lenny Bruce, and others, and there have always been those who have attempted to censor this 
speech. How can freedom of speech be in the foundation of a constitution, while the United States Federal 
Communications Commission, which is an appointed not elected division of the government, is allowed to 
censor and regulate free speech over broadcasting with their indecency codes? How can language be filtered on 
public television, radio, and other mediums by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) when this 
clearly violates freedom of speech? What right does a government have to censor a set of words that a religious 
minority has deemed indecent, when in reality the words are simply a fomi of expression? The Internet which is 
rapidly replacing radio and television broadcasting will ultimately put an end to this censorship, as there is no 
way to truly regulate and enforce censorship in the vastness of cyberspace, and any attempts have for the most 
part been thwarted by citizen protests thus far. Why have these language censorship laws not been repealed as 
the Internet has definitively made these laws obsolete? 

Information will never be controlled or eliminated through censorship, it will only make Homo sapiens seek it 
out even further, and censorship efforts like the ‘Index Librorum Prohibitorum ’ by the Roman Catholic Church 
will always fail and often will have the opposite effect making the censored work even more popular. There have 
always been dissident activities when there is censorship, like Russian samizdat and similar underground 
information networks, and now with the Internet there is no chance of traditional censorship ever happening 
again. If anything, the truth of the future might be censored by the sea of false information which now seems so 
prevalent in some parts of the Internet. But this form of censorship cannot happen if one is able to see through 
the veil of lies, and find the truth through the individuals and organizations who make this truth easier to find. An 
observer of today’s society might see that the current society members will never be controlled through 
censorship or by big brother, but rather by corporations, greed, necessity, money, indulgence, and pleasure. In 
describing Aldous Huxley's ‘Brave New World’ vq rsus George Orwell’s ‘1984 ’, Neil Postman wrote, 

“ Big Brother is required to deprive people of their autonomy, maturity and history. As he saw it, people will come to 
love their oppression, to adore the technologies that undo their capacities to think. 

What Orwell feared were those who would ban books. What Huxley feared was that there would be no reason to ban a book, 
for there would be no one who wanted to read one. Orwell feared those who would deprive us of information. Huxley feared 
those who would give us so much that we would be reduced to passivity and egoism. Orwell feared that the truth would be 
concealed from us. Huxley feared the truth would be drowned in a sea of irrelevance. Orwell feared we would become a 
captive culture. Huxley feared we would become a trivial culture, preoccupied with some equivalent of the feelies, the orgy 
porgy, and the centrifugal bumblepuppy.” 

“In 1984, Huxley added, people are controlled by inflicting pain. In Brave New World, they are controlled by inflicting 
pleasure. In short, Orwell feared that what we hate will ruin us. Huxley feared that what we love will ruin us.” (370) 

Education and The Monetary Value of History and Knowledge 

Education and history have become just another avenue to generate money and make huge profits from. College 
education in the United States and some other western countries has become based around profits and not 
education. In 2017, Student loan debt in the United States was $1,400,000,000,000 an increase of 170% from 10 
years ago. 44,000,000 Americans have student debt with 8,000,000 of the borrowers in default. (320) In 2016, 

U.S. college graduates that utilized student loans had an average debt of $37,173 a 6% increase from 2015. (423) 
The vast majority of museums and historical monuments in the world charge an entrance fee to access history. 
Does this history not belong to all the Homo sapiens of Earth? Shouldn’t all museums and historical monuments 
give free admission, so everyone can view and learn from them at any time? Some access to the truth and written 
scientific knowledge which is published online is controlled with monetary based subscriptions, college level 
education can be expensive and limited, and even the Internet is censored with filters by some countries and 
service providers. How can the world learn when the knowledge and history can only be accessed by some and 
not all? Should not all education at every level be freely available to anyone willing to learn? Why can’t all 
college classes be broadcast live via the Internet for free allowing anyone in the world access to the them? How 
much more intelligent would many Homo sapiens be if they had access to the Ivy League type curriculums and 
other educational resources where access is limited? Why are most primary, middle, and high schools free and 
paid for by the government, while most colleges are independent private-sector institutions which are not only 
limited to many for various reasons, but are also focused more on money and not in increasing and diffusing 

Education has always been forced onto citizens ever since Plato first popularized compulsory education. Even 
today, all United States citizens, beginning as early as age 5 until 18 years of age, are required by law to go to 
some form of schooling either at a public school, private school, or homeschool to be taught the government 
approved standard curriculum. This forced education can create a sort of prison for some students and potentially 
lead to anxiety, stress, and even depression. Bullying is not uncommon and is very often unescapable in such a 
confined setting. Education can also be a tool of subversion when students are not taught the truth but are instead 
taught lies and a distorted history based on the religious or political ideology of the teacher or school. Would 
students not perhaps have more interest in education if they were able to choose what they wanted to study and 
where they wanted to study it? What would students be like if more schools practiced the Montessori educational 
approach or something similar? Will Homo sapiens become self-educated through the Internet and abandon 
traditional schools entirely in the future? 

Today it seems that many individuals know more and more about less and less, focusing on a tiny fraction of the 
whole and missing out on the larger scope of things. Their knowledge of history and of scientific facts are 
minimal if not non-existent unless it applies to their daily activities. Many Homo sapiens know more about the 
previous 24 hours than about anything else, and often what they do know in regard to science and history are 
useless trivial entertainment related facts. Neil Postman wrote, 

“This coincidence suggests that the new technologies had turned the age-old problem of information on its head: Where 
people once sought infonnation to manage the real contexts of their lives, now they had to invent contexts in which otherwise 
useless infonnation might be put to some apparent use. The crossword puzzle is one such pseudo context; the cocktail party is 
another; the radio quiz shows of the 1930's and 1940's and the modern television game show are still others; and the ultimate, 
perhaps, is the wildly successful “Trivial Pursuit.” In one fonn or another, each of these supplies an answer to the question, 

“What am I to do with all these disconnected facts?” And in one fonn or another, the answer is the same: Why not use them 
for diversion? for entertainment? to amuse yourself, in a game?...A pseudo context is a structure invented to give fragmented 
and inelevant information a seeming use. But the use the pseudo context provides is not action, or problem-solving, or 
change. It is the only use left for infonnation with no genuine connection to our lives. And that, of course, is to amuse. The 
pseudo context is the last refuge, so to say, of a culture overwhelmed by inelevance, incoherence, and impotence.” (676) 

The Slaughter, Slavery, and Forced Assimilation of Indigenous Homo sapiens 

For thousands of years many indigenous Homo sapiens lived in peace and coexisted with nature and each other, 
living a very simplistic lifestyle. And even though some of their pseudo religious views were bizarre, their 
politics they practiced are perhaps somewhat antiquated, and ultimately, they all collapsed for one reason or 
another, it is their minimalist lifestyle, morals, and connection with nature shown in their respect for Earth, 

which modem societies could perhaps leam and benefit most from. Some indigenous viewed civilization itself 
and societies disconnection with nature as the problems, Theodora Kroeber wrote, 

"He considered the white man to be fortunate, inventive, and very, very clever; but childlike and lacking in a desirable 
reserve, and in a true understanding of Nature-her mystic face; her terrible and her benign power.” 

"Ishi felt quite sure that he knew the chief causes for men's sickening in civilization. They were, briefly, the excessive amount 
of time men spent cooped up in automobiles, in offices, and in their own houses. It is not a man's nature to be too much 
indoors...” (656) 

When the Spanish, French, Portuguese, English, and other European empires sent expeditions to the New World 
they were not on a mission of peace or scientific discovery, they were on one of conquest. They did not seek 
peace with the Indigenous Homo sapiens initially, and there was only temporary peace obtained briefly at times, 
and this was usually broken on the part of the European not the indigenous. Alcohol was introduced to the 
indigenous which had a devastating impact turning many into drunkards, as they had built up no tolerance like 
the Europeans who had consumed alcohol for thousands of years. The invaders brought with them not only new 
vices, but new diseases as well like chicken pox, dysentery, influenza, malaria, measles, typhus, smallpox, 
pneumonia, tuberculosis, typhoid, and others. Before even making contact with the invaders many indigenous 
Homo sapiens were killed by these diseases introduced by the Spanish, hence these diseases did much of the 
genocide rather than the actual hands of the conquistadors. Christians regarded the conquests as simply another 
opportunity to convert more Homo sapiens and gain more followers. The proselytizing of indigenous Homo 
sapiens throughout the world resulted in many older and alternative religions being destroyed and lost forever. 
Culture, history, and knowledge were exterminated all in the name of conquest and Christianity. Ina Corrine 
Brown wrote, 

"People can and do modify and change their social patterns but when whole peoples are ruthlessly separated from their past 
the result is almost always disorganization and deterioration. We have seen this cultural breakdown in peoples who somehow 
seemed to lose the will to live and who literally died out under the impact of conquest that took all the meaning out of life. We 
have seen it in the pathetic deterioration of many once proud Indian tribes whose cup of life was broken under the impact of 
the white man. We have seen it, too, in American Negros, robbed of their African heritage and prevented from accepting foil 
the new heritage that was being forged as a part of the American dream. We are seeing it today take a new form as totalitarian 
governments consciously and ruthlessly go about making other peoples over in their own image.” (22) 

When De Soto explored America between 1539 and 1542, he left a wake of destruction and bodies in his path 
while also enslaving the mostly peaceful Mobilian Indian tribes of the southeastern United States. D. H. 
Montgomery wrote, 

"It was 'a roving company of gallant freebooters,' in search of fortune. De Soto had provided bloodhounds and chains to hunt 
and enslave the Indians... 

The expedition landed at Tampa Bay, and began its march of exploration, of robbery, and of murder. The soldiers seized the 
natives, chained them in couples so that they might not escape, and forced them to carry their baggage and pound their com. 

The chief of each tribe through whose country they passed was compelled to serve as a guide until they reached the next tribe. 

If an Indian refused to be as slave or a beast of burden for these insolent Spaniards, his fate was pitiful. They set him up as a 
target, and riddled his body with bullets; or they chopped off his hands, and then sent him home to exhibit the useless, 
bleeding stumps to his family. 

They found no gold worth mentioning; but in its stead, hunger, suffering, and death. They deserved what they found...they 
were a miserable band, half-naked, half starved, looking worse than the savages they had gone out to subdue.” (48) 

Although colonialism forcibly assimilated and destroyed many ancient cultures of the Americas, to this day 
many Spaniards refer to their ancestors as discoverers, and there is still a major holiday, Columbus Day, 
celebrated in Spain, Italy, and most United States cities. There are many monuments, parks, roads, cities, and 
other things throughout the world named after Christopher Columbus, and there is even a hospital in Madrid, 
Spain commemorating the day when Columbus reached the New World, ‘Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre 
Some Spaniards, Americans, French, and British, regard the conquests and colonialism of their ancestors as a 
good and justifiable act. But the true nature of the conquistadors and of all European empires of the colonialism 
era which followed, was that it was nothing more than an inhumane conquest and forced assimilation of another 

society and culture. In some schools it is taught that Christopher Columbus was on a scientific mission of 
discovery, and not one of conquest, they do not focus on the reality and truth of what occurred from 1492 and 
continues to have a rippling effect still today with so many indigenous Homo sapiens throughout the world. 
Theodora Kroeber wrote, 

“We have been taught to regard with pride the courage and ingenuity of these ancestors, their stubbornness in carving out a 
good life for their children. It is neither meet nor needful to withdraw such affectionate respect and admiration; it is perhaps 
well to remind ourselves that the best and gentlest of them did not question their right to appropriate land belonging to 
someone else, if Indian- the legal phrase was “justifiable conquest.” However broad and real governmental and popular 
approval was, this invasion was like the classic barbarian invasions-forced intrusion upon a settled population, and its 
replacement by the intruders. Such invasions have occurred many times, and continue to occur in the history of mankind, but 
also as well in the history of all forms of life; they are a part of the biological urge of each plant and animal to make or to take 
a place for itself and its descendants. Invasion, then, is a necessitous act in the Darwinian sense of struggle and survival; it is 
instinctive, primitive, and in itself inhumane.” (98) 

And Martin Luther King Jr. reiterated this message when he wrote, 

“In dealing with the ambivalence of white America, we must not overlook another form of racism that was relentlessly 
pursued on American shores: the physical extermination of the American Indian. The South American example of absorbing 
the indigenous Indian population was ignored in the United States, and systematic destruction of a whole people was 
undertaken. The common phrase, “The only good Indian is a dead Indian,” was virtually elevated to national policy. Thus the 
poisoning of the American mind was accomplished not only by acts of discrimination and exploitation but by the exaltation 
of murder as an expression of the courage and initiative of the pioneer. Just as Southern culture was made to appear noble by 
ignoring the cruelty of slavery, the conquest of the Indian was depicted as example of bravery and progress.” ( 653 ) 

Some of the original colonist respected the indigenous and attempted to live peacefully with them, in fact the 
indigenous held them in high regard. In 1635, a minister named Roger Williams defied the King of England and 
sided with the indigenous, eventually prevented a massacre of the colonist in Boston. D. H. Montgomery wrote, 

“Mr. Williams denied that the king had any power to give them the land, because it belonged first of all to the Indians. This 
was a new and startling way of looking at things, and the colonist feared that free utterance of this king might provoke the 
English sovereign to take away their charter. Roger Williams was ordered (1635) to leave the colony. Later, an attempt was 
made to arrest him and send him to England. Williams escaped. It was winter and the weather was bitterly cold. The fugitive 
took refuge among the Indians, who fed and sheltered him.” 

“The Pequots, an Indian tribe of Connecticut, were plotting a massacre of the white settlers of that part of the country, and 
were trying to stir up the Narragansetts to attack Massachusetts. Williams used his influence with the latter tribe to such good 
effect that they refused to fight. Thus the exiled minister was probably the means of saving the people of Boston and 
surrounding towns from the horrors of an Indian war.” (68) 

In 1682, the original Quakers of Pennsylvania lived peacefully with the indigenous, with William Penn creating 
a treaty which Voltaire described as, “The only treaty which was never sworn to, and never broken.” D. H. 
Montgomery wrote, 

“According to tradition he met the Red Men under the branches of a wide-spreading elm in what was then the vicinity of 
Philadelphia. There solemn promises of mutual friendship were made. In accordance however, with the principles of the 
Quaker faith, no oaths were taken. Each trusted the other's simple word. That treaty was “never broken,” and for sixty years, 
or as long as the Quakers held control, the people of Pennsylvania lived at peace with the natives.” (69) 

So, there was a brief period in American history when some of the colonist coexisted with the indigenous, and 
these colonists wanted a simple peaceful lifestyle, living in harmony with nature like the indigenous and to be 
unmolested by the tyrants they fled from in Europe. But as further history shows, eventually more pervasive 
tyrannical greedy colonist with unwarranted fear and hostility towards the indigenous prevailed, and forced 
assimilation was inevitable. The treaties from this point were meaningless and most often broken by the colonist, 
and yet, even still, in spite of all the death and destruction, many indigenous still assisted the Europeans, saving 
their lives in many instances from starvation and other aggressive indigenous, hospitably welcoming them into 
their lands. Even to this day, most indigenous do not harbor anger, perhaps sadness, as they still attempt to 
coexist with the descendants of their conquerors. 

The Maya did not see the Spanish conquistadors as friends or as a new and improved future, to the contrary they 
in fact saw it as a vice, and as the beginning of the end to their culture and lifestyle. The conquerors destroyed 
the Maya and introduced many negative societal elements which were previously u nk nown to them. J. Eric 
Thompson describes the first-hand account of a Mayan scribe regarding the Spanish Conquest in writing, 

“Of the changes resulting from the Spanish Conquest the Maya Scribe writes: Before the coming of the mighty men and 
Spaniards there was no robbery by violence, there was no greed, and striking down one's fellow man in his blood, at the cost 
of the poor man, at the expense of the food of each and everyone. [And elsewhere] It was the beginning of tribute, the 
beginning of church dues, the beginning of strife with purse snatching, the beginning of strife with guns, the beginning of 
strife by trampling of people, the beginning of robbery with violence, the beginning of debts enforced by false testimony, the 
beginning of individual strife, a beginning of vexation.” (27) 

Most today have never even heard of Ishi, nor the millions of other indigenous Homo sapiens the world over 
who were slaughtered and victimized during the Caucasian invasions. Ishi has long since been forgotten by most 
and is just another footnote in the too often overlooked censored history of America and the genocide of 
indigenous Homo sapiens by the Europeans. Ishi was a Yahi from California, and the last free indigenous to be 
forcibly assimilated into the American society, although there may have been others who hid and were never 
known about, living out their days in the wilds of nature alone. The Yahi were indigenous Homo sapiens that, 
like so many other indigenous throughout the world, had a connection with nature and the utmost respect for it, 
along with a strong moral character. Theodora Kroeber described them as, 

“Indians who knew their land, its bounteousness, its varies beauty, its fragility. Who used it well, benefiting man, leaving 
unraped, its animals, plants, trees, Earth, streams, beaches, ocean. Whose way was, one of reason, contentment, Self- 

“The California Indian was, in other words, a true provincial. He was an introvert, reserved, contemplative, and philosophical. 

He lived at ease with the supernatural and the mystical which were pervasive in all aspects of life. He felt no need to 
differentiate mystical truth from directly evidential or “material” truth, or the supernatural from the natural: one was as 
manifest as the other within his system of values and perceptions and beliefs. The promoter, the boaster, the aggressor, the 
egoist, the innovator, would have been looked at askance. The ideal was the man of restraint, dignity, rectitude, he of the 
Middle Way.” (91) 

In August 1911, Ishi with his hair burned short as a sign of mourning, walked out of the wild and into Oroville, 
California where he was promptly locked up in the jail for the insane. Anthropologists from the University of 
California heard of the incident, and they took Ishi back to the University where he lived for the remaining four 
years and seven months of his life, eventually dying of tuberculosis. Hence, in the end he finally succumbed like 
so many other indigenous before him, dying as a result of a disease brought by the invaders. During his sojourn 
at the museum he was studied and demonstrated his skills of arrowhead making, bow stringing, and fire starting 
on Sunday afternoons for public audiences, and was basically used as a living museum piece while also working 
as a janitorial assistant at the museum to earn a very modest income. (93) 

A better fate perhaps than some of his fellow tribe members who were ambushed and murdered in cold blood 
while they lay asleep, or others which were rounded up to be put on a government reservation and died during 
the process, or even the fate of the millions of other indigenous Homo sapiens who were raped and/or murdered 
by the ruthless and barbaric conquerors. Theodora Kroeber described detailed several such incidents when she 

“It was the early 'sixties that the whole white population of the Sacramento Valley was in an uproar of rage and fear over the 
murder for five white children by hill Indians-probably Yahi. But the soberly estimated numbers of kidnappings of Indian 
children by whites in California to be sold as slaves or kept as cheap help was, between the years 1852 and 1867, from three 
to four thousand', every Indian woman, girl, and girl-child was potentially and in thousands of cases actually subject to 
repeated rape, to kidnapping, and to prostitution. Prostitution was unknown to aboriginal California, as were the venereal 
diseases which accounted for from forty to as high as eighty percent of Indian deaths during the first twenty years following 
the gold rush.” 

“In the company of these first comers were the inevitable trigger-happy few whose habit had become to shoot an Indian, any 
Indian, on sight; who counted coup under the slogan, The only good Indian is a dead Indian,” and who were possessed of a 
the special skill of scalping, something previously unknown to California's aborigines. There was one such of whom 

Waterman writes: “On good authority I can report the case of an old prospector-pioneer-miner-trapper of this region [Butte 
County], who had on his bed even in recent years a blanket lined with Indian scalps. These had been taken years before. He 
had never been a government scout, soldier, or officer of the law. The Indians he had killed purely on his own account. No 
reckoning was at any time demanded of him.”” 

“Forced migrations account for some hundred of Yana deaths; but death by shooting and particularly by mass-murder 
shooting interspersed with hangings were the usual and popular techniques of extermination.” 

“A Captain Starr escorted the Indians on their march. He left Chico with four hundred and sixty-one Indians, and arrived at 
Round Valley with two hundred and seventy-seven. Two were unaccounted for; thirty-two died on the march; and a hundred 
and fifty were left sick along the trail to be brought in later if they should recover enough to continue the trip. Those Indians 
who did recover returned home, some reaching Chico ahead of the troops. Of those who were taken all the way to Round 
Valley little is known. The War Records quote one general as saying that it was impossible to keep Indians on a reservation.” 

“There was one young Yana woman, unusually popular with the white people who knew and employed her, who was dragged 
by force out of the white man's home where she lived. Her old aunt and uncle who were there with her were also taken, and 
the three of them pumped full of bullets on the spot. Curtin's informant had counted eleven bullet holes in the breast of the 
young woman. The man who killed her, and who was well “likkered up,” was not satisfied. “I don't think that squaw is dead 
yet,” he is reported as saying. To make sure, he smashed in her skull with his revolver.” 

“Waiting only until there was light enough for his men to see where they were shooting, Anderson directed a continuous 
stream of gunfire down from above onto the sleeping village. As he had surmised, the ahi ran downstream making for the 
open ford which brought them under Good's fire from below. The terrified Indians leapt into Mill Creek, but the rapid current 
was a sorry protection. They became targets there for Good's fun, and Mill Creek ran red with the blood of its people. 

Anderson reported that “many dead bodies floated down the rapid current...A few Yahi escaped, the small child Ishi and his 
mother among them.” (97) 

Smallpox was intentionally spread among the indigenous Homo sapiens of the Americas in 1763 via blankets 
given as a gift causing a pandemic among the Ohio Valley and Great Lakes tribes and ultimately led to 500,000 
to 1,500,000 deaths. No one will ever know the exact number of indigenous Homo sapiens around the world that 
died, either slaughtered by the direct hand of the conquerors, by the diseases brought with them, or as a result of 
the forced assimilation which followed. Like all genocides throughout history no one will ever know the exact 
total, was it 25,000,000 or 50,000,000 or 100,000,000 or perhaps even more? When attempting to gather 
statistics on the number of Yana killed, Theodora Kroeber describes the difficulty with trying to establish exact 
numbers in saying, 

“...for the nature of the available source material can but rarely yield exact figures. Since all the infonnation is from white 
sources, and since an account of an Indian murder of a white was more acceptable copy than the reverse event, any 
inaccuracy in ration will minimize the extent of the disproportion...the accounts say “several,” “many,” “a few”- not exact 
numbers which yield exact totals, not to mention those deaths of which no formal record survives.” (655) 

Even recent attempts by governments to assimilate indigenous Homo sapiens has been brutal, like the ‘Sixties 
Scoop ’ between the 1960s and the late 1980s in which the Canadian government took an estimated 20,000 
Aboriginal children from their families and placed them in foster homes. Or the similar action taken by 
Australian Federal and State government agencies and church missions between 1905 and 1969 towards the 
children of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander descendants who were removed from their families, 
and later known as the ‘Stolen Generation This forced assimilation of another race and subsequent elimination 
of an entire culture stems from nothing more than ideology and has been used to justify all forms of tyranny in 
the past and even the present. Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn wrote, 

"Ideology—that is what gives evildoing its long-sought justification and gives the evildoer the necessary steadfastness and 
determination. That is the social theory which helps to make his acts seem good instead of bad in his own and others' eyes, so 
that he won't hear reproaches and curses but will receive praise and honors. That was how the agents of the Inquisition 
fortified their wills: by invoking Christianity; the conquerors of foreign lands, by extolling the grandeur of their Motherland; 
the colonizers, by civilization; the Nazis, by race; and the Jacobins (early and late), by equality, brotherhood, and the 
happiness of future generations. 

Thanks to ideology, the twentieth century was fated to experience evildoing on a scale calculated in the millions. This cannot 
be denied, nor passed over, nor suppressed. How, then, do we dare insist that evildoers do not exist? And who was it that 
destroyed these millions? Without evildoers there would have been no Archipelago." (684) 

Many Americans have no real conception of the genocide which took place, they are blinded to reality by 
‘Cowboys and Indians ’ entertainment presented in western books, TV, and movies resulting in a Gunsmoke, 

Lone Ranger, John Wayne type mentality viewing the indigenous as savages out to kill women and children. 
Others give only slight recognition to the historical facts being dismissive and brushing it off as a mistake that 
cannot be undone, or they erroneously believe that it has been corrected. Some think that now all indigenous 
Homo sapiens in the United States live a great life on a reservation somewhere, that they are free and 
independent of the United States government, that they have great wealth from casinos and mineral rights, when 
in reality it is the exact opposite. Since 1831 in the United States, the U.S. government has acted as the trustee of 
indigenous Homo sapiens affairs, with their lands being owned and managed by the U.S. government and nearly 
every aspect of economic development being controlled by federal agencies. Most Americans have shunned the 
indigenous Homo sapiens in the United States and have no idea of the poverty-stricken state some of them live 
in, or that they have extremely higher rates of alcoholism and suicide. Most Americans are unaware of how the 
U. S. government still exploits them even today, and even fewer know about how the U.S. government has 
bilked them out of $48,000,000,000 since 1887, but only compensated them $3,400,000,000 in a 1996 lawsuit. 
(654). Only 4 standing U.S. presidents have visited indigenous reservations over the last 90 years. Calvin 
Coolidge traveled to South Dakota’s Pine Ridge reservation in 1927, three years after he signed the Indian 
Citizenship Act that granted some indigenous American citizenship. Franklin Roosevelt visited North Carolina’s 
Cherokee Nation in 1936, then in 1999, Bill Clinton also visited Pine Ridge reservation, and in June 2014 
Barack Obama visited Standing Rock reservation. Why do so few U.S. Presidents visit indigenous reservations? 

Even today there are prominent symbols of racism based on the past and the misconception about all indigenous 
Homo sapiens being great warriors and wanting to fight. In 1937, the Boston Braves moved to Washington D.C. 
and were renamed the Washington Redskins, and this racist name is still used today contrary to major opposition. 
Flow can such a racist name symbolize the football team which is representing the nation’s capital? As of 2017, 
there were 2,129 mascots for high school, college, and pro teams that reference Braves, Chiefs, Indians, 
Orangemen, Raiders, Redmen, Reds, Redskins, Savages, Squaws, Tribe and Warriors, Apaches, Arapahoe, 
Aztecs, Cherokees, Chickasaws, Chinooks, Chippewas, Choctaws, Comanches, Eskimos, Mohawks, Mohicans, 
Seminoles, Sioux, and Utes. (317) 

j»,. ■■ w 

tfp. .- r l 

- ! -*-:-H 

— i 

mm tfc • 

• North — 

Dak ° ,a ft .. , 

j Streets | Topo | Aerial | 


M T\ K3 ’ Vi 

^ S/ / , 

Portland gt 

B Y C , \ 

Ottawa Montreal 

i a Mamjr 


PLh ' • fv Wisconsin*# 

r 1 ' J' -Myrnr- 









San-. . • 
Diego . 



; V / 

Chihuahua - 



. Grdrtd 

Milwaukee Rapid5 


Buffalo o Rl 

t I ~ 

f -Detroit 

V /'"’A , <*" 


n Providence 

^ -_ 



Illinois . 

^ enver 


| Kansas 

■ ^Oty 

/S Missour 

St Louis 


L,Jr „ 

■ , 




_- --a! 



D alias 



/ C Ohio 

apolis o 

n|1 - Cincinnati 


New York 

. Richmond 


1 Norfolk 

' 0 Kn«ville^ 

Greenville ° Charlotte 




! £) 

n Tampa 

SOURCE: National Library of Medicine / TOXMAP - Brown shaded areas are Native Lands - Although the entire continent 
of North America was once land inhabited by and belonging to indigenous Homo sapiens, currently very little remains in the 
United States. - 

In the United States, indigenous Homo sapiens also still struggle with many social and economic issues. 
Diabetes, cancer, heart disease, poor dental health, infectious disease, alcohol and substance abuse, domestic and 
community violence, and mental illness are all prominent afflictions within the indigenous Homo sapiens 
population of the United States. Even in today’s modem and thriving American society some indigenous Homo 
sapiens do not have access to adequate housing, sanitation, health care, food, education, and other necessities 
which are available to most all other United States citizens. How can indigenous Homo sapiens in the United 
States be lacking so many basic necessities in a nation which has such abundant resources? The U.S. 
Commission on Civil Rights 2003 report, ‘A Quiet Crisis Federal Funding and Unmet Needs in Indian Country 

"The federal government’s failure to avail Native Americans of services and programs available to other Americans violates 
their civil rights. This report demonstrates that funding for services critical to Native Americans—including health care, law 
enforcement, and education—is disproportionately lower than funding for services to other populations. For example, the 
federal government’s rate of spending on health care for Native Americans is 50 percent less than for prisoners or Medicaid 
recipients, and 60 percent less than is spent annually on health care for the average American. Underfunding violates the 
basic tenets of the trust relationship between the government and Native peoples and perpetuates a civil rights crisis in Indian 

For more than 40 years, the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights has documented the dismal conditions in Native communities. 

Sadly, conditions in Indian Country are current-day reflections of some of the Commission’s earliest works, despite continued 
funding and promises to improve. To what degree the federal government has failed to live up to its obligations and the 
implications of that failure are questions to which the Commission now addresses itself. In every area reviewed—health, 
housing, law enforcement, education, food distribution—funding and services are inadequate, as they have been historically. 

Some observers have labeled the economic condition in Indian Country “termination by funding cuts,”28 as funding has so 
severely limited the ability of tribal governments to provide the services needed to sustain life on reservations." 

“According to members of the Senate Indian Affairs Committee, roughly 90,000 Indian families are homeless or under¬ 
housed; more than 30 percent of reservation households are crowded; 18 percent are severely crowded; and one in five Indian 
houses lacks complete plumbing facilities. Roughly percent of Native American homes are without telephones, while only 6 
percent of non-Native households lack telephone service. Some Native American communities lack even the infrastructure 
for telephone installation, hampering basic communication. Overall, approximately 40 percent of on-reservation housing is 
considered inadequate as compared with roughly 6 percent nationwide. For Native Hawaiians, the situation is even more dire: 

36 percent of homes are overcrowded, and 49 percent of Native Hawaiians experience housing problems. Regional variations 
exist and are associated with geographic isolation, proximity to urban economies, and private ownership of land. For 
example, in Alaska, Arizona, and New Mexico, the rate of overcrowding and substandard housing is more than 60 percent. 

Basic housing provisions that are taken for granted elsewhere in the nation are often absent on reservations. For example, 
fewer than 50 percent of homes on reservations are connected to a public sewer system. Twenty percent of homes must resort 
to other means of sewage disposal, often resulting in “honeybucket” methods in which household waste and sewage are 
collected into large receptacles that are later dumped into lagoons beyond the boundaries of the village or tribe. Settlements 
that use this system often suffer serious contamination and severe bacterial and viral infection from the waste and sewage 
washing back into the communities after heavy rainfall; this system also results in the poisoning of crops.” 

“Another significant role of IHS is the construction and maintenance of sanitation facilities, including water supplies, sewage 
disposal, and solid waste sites, in individual homes and communities. Adequate sanitation facilities play a large role in 
disease prevention. Currently, however, approximately 21,500 Native American homes (nearly 8 percent) lack safe water. In 
comparison, the same is true for 1 percent of all U.S. homes.” 

“In addition to being the victims of crime more often, Native Americans are also overrepresented in jails and prisons. 

American Indians are incarcerated at a rate 38 percent higher than the national per capita rate. Alaska Natives are incarcerated 
at nearly twice the rate of their representation in the state population. The number of Native American youth in the federal 
prison system has increased 50 percent since 1994. Many Native Americans attribute disproportionate incarceration rates to 
unfair treatment by the criminal justice system, including racial profiling, disparities in prosecution, and lack of access to 
legal representation. Because of burgeoning crime and lack of prevention programs, jails in Indian Country regularly operate 
beyond capacity. In 2001, the 10 largest jails were at 142 percent capacity, and nearly a third of all tribal facilities were 
operating above 150 percent capacity. According to a DOJ study, in some Native jails resources are so scarce that inmates do 
not have blankets, mattresses, or basic hygiene items, such as soap and toothpaste.” 

"Unemployment and poverty have continuously plagued the vast majority of Native American communities. On some 
reservations, unemployment levels have reached 85 percent. According to the 2000 census, average unemployment on 
reservations is 13.6 percent, more than twice the national rate. Likewise, 31.2 percent of reservation inhabitants live in 
poverty, and the national poverty rate for Native Americans is 24.5 percent. 13 By contrast, the national poverty rate in the 

United States between 1999 and 2001 was 11.6 percent. Having reached crisis proportions, disparities in impoverishment and 
unemployment offer further evidence of the federal government’s failure to protect the rights of and promote equal 
opportunities for Native Americans." 

"Native Americans suffer food insecurity and hunger at twice the rate of the general population. USD A found that from 1995 
to 1997, 22.2 percent of Native American households were food insecure, meaning they did not have enough food to meet 
even their basic needs. In fact, the situation was so severe that USDA determined that from 1995 to 1997, one or more 
members of these households suffered from moderate to severe hunger, with 8.6 percent of households experiencing both 
food insecurity and hunger." (585) 

For the last 500 years indigenous Homo sapiens throughout the world have been victims of modern society’s 
forced assimilation, which is nothing more than a continuous disintegration and extinction of cultures still 
ongoing in some parts of the world. To see the continuous struggle for land, justice, and equality which so many 
indigenous Homo sapiens face one need only watch Nettie Wild's 1998 documentary 'A Place Called Chiapas'. 
Poverty, alcoholism, rape, malnutrition, suicide, disease, violence and brutality, imprisonment, and other issues 
affect many of the more than 370,000,000 indigenous Homo sapiens throughout the world. In 2010, the first ever 
United Nations publication on the state of the world’s indigenous Homo sapiens was released, it stated, 

"In the United States, a Native American is 600 times more likely to contract tuberculosis and 62 per cent more likely to 
commit suicide than the general population." 

"While indigenous peoples make up around 370 million of the world’s population - some 5 per cent - they constitute around 
one-third of the world’s 900 million extremely poor rural people. Every day, indigenous communities allover the world face 
issues of violence and brutality, continuing assimilation policies, dispossession of land, marginalization, forced removal or 
relocation, denial of land rights, impacts of large-scale development, abuses by military forces and a host of other abuses.: 

"Indigenous peoples experience disproportionately high levels of maternal and infant mortality, malnutrition, cardiovascular 
illnesses, HIV/AIDS and other infectious diseases such as malaria and tuberculosis." 

"Suicide rates of indigenous peoples, particularly among youth, are considerably higher in many countries, for example, up to 
11 times the national average for the Inuit in Canada." 

"Indigenous peoples account for most of the world’s cultural diversity. Throughout the world, there are approximately 370 
million indigenous peoples occupying 20 per cent of the earth’s territory. It is also estimated that they represent as many as 
5,000 different indigenous cultures. The indigenous peoples of the world therefore account for most of the world’s cultural 
diversity, even though they constitute a numerical minority." 

"Violence, forced assimilation, abuse. Despite all the positive developments in international human rights standard-setting, 
indigenous peoples continue to face serious human rights abuses on a day-to-day basis. Issues of violence and brutality, 
continuing assimilation policies, marginalization, dispossession of land, forced removal or relocation, denial of land rights, 
impacts of large-scale development, abuses by military forces and armed conflict, and a host of other abuses, are a reality for 
indigenous communities around the world. Examples of violence and brutality have been heard from every comer of the 
world, most often perpetrated against indigenous persons who are defending their rights and their lands, territories and 

Violence against women. An indigenous woman is more likely to be raped, with some estimates showing that more than one 
in three indigenous women are raped during their lifetime. 

Systemic racism. Indigenous peoples frequently raise concerns about systemic discrimination and outright racism from the 
State and its authorities. This discrimination manifests itself in a number of ways such as frequent and unnecessary 
questioning by the police, condescending attitudes of teachers to students or rudeness from a receptionist in a government 
office. At their most extreme, these forms of discrimination lead to gross violations of human rights, such as murder, rape and 
other fonns of violence or intimidation. These forms of discrimination are often either difficult to quantify and verify or are 
simply not documented by the authorities, or not disaggregated based on ethnicity." 

"Despite some progress, little change. Despite efforts over the last 40 years to improve conditions and to increase recognition 
of indigenous rights through law and policy, litigation, national dialogue and enhanced leadership opportunities, full 
accommodation of indigenous rights remains elusive." 

"There are around 300,000 Forest Peoples - also referred to as “Pygmies” or “Batwa” - in the Central African rainforest. 

These peoples are now facing unprecedented pressures on their lands, forest resources and societies, as forests are logged, 
cleared for agriculture or turned into exclusive wildlife conservation areas. They are becoming outcasts on the edge of 
dominant society as they settle in villages and are increasingly dependent on the cash economy, but are unable to enjoy the 

rights accorded to other citizens and are marginalized from decision-making. As these pressures intensify, Pygmy peoples are 
suffering increasing poverty, racial discrimination, violence and cultural collapse. Throughout Central Africa, their traditional 
way of life is disappearing, and their incomparable knowledge of the forest is being lost." 

"The Maori comprise less than 15 per cent of the New Zealand population, yet account for 40 per cent of all court convictions 
and half the prison population." 

"Ninety per cent of the timber being extracted in the Peruvian Amazon is illegal and originates from protected areas 
belonging to indigenous communities or set aside for indigenous peoples who live involuntary isolation." 

"Almost a quarter of Native Americans and Alaska Natives live under the poverty line in the United States, compared to 
about 12.5 per cent of the total population." 

"Native Americans and Alaska Natives have higher death rates than other Americans from tuberculosis (600per cent higher), 
alcoholism (510 per cent higher), motor vehicle crashes (229 per cent higher), diabetes (189per cent higher), unintentional 
injuries (152 per cent higher), homicide (61 per cent higher) and suicide (62 percent higher)." 

"While indigenous peoples in Canada represent only 3 per cent of the total population, they make up aroundl9 per cent of 
federal prisoners." (494) 

Migrants, Refugees and Asylum Seekers 

The United Nations Refugee Agency reported that in 1997 there were 33,900,000 forcibly displaced Homo 
sapiens worldwide, by 2016 this number increased to 65,600,000. (672) Migrants, refugees, and asylum seekers 
are forcibly displaced as a result of violence, persecution, war, natural disaster, and global warming. During their 
migration or when reaching their destination country, they are too often subjected to xenophobia and racism 
resulting in discrimination, and some becoming victims of violent and even deadly attacks from oppositionist 
anxiously awaiting their arrival in the host country. 

Contemporary Slavery 

Slavery has been abolished de jure in all countries, but de facto slavery in the form of involuntary servitude, 
serfdom, domestic servants held in captivity, debt bondage, sexual slavery, child soldiers, and forced marriage 
still take place worldwide. The 2016 Global Slavery Index estimated that 45,800,000 Homo sapiens worldwide 
are victims of some form of contemporary slavery, with 58% of them residing in either India, China, Pakistan, 
Bangladesh, and Uzbekistan. 18,354,700 slaves reside in India alone, making it by far the nation with the most 
contemporary slaves. (266) Additionally, there are also millions of adult laborers working in sweatshops in some 
impoverished countries which lack labor laws or safety standards. These workers are exploited and made to 
work long hours under horrendous conditions for extremely low wages, usually earning less than $1.00 an hour 
making items which often are sold for an absurd price. 

Most individuals around the world are not even aware of the trafficking and exploitation of millions of Homo 
sapiens worldwide which occurs, and many politicians and governments turn a blind eye to the practice. How 
can such advanced and civilized nations like: the United States, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, 

Switzerland, Bulgaria, Greece, Turkey, Brazil, Italy, Ireland, Spain, United Kingdom, Brazil, China, and others 
allow this sort of social injustice to even occur within their own borders? 

Current World Slave Trade, Trafficking of Homo sapiens , and other Exploitation of Homo sapiens 




Afghanistan is a source transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to 
forced labor and sex trafficking, although domestic trafficking is more prevalent than transnational 
trafficking; Afghan men are subjected to forced labor and debt bondage in Iran, Pakistan, Greece, 
Turkey, and the Gulf states; Afghan women and girls are forced into prostitution and domestic 
servitude in Pakistan, Iran, and India, while women and girls from the Philippines, Pakistan, Iran 
Tajikistan, and China are reportedly sexually exploited in Afghanistan; children are increasingly 
subjected to forced labor in carpet-making factories, domestic servitude, forced begging, and 
commercial sexual exploitation; some children are sold to settle debts. 


Albania is a source country for men, women, and children subjected to sex trafficking and forced 
labor; Albanian victims of sexual exploitation are trafficked within Albania and in Greece, Italy 
Macedonia, Kosovo, Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany, Switzerland, Ireland, and the UK; some 
Albanian women become sex trafficking victims after accepting offers of legitimate jobs; Albanian 
children are forced to beg orperfonn other forms of forced labor; Filipino victims of labor trafficking 
were identified in Albania during 2012. 


Algeria is a transit and, to a lesser extent, a destination and source country for women subjected to 
forced labor and sex trafficking and, to a lesser extent, men subjected to forced labor; criminal 
networks, sometimes extending to sub-Saharan Africa and to Europe, are involved in human 
smuggling and trafficking in Algeria; sub-Saharan adults enter Algeria voluntarily but illegally, often 
with the aid of smugglers, for onward travel to Europe, but some of the women are forced into 
prostitution, domestic service, and begging; some sub-Saharan men, mostly from Mali, are forced into 
domestic servitude; some Algerian women and children are also forced into prostitution domestically. 


Angola is a source and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to sex trafficking 
and forced labor in agriculture, construction, domestic service, and diamond mines; some Angolan 
girls are forced into domestic prostitution into domestic prostitution, while some Angolan boys are 
taken to Namibia as forced laborers or are forced to be cross-border couriers; women and children are 
also forced into domestic service in South Africa, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Namibia, 
and European countries; Vietnamese, Brazilian, and Chinese women are trafficked to Angola for 
prostitution, while Chinese, Southeast Asian, Namibian, and possibly Congolese migrants are 
subjected to forced labor in Angola's construction industry. 

Antigua and Barbuda 

Current situation: Antigua and Barbuda is a destination and transit country for adults and children 
subjected to sex trafficking and forced labor; forced prostitution has been reported in bars, taverns, and 
brothels, while forced labor occurs in domestic service and the retail sector. 


Bahrain is a destination country for men and women subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; 
unskilled and domestic workers from India, Pakistan, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Indonesia, 
Thailand, the Philippines, Ethiopia, Ghana, and Eritrea migrate willingly to Bahrain, but some face 
conditions of forced labor through the withholding of passports, restrictions on movement, 
nonpayment, threats, and abuse; many Bahraini labor recruitment agencies and some employers charge 
foreign workers exorbitant fees that make them vulnerable to forced labor and sexual exploitation 
because they are not protected under labor laws; women from Thailand, the Philippines, Morocco, 
Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, China, Vietnam, Russia, Ukraine, and Eastern European countries are forced 
into prostitution in Bahrain. 


Belarus is a source, transit, and destination country for women, men, and children subjected to sex 
trafficking and forced labor; more victims are exploited within Belarus than abroad; Belarusians 
exploited abroad are primarily trafficked to Germany, Poland, Russian, and Turkey but also other 
European countries, the Middle East, Japan, Kazakhstan, and Mexico; Moldovans, Russians, 
Ukrainians, and Vietnamese are exploited in Belarus; state-sponsored forced labor is a continuing 
problem; students are forced to do farm labor without pay and military conscripts are forced to 
perform unpaid non-military work; the government has retained a decree forbidding workers in state- 
owned wood processing factories from leaving their jobs without their employers’ permission. 


Belize is a source, destination, and transit country for men, women, and children subjected to forced 
labor and sex trafficking; the coerced prostitution of women and children by family members has not 
led to arrests; child sex tourism, involving primarily US citizens, is on the rise; sex trafficking and 
forced labor of Belizean and foreign women and LGBT individuals occurs in bars, nightclubs, 
brothels, and domestic service; workers from Central America, Mexico, and Asia may fall victim to 
forced labor in restaurants, shops, agriculture, and fishing. 


Bolivia is a source country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking 
domestically and abroad; indigenous children are particularly vulnerable; Bolivia is a source country 
for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking domestically and abroad; 
rural and poor Bolivians, most of whom are indigenous, and LGBT youth are particularly vulnerable; 
Bolivians perform forced labor domestically in mining, ranching, agriculture, and domestic service, 
and a significant number are in forced labor abroad in sweatshops, agriculture, domestic service, and 
the infonnal sector; women and girls are sex trafficked within Bolivia and in neighboring countries, 
such as Argentina, Peru, and Chile; a limited number of women from nearby countries are sex 
trafficked in Bolivia. 


Botswana is a source, transit, and destination country for women and children subjected to sex 
trafficking and forced labor; young Batswana serving as domestic workers, sometimes sent by their 
parents, may be denied education and basic necessities or experience confinement and abuse indicative 
of forced labor; Batswana girls and women also are forced into prostitution domestically; adults and 

children of San ethnicity were reported to be in forced labor on farms and at cattle posts in the 
country’s rural west. 


Bulgaria is a source and, to a lesser extent, a transit and destination country for men, women, and 
children subjected to sex trafficking and forced labor; Bulgaria is one of the main sources of human 
trafficking in the EU; women and children are increasingly sex trafficked domestically, as well as in 
Europe, Russia, the Middle East, and the US; adults and children become forced laborers in 
agriculture, construction, and the service sector in Europe, Israel, and Zambia; Romanian girls are also 
subjected to sex trafficking in Bulgaria. 

Burkina Faso 

Burkina Faso is a source, transit, and destination country for women and children subjected to forced 
labor and sex trafficking; Burkinabe children are forced to work as farm hands, gold panners and 
washers, street vendors, domestic servants, and beggars or in the commercial sex trade, with some 
transported to nearby countries; to a lesser extent, Burkinabe women are recruited for legitimate jobs 
in the Middle East or Europe and subsequently forced into prostitution; women from other West 

African countries are also lured to Burkina Faso for work and subjected to forced prostitution, forced 
labor in restaurants, or domestic servitude. 


Burma is a source country for men, women, and children trafficked for the purpose of forced labor and 
for women and children subjected to sex trafficking; Burmese adult and child labor migrants travel to 
East Asia, the Middle East, South Asia, and the US, where men are forced to work in the fishing, 
manufacturing, forestry, and construction industries and women and girls are forced into prostitution, 
domestic servitude, or forced labor in the gannent sector; some Burmese economic migrants and 
Rohingya asylum seekers have become forced laborers on Thai fishing boats; some military personnel 
and armed ethnic groups unlawfully conscript child soldiers or coerce adults and children into forced 
labor; domestically, adults and children from ethnic areas are vulnerable to forced labor on plantations 
and in mines, while children may also be subject to forced prostitution, domestic service, and begging. 


Burundi is a source country for children and possibly women subjected to forced labor and sex 
trafficking; business people recruit Burundian girls for prostitution domestically, as well as in Rwanda, 
Kenya, Uganda, and the Middle East, and recruit boys and girls for forced labor in Burundi and 
Tanzania; children and young adults are coerced into forced labor in farming, mining, informal 
commerce, fishing, or collecting river stones for construction; sometimes family, friends, and 
neighbors are complied in exploiting children, at times luring them in with offers of educational or job 


Cambodia is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to 
forced labor and sex trafficking; Cambodian men, women, and children migrate to countries within the 
region and, increasingly, the Middle East for legitimate work but are subjected to sex trafficking, 
domestic servitude, or forced labor in fishing, agriculture, construction, and factories; Cambodian men 
recruited to work on Thai-owned fishing vessels are subsequently subjected to forced labor in 
international waters and are kept at sea for years; poor Cambodian children are vulnerable and, often 
with the families’ complicity, are subject to forced labor, including domestic servitude and forced 
begging, in Thailand and Vietnam; Cambodian and ethnic Vietnamese women and girls are trafficked 
from rural areas to urban centers and tourist spots for sexual exploitation; Cambodian men are the 
main exploiters of child prostitutes, but men from other Asian countries, and the West travel to 
Cambodia for child sex tourism. 

Central African Republic 

Central African Republic (CAR) is a source, transit, and destination country for children subjected to 
forced labor and sex trafficking, women subjected to forced prostitution, and adults subjected to forced 
labor; most victims appear to be CAR citizens exploited within the country, with a smaller number 
transported back and forth between the CAR and nearby countries; armed groups operating in the 

CAR, including those aligned with the former SELEKA Government and the Lord’s Resistance Army, 
continue to recruit and re-recruit children for military activities and labor; children are also subject to 
domestic servitude, commercial sexual exploitation, and forced labor in agriculture, mines, shops, and 
street vending; women and girls are subject to domestic servitude, sexual slavery, commercial sexual 
exploitation, and forced marriage. 


China is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to sex 
trafficking and forced labor; Chinese adults and children are forced into prostitution and various forms 
of forced labor, including begging and working in brick kilns, coal mines, and factories; women and 
children are recruited from rural areas and taken to urban centers for sexual exploitation, often lured 
by criminal syndicates or gangs with fraudulent job offers; state-sponsored forced labor, where 
detainees work for up to four years often with no remuneration, continues to be a serious concern; 
Chinese men, women, and children also may be subjected to conditions of sex trafficking and forced 
labor worldwide, particularly in overseas Chinese communities; women and children are trafficked to 
China from neighboring countries, as well as Africa and the Americas, for forced labor and 



Comoros is a source country for children subjected to forced labor and, reportedly, sex trafficking 
domestically, and women and children are subjected to forced labor in Mayotte; it is possibly a transit 
and destination country for Malagasy women and girls and a transit country for East African women 
and girls exploited in domestic service in the Middle East; Comoran children are forced to labor in 
domestic service, roadside and street vending, baking, fishing, and agriculture; some Comoran 
students at Koranic schools are exploited for forced agricultural or domestic labor, sometimes being 
subjected to physical and sexual abuse; Comoros may be particularly vulnerable to transnational 
trafficking because of inadequate border controls, government corruption, and the presence of 
international criminal networks. 

The Democratic Republic of 
the Congo 

The Democratic Republic of the Congo is a source, destination, and possibly a transit country for men, 
women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; the majority of this trafficking is 
internal, and much of it is perpetrated by armed groups and rogue government forces outside official 
control in the country's unstable eastern provinces; Congolese adults are subjected to forced labor, 
including debt bondage, in unlicensed mines, and women may be forced into prostitution; Congolese 
women and girls are subjected to forced marriages where they are vulnerable to domestic servitude or 
sex trafficking, while children are forced to work in agriculture, mining, mineral smuggling, vending, 
portering, and begging; Congolese women and children migrate to countries in Africa, the Middle 

East, and Europe where some are subjected to forced prostitution, domestic servitude, and forced labor 
in agriculture and diamond mining; indigenous and foreign anned groups, including the Lord’s 
Resistance Army, abduct and forcibly recruit Congolese adults and children to serve as laborers, 
porters, domestics, combatants, and sex slaves; some elements of the Congolese national army 
(FARDC) also forced adults to carry supplies, equipment, and looted goods, but no cases of the 

FARDC recruiting child soldiers were reported in 2014 - a significant change. 

The Republic of the Congo 

The Republic of the Congo is a source and destination country for children, men, and women, 
subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; most trafficking victims are from Benin, the Democratic 
Republic of the Congo (DRC), and, to a lesser extent, other neighboring countries and are subjected to 
domestic servitude and market vending by West African and Congolese nationals; adults and children, 
the majority from the DRC, are also sex trafficked in Congo, mainly Brazzaville; internal trafficking 
victims, often from rural areas, are exploited as domestic servants or forced to work in quarries, 
bakeries, fishing, and agriculture. 

Costa Rica 

Costa Rica is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to sex 
trafficking and forced labor; Costa Rican women and children, as well as those from Nicaragua, the 
Dominican Republic, and other Latin American countries, are sex trafficked in Costa Rica; child sex 
tourism is a particular problem with offenders coming from the US and Europe; men and children 
from Central America, including indigenous Panamanians, and Asia are exploited in agriculture, 
construction, fishing, and commerce; Nicaraguans transit Costa Rica to reach Panama, where some are 
subjected to forced labor or sex trafficking. 


Cuba is a source country for adults and children subjected to sex trafficking and forced labor; child sex 
trafficking and child sex tourism occur in Cuba, while some Cubans are forced into prostitution in 

South America and the Caribbean; allegations have been made that some Cubans have been forced or 
coerced to work at Cuban medical missions abroad; assessing the scope of trafficking within Cuba is 
difficult because of the lack of information. 


Djibouti is a transit, source, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced 
labor and sex trafficking; economic migrants from East Africa en route to Yemen and other Middle 

East locations are vulnerable to exploitation in Djibouti; some women and girls may be forced into 
domestic servitude or prostitution after reaching Djibouti City, the Ethiopia-Djibouti trucking corridor, 
or Obock - the main crossing point into Yemen; Djiboutian and foreign children may be forced to beg, 
to work as domestic servants, or to commit theft and other petty crimes. 


Egypt is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to sex 
trafficking and forced labor; Egyptian children, including the large population of street children are 
vulnerable to forced labor in domestic service, begging and agriculture or may be victims of sex 
trafficking or child sex tourism, which occurs in Cairo, Alexandria, and Luxor; some Egyptian women 
and girls are sold into “temporary” or “summer” marriages with Gulf men, through the complicity of 
their parents or marriage brokers, and are exploited for prostitution or forced labor; Egyptian men are 
subject to forced labor in neighboring countries, while adults from South and Southeast Asia and East 
Africa - and increasingly Syrian refugees - are forced to work in domestic service, construction, 
cleaning, and begging in Egypt; women and girls, including migrants and refugees, from Asia, sub- 
Saharan Africa, and the Middle East are sex trafficked in Egypt; the Egyptian military cracked down 
on criminal group’s smuggling, abducting, trafficking, and extorting African migrants in the Sinai 

Peninsula, but the practice has reemerged along Egypt’s western border with Libya. 

Equatorial Guinea 

Equatorial Guinea is a source country for children subjected to sex trafficking and destination country 
for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor; Equatorial Guinean girls may be encouraged 
by their parents to engage in the sex trade in urban centers to receive groceries, gifts, housing, and 
money; children are also trafficked from nearby countries for work as domestic servants, market 
laborers, ambulant vendors, and launderers; women are trafficked to Equatorial Guinea from 

Cameroon, Benin, other neighboring countries, and China for forced labor or prostitution. 


Eritrea is a source country for men, women, and children trafficked for the purposes of forced labor 
domestically and, to a lesser extent, sex and labor trafficking abroad; the country’s national service 
program is often abused, with conscripts detained indefinitely and subjected to forced labor; Eritrean 
migrants, often fleeing national service, face strict exit control procedures and limited access to 
passports and visas, making them vulnerable to trafficking; Eritrean secondary school children are 
required to take part in public works projects during their summer breaks and must attend military and 
educational camp in their final year to obtain a high school graduation certificate and to gain access to 
higher education and some jobs; some Eritreans living in or near refugee camps, particularly in Sudan, 
are kidnapped by criminal groups and held for ransom in the Sinai Peninsula and Libya, where they 
are subjected to forced labor and abuse. 


Gabon is primarily a destination and transit country for adults and children from West and Central 
African countries subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; boys are forced to work as street 
vendors, mechanics, or in the fishing sector, while girls are subjected to domestic servitude or forced 
to work in markets or roadside restaurants; West African women are forced into domestic servitude or 
prostitution; men are reportedly forced to work on cattle farms; some foreign adults end up in forced 
labor in Gabon after initially seeking the help of human smugglers to help them migrate clandestinely; 
traffickers operate in loose, ethnic-based criminal networks, with female traffickers recruiting and 
facilitating the transport of victims from source countries; in some cases, families turn child victims 
over to traffickers, who promise paid jobs in Gabon. 

The Gambia 

The Gambia is a source and destination country for women and children subjected to forced labor and 
sex trafficking; Gambian women, girls, and, to a lesser extent, boys are exploited for prostitution and 
domestic servitude; women, girls, and boys from West African countries are trafficked to The Gambia 
for commercial sexual exploitation, particularly by European sex tourists; boys in some Koranic 
schools are forced into street vending or begging; some Gambian children have been identified as 
victims of forced labor in neighboring West African countries. 


Ghana is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced 
labor and sex trafficking; the trafficking of Ghanians, particularly children, internally is more common 
than the trafficking of foreign nationals; Ghanian children are subjected to forced labor in fishing, 
domestic service, street hawking, begging, portering, mining, quarrying, herding, and agriculture, with 
girls, and to a lesser extent boys, forced into prostitution; Ghanian women, sometimes lured with 
legitimate job offers, and girls are sex trafficked in West Africa, the Middle East, and Europe; Ghanian 
men fraudulently recruited for work in the Middle East are subjected to forced labor or prostitution, 
and a few Ghanian adults have been identified as victims of false labor in the US; women and girls 
from Vietnam, China, and neighboring West African countries are sex trafficked in Ghana; the country 
is also a transit point for sex trafficking from West Africa to Europe. 


Guinea-Bissau is a source country for children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; the extent 
to which adults are trafficked for forced labor or forced prostitution is unclear; boys are forced into 
street vending in Guinea-Bissau and manual labor, agriculture, and mining in Senegal, while girls may 
be forced into street vending, domestic service, and, to a lesser extent, prostitution in Guinea and 
Senegal; some Bissau-Guinean boys at Koranic schools are forced into begging by religious teachers. 


Guinea is a source, transit, and, to a lesser extent, a destination country for men, women, and children 
subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; the majority of trafficking victims are Guinean children, 
and trafficking is more prevalent among Guineans than foreign national migrants; Guinean girls are 
subjected to domestic servitude and commercial sexual exploitation, while boys are forced to beg or to 
work as street vendors, shoe shiners, or miners; Guinea is a source country and transit point for West 
African children forced to work as miners in the region; Guinean women and girls are subjected to 
domestic servitude and sex trafficking in West Africa, the Middle East, the US, and increasingly 

Europe, while Thai, Chinese, and Vietnamese women are forced into prostitution and some West 
Africans are forced into domestic servitude in Guinea. 


Guyana is a source and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to sex trafficking 
and forced labor - children are particularly vulnerable; women and girls from Guyana, Venezuela, 
Suriname, Brazil, and the Dominican Republic are forced into prostitution in Guyana’s interior mining 
communities and urban areas; forced labor is reported in mining, agriculture, forestry, domestic 

service, and shops; Guyanese nationals are also trafficked to Suriname, Jamaica, and other Caribbean 
countries for sexual exploitation and forced labor. 


Haiti is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced 
labor and sex trafficking; most of Haiti’s trafficking cases involve children in domestic servitude 
vulnerable to physical and sexual abuse; dismissed and runaway child domestic servants often end up 
in prostitution, begging, or street crime; other exploited populations included low-income Haitians, 
child laborers, and women and children living in IDP camps dating to the 2010 earthquake; Haitian 
adults are vulnerable to fraudulent labor recruitment abroad and, along with children, may be subjected 
to forced labor in the Dominican Republic, elsewhere in the Caribbean, South America, and the US; 
Dominicans are exploited in sex trafficking and forced labor in Haiti. 


Iran is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to sex 
trafficking and forced labor; organized groups sex traffic Iranian women and children in Iran and to the 
UAE and Europe; the transport of girls from and through Iran en route to the Gulf for sexual 
exploitation or forced marriages is on the rise; Iranian children are also forced to work as beggars, 
street vendors, and in domestic workshops; Afghan boys forced to work in construction or agriculture 
are vulnerable to sexual abuse by their employers; Pakistani and Afghan migrants being smuggled to 
Europe often are subjected to forced labor, including debt bondage. 


Jamaica is a source and destination country for children and adults subjected to sex trafficking and 
forced labor; sex trafficking of children and adults occurs on the street, in night clubs, bars, massage 
parlors, and private homes; child sex tourism is a problem in resort areas; Jamaicans have been 
subjected to sexual exploitation or forced labor in the Caribbean, Canada, the US, and the UK, while 
foreigners have endured conditions of forced labor in Jamaica or aboard foreign-flagged fishing 
vessels operating in Jamaican waters; a high number of Jamaican children are reported missing. 

North Korea 

North Korea is a source country for men, women, and children who are subjected to forced labor and 
sex trafficking; many North Korean workers recruited to work abroad under bilateral contracts with 
foreign governments, most often Russia and China, are subjected to forced labor and do not have a 
choice in the work the government assigns them, are not free to change jobs, and face government 
reprisals if they try to escape or complain to outsiders; tens of thousands of North Koreans, including 
children, held in prison camps are subjected to forced labor, including logging, mining, and farming; 
many North Korean women and girls, lured by promises of food, jobs, and freedom, have migrated to 
China illegally to escape poor social and economic conditions only to be forced into prostitution, 
domestic service, or agricultural work through forced marriages. 


Kuwait is a destination country for men and women subjected to forced labor and, to a lesser degree, 
forced prostitution; men and women migrate from South and Southeast Asia, Egypt, the Middle East, 
and increasingly Africa to work in Kuwait, most of them in the domestic service, construction, and 
sanitation sectors; although most of these migrants enter Kuwait voluntarily, upon arrival some are 
subjected to conditions of forced labor by their sponsors and labor agents, including debt bondage; 
Kuwait’s sponsorship law restricts workers’ movements and penalizes them for running away from 
abusive workplaces, making domestic workers particularly vulnerable to forced labor in private 


Laos is a source and, to a lesser extent, transit and destination country for men, women, and children 
subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; Lao economic migrants may encounter conditions of 
forced labor or sexual exploitation in destination countries, most often Thailand; Lao women and girls 
are exploited in Thailand’s commercial sex trade, domestic service, factories, and agriculture; a small, 
possibly growing, number of Lao women and girls are sold as brides in China and South Korea and 
subsequently sex trafficked; Lao men and boys are victims of forced labor in the Thai fishing, 
construction, and agriculture industries; some Lao children, as well as Vietnamese and Chinese women 
and girls, are subjected to sex trafficking in Laos; other Vietnamese and Chinese, and possibly 

Burmese, adults and girls transit Laos for sexual and labor exploitation in neighboring countries, 
particularly Thailand. 


Lebanon is a source and destination country for women and children subjected to forced labor and sex 
trafficking and a transit point for Eastern European women and children subjected to sex trafficking in 
other Middle Eastern countries; women and girls from South and Southeast Asia and an increasing 
number from East and West Africa are recruited by agencies to work in domestic service but are 
subject to conditions of forced labor; under Lebanon’s artiste visa program, women from Eastern 
Europe, North Africa, and the Dominican Republic enter Lebanon to work in the adult entertainment 
industry but are often forced into the sex trade; Lebanese children are reportedly forced into street 
begging and commercial sexual exploitation, with small numbers of Lebanese girls sex trafficked in 
other Arab countries; Syrian refugees are vulnerable to forced labor and prostitution. 


Lesotho is a source, transit, and destination country for women and children subjected to forced labor 

and sex trafficking and for men subjected to forced labor; in Lesotho and South Africa, Basotho 
women and children are subjected to domestic servitude, and Basotho children increasingly endure 
commercial sexual exploitation; some Basotho men who voluntarily migrate to South Africa for work 
become victims of forced labor in agriculture and mining or are coerced into committing crimes; 
foreign nationals continue to traffic fellow citizens in Lesotho. 


Libya is a destination and transit country for men and women from sub-Saharan Africa and Asia 
subjected to forced labor and forced prostitution; migrants who seek employment in Libya as laborers 
and domestic workers or who transit Libya en route to Europe are vulnerable to forced labor; private 
employers also exploit migrants from detention centers as forced laborers on farms and construction 
sites, returning them to detention when they are no longer needed; some sub-Saharan women are 
reportedly forced to work in Libyan brothels, particularly in the country’s south; since 2013, militia 
groups and other infonnal armed groups, including some affiliated with the government, are reported 
to conscript Libyan children under the age of 18; large-scale violence driven by militias, civil unrest, 
and increased lawlessness increased in 2014, making it more difficult to obtain information on human 


Malaysia is a destination and, to a lesser extent, a source and transit country for men, women, and 
children subjected to forced labor and women and children subjected to sex trafficking; Malaysia is 
mainly a destination country for foreign workers who migrate willingly from countries, including 
Indonesia, Bangladesh, the Philippines, Nepal, Burma, and other Southeast Asian countries, but 
subsequently encounter forced labor or debt bondage in agriculture, construction, factories, and 
domestic service at the hands of employers, employment agents, and labor recruiters; women from 
Southeast Asia and, to a much lesser extent, Africa, are recruited for legal work in restaurants, hotels, 
and salons but are forced into prostitution; refugees, including Rohingya adults and children, are not 
legally permitted to work and are vulnerable to trafficking; a small number of Malaysians are 
trafficked internally and subjected to sex trafficking abroad. 


Maldives is a destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex 
trafficking and a source country for women and children subjected to labor and sex trafficking; 
primarily Bangladeshi and Indian migrants working both legally and illegally in the construction and 
service sectors face conditions of forced labor, including fraudulent recruitment, confiscation of 
identity and travel documents, nonpayment and withholding of wages, and debt bondage; a small 
number of women from Asia, Eastern Europe, and former Soviet states are trafficked to Maldives for 
sexual exploitation; Maldivian women may be subjected to sex trafficking domestically or in Sri 

Lanka; some Maldivian children are transported to the capital for domestic service, where they may 
also be victims of sexual abuse and forced labor. 


Mali is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced 
labor and sex trafficking; internal trafficking is more prevalent than transnational trafficking, but 
foreign women and girls are forced into domestic servitude, agricultural labor, and support roles in 
gold mines, as well as subjected to sex trafficking; Malian boys are forced to work in agricultural 
settings, gold mines, the informal commercial sector and to beg within Mali and neighboring 
countries; Malians and other Africans who travel through Mali to Mauritania, Algeria, or Libya in 
hopes of reaching Europe are particularly at risk of becoming victims of human trafficking; men and 
boys, primarily of Songhai ethnicity, are subjected to debt bondage in the salt mines of Taoudenni in 
northern Mali; some members of Mali's Tamachek community are subjected to hereditary slavery- 
related practices; Malian women and girls are victims of sex trafficking in Gabon, Libya, Lebanon, 
and Tunisia; the recruitment of child soldiers by armed groups in northern Mali decreased. 

The Marshall Islands 

The Marshall Islands is a source and destination country for Marshallese women and girls and women 
from East Asia subjected to sex trafficking; Marshallese and foreign women are forced into 
prostitution in businesses frequented by crew members of fishing and transshipping vessels that dock 
in Majuro; some Chinese women are recruited to the Marshall Islands with promises of legitimate 
work and are subsequently forced into prostitution. 


Mauritania is a source and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor 
and sex trafficking; adults and children from traditional slave castes are subjected to slavery-related 
practices rooted in ancestral master-slave relationships; Mauritanian boy students called talibes are 
trafficked within the country by religious teachers for forced begging; Mauritanian girls, as well as 
girls from Mali, Senegal, The Gambia, and other West African countries, are forced into domestic 
servitude; Mauritanian women and girls are forced into prostitution domestically or transported to 
countries in the Middle East for the same purpose, sometimes through forced marriages. 


Mauritius is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to 
forced labor and sex trafficking; Mauritian girls are induced or sold into prostitution, often by peers, 
family members, or businessmen offering other forms of employment; Mauritian adults have been 

identified as labor trafficking victims in the UK, Belgium, and Canada, while Mauritian women from 
Rodrigues Island are also subject to domestic servitude in Mauritius; Malagasy women transit 

Mauritius en route to the Middle East for jobs as domestic servants and subsequently are subjected to 
forced labor; Cambodian men are victims of forced labor on foreign fishing vessels in Mauritius’ 
territorial waters; other migrant workers from East and South Asia and Madagascar are also subject to 
forced labor in Mauritius’ manufacturing and construction sectors. 


Namibia is a country of origin and destination for children and, to a lesser extent, women subjected to 
forced labor and sex trafficking; victims, lured by promises of legitimate jobs, are forced to work in 
urban centers and on commercial farms; traffickers exploit Namibian children, as well as children from 
Angola, Zambia, and Zimbabwe, for forced labor in agriculture, cattle herding, domestic service, 
fishing, and street vending; children are also forced into prostitution, often catering to tourists from 
southern Africa and Europe; San and Zemba children are particularly vulnerable; foreign adults and 
Namibian adults and children are reportedly subjected to forced labor in Chinese-owned retail, 
construction, and fishing operations. 


Pakistan is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced 
labor and sex trafficking; the largest human trafficking problem is bonded labor in agriculture, 
brickmaking and, to a lesser extent, fishing, mining and carpet-making; children are bought, sold, 
rented, and placed in forced begging rings, domestic service, small shops, brick-making factories, or 
prostitution; militant groups also force children to spy, fight, or die as suicide bombers, kidnapping the 
children or getting them from poor parents through sale or coercion; women and girls are forced into 
prostitution or marriages; Pakistani adults migrate to the Gulf States and African and European states 
for low-skilled jobs and sometimes become victims of forced labor, debt bondage, or prostitution; 
foreign adults and children, particularly from Afghanistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka, may be subject 
to forced labor, and foreign women may be sex trafficked in Pakistan, with refugees and ethnic 
minorities being most vulnerable. 

Papua New Guinea 

Papua New Guinea is a source and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to sex 
trafficking and forced labor; foreign and Papua New Guinean women and children are subjected to sex 
trafficking, domestic servitude, forced begging, and street vending; parents may sell girls into forced 
marriages to settle debts or as peace offerings or trade them to another tribe to forge a political 
alliance, leaving them vulnerable to forced domestic service, or, in urban areas, they may prostitute 
their children for income or to pay school fees; Chinese, Malaysian, and local men are forced to labor 
in logging and mining camps through debt bondage schemes; migrant women from Indonesia, 

Malaysia, Thailand, China, and the Philippines are subjected to sex trafficking and domestic servitude 
at logging and mining camps, fisheries, and entertainment sites. 


Qatar is a destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor, and, to a much 
lesser extent, forced prostitution; the predominantly foreign workforce migrates to Qatar legally for 
low- and semi-skilled work but often experiences situations of forced labor, including debt bondage, 
delayed or nonpayment of salaries, confiscation of passports, abuse, hazardous working conditions, 
and squalid living arrangements; foreign female domestic workers are particularly vulnerable to 
trafficking because of their isolation in private homes and lack of protection under Qatari labor laws; 
some women who migrate for work are also forced into prostitution. 


Russia is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children who are subjected to 
forced labor and sex trafficking; with millions of foreign workers, forced labor is Russia’s 
predominant human trafficking problem and sometimes involves organized crime syndicates; workers 
from Russia, other European countries, Central Asia, and East and Southeast Asia, including North 
Korea and Vietnam, are subjected to forced labor in the construction, manufacturing, agricultural, 
textile, grocery store, maritime, and domestic service industries, as well as in forced begging, waste 
sorting, and street sweeping; women and children from Europe, Southeast Asia, Africa, and Central 

Asia are subject to sex trafficking in Russia; Russian women and children are victims of sex 
trafficking domestically and in Northeast Asia, Europe, Central Asia, Africa, the US, and the Middle 

Saint Vincent and the 

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and 
children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; some children under 18 are pressured to engage 
in sex acts in exchange for money or gifts; foreign workers may experience forced labor and are 
particularly vulnerable when employed by small, foreign-owned companies; adults and children are 
vulnerable to forced labor domestically, especially in the agriculture sector. 

Saudi Arabia 

Saudi Arabia is a destination country for men and women subjected to forced labor and, to a lesser 
extent, forced prostitution; men and women from South and East Asia, the Middle East, and Africa 
who voluntarily travel to Saudi Arabia as domestic servants or low-skilled laborers subsequently face 
conditions of involuntary servitude, including nonpayment and withholding of passports; some 

migrant workers are forced to work indefinitely beyond the tenn of their contract because their 
employers will not grant them a required exit visa; female domestic workers are particularly 
vulnerable because of their isolation in private homes; women, primarily from Asian and African 
countries, are believed to be forced into prostitution in Saudi Arabia, while other foreign women were 
reportedly kidnapped and forced into prostitution after running away from abusive employers; children 
from South Asia, East Africa, and Yemen are subjected to forced labor as beggars and street vendors in 
Saudi Arabia, facilitated by criminal gangs. 

The Solomon Islands 

The Solomon Islands is a source and destination country for local adults and children and Southeast 
Asian men and women subjected to forced labor and forced prostitution; women from China, 

Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines are recruited for legitimate work and upon arrival are forced 
into prostitution; men from Indonesia and Malaysia recruited to work in the Solomon Islands’ mining 
and logging industries may be subjected to forced labor; local children are forced into prostitution near 
foreign logging camps, on fishing vessels, at hotels, and entertainment venues; some local children are 
also sold by their parents for marriage to foreign workers or put up for “informal adoption” to pay off 
debts and then find themselves forced into domestic servitude or forced prostitution. 

South Sudan 

South Sudan is a source and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced 
labor and sex trafficking; South Sudanese women and girls, particularly those who are internally 
displaced, orphaned, refugees, or from rural areas, are vulnerable to forced labor and sexual 
exploitation, often in urban centers; children may be victims of forced labor in construction, market 
vending, shoe shining, car washing, rock breaking, brick making, delivery cart pulling, and begging; 
girls are also forced into marriages and subsequently subjected to sexual slavery or domestic servitude; 
women and girls migrate willingly from Uganda, Kenya, Ethiopia, Eritrea, and the Democratic 

Republic of the Congo to South Sudan with the promise of legitimate jobs and are forced into the sex 
trade; inter-ethnic abductions and abductions by criminal groups continue, with abductees 
subsequently forced into domestic servitude, herding, or sex trafficking; in 2014, the recruitment and 
use of child soldiers increased significantly within government security forces and was also prevalent 
among opposition forces. 

Sri Lanka 

Sri Lanka is primarily a source and, to a lesser extent, a destination country for men, women, and 
children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; some Sri Lankan adults and children who 
migrate willingly to the Middle East, Southeast Asia, and Afghanistan to work in the construction, 
garment, and domestic service sectors are subsequently subjected to forced labor or debt bondage 
(incurred through high recruitment fees or money advances); some Sri Lankan women are forced into 
prostitution in Jordan, Maldives, Malaysia, Singapore, and other countries; within Sri Lanka, women 
and children are subjected to sex trafficking, and children are also forced to beg and work in the 
agriculture, fireworks, and fish-drying industries; a small number of women from Asia, Central Asia, 
Europe, and the Middle East have been forced into prostitution in Sri Lanka in recent years. 


Sudan is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children who are subjected to 
forced labor and sex trafficking; Sudanese women and girls, particularly those from rural areas or who 
are internally displaced, or refugees are vulnerable to domestic servitude in country, as well as 
domestic servitude and sex trafficking abroad; migrants from East and West Africa, South Sudan, 

Syria, and Nigeria smuggled into or through Sudan are vulnerable to exploitation; Ethiopian, Eritrean, 
and Filipina women are subjected to domestic servitude in Sudanese homes, and East African and 
possibly Thai women are forced into prostitution in Sudan; Sudanese children continue to be recruited 
and used as combatants by government forces and armed groups. 


Suriname is a source, transit, and destination country for women and children subjected to sex 
trafficking and men, women, and children subjected to forced labor; women and girls from Suriname, 
Guyana, Brazil, and the Dominican Republic are subjected to sex trafficking in the country, sometimes 
in interior mining camps; migrant workers in agriculture and on fishing boats and children working in 
infonnal urban sectors and gold mines are vulnerable to forced labor; traffickers from Suriname 
exploit victims in the Netherlands. 


As conditions continue to deteriorate due to Syria’s civil war, human trafficking has increased; Syrians 
remaining in the country and those that are refugees abroad are vulnerable to trafficking; Syria is a 
source and destination country for men, women and children subjected to forced labor and sex 
trafficking; Syrian children continue to be forcibly recruited by government forces, pro-regime 
militias, armed opposition groups, and terrorist organizations to serve as soldiers, human shields, and 
executioners; ISIL forces Syrian women and girls and Yazidi women and girls taken from Iraq to 
marry its fighters, where they experience domestic servitude and sexual violence; Syrian refugee 
women and girls are forced into exploitive marriages or prostitution in neighboring countries, while 
displaced children are forced into street begging domestically and abroad. 


Tanzania is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced 

labor and sex trafficking; the exploitation of young girls in domestic servitude continues to be 
Tanzania’s largest human trafficking problem; Tanzanian boys are subject to forced labor mainly on 
farms but also in mines and quarries, in the informal commercial sector, in factories, in the sex trade, 
and possibly on small fishing boats; Tanzanian children and adults are subjected to domestic servitude, 
other forms of forced labor, and sex trafficking in other African countries, the Middle East, Europe, 
and the US; internal trafficking is more prevalent than transnational trafficking and is usually 
facilitated by friends, family members, or intermediaries with false offers of education or legitimate 
jobs; trafficking victims from Burundi, Kenya, South Asia, and Yemen are forced to work in 

Tanzania’s agricultural, mining, and domestic service sectors or may be sex trafficked. 


Thailand is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced 
labor and sex trafficking; victims from Burma, Cambodia, Laos, China, Vietnam, Uzbekistan, and 

India, migrate to Thailand in search of jobs but are forced, coerced, or defrauded into labor in 
commercial fishing, fishing-related industries, factories, domestic work, street begging, or the sex 
trade; some Thai, Burmese, Cambodian, and Indonesian men forced to work on fishing boats are kept 
at sea for years; sex trafficking of adults and children from Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, and Burma 
remains a significant problem; Thailand is a transit country for victims from China, Vietnam, 
Bangladesh, and Burma subjected to sex trafficking and forced labor in Malaysia, Indonesia, 

Singapore, Russia, South Korea, the US, and countries in Western Europe; Thai victims are also 
trafficked in North America, Europe, Africa, Asia, and the Middle East. 


Timor-Leste is a source and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced 
labor and sex trafficking; Timorese women and girls from rural areas are lured to the capital with 
promises of legitimate jobs or education prospects and are then forced into prostitution or domestic 
servitude, and other women and girls may be sent to Indonesia for domestic servitude; Timorese 
family members force children into bonded domestic or agricultural labor to repay debts; foreign 
migrant women are vulnerable to sex trafficking in Timor-Leste, while men and boys from Burma, 
Cambodia, and Thailand are forced to work on fishing boats in Timorese waters under inhumane 

Trinidad and Tobago 

Trinidad and Tobago is a destination, transit, and possible source country for adults and children 
subjected to sex trafficking and forced labor; women and girls from Venezuela, the Dominican 

Republic, Guyana, and Colombia have been subjected to sex trafficking in Trinidad and Tobago’s 
brothels and clubs; some economic migrants from the Caribbean region and Asia are vulnerable to 
forced labor in domestic service and the retail sector; the steady flow of vessels transiting Trinidad and 
Tobago’s territorial waters may also increase opportunities for forced labor for fishing; international 
crime organizations are increasingly involved in trafficking, and boys are coerced to sell drugs and 
guns; corruption among police and immigration officials impedes anti-trafficking efforts. 


Tunisia is a source, destination, and possible transit country for men, women, and children subjected to 
forced labor and sex trafficking; Tunisia’s increased number of street children, rural children working 
to support their families, and migrants who have fled unrest in neighboring countries are vulnerable to 
human trafficking; organized gangs force street children to serve as thieves, beggars, and drug 
transporters; Tunisian women have been forced into prostitution domestically and elsewhere in the 
region under false promises of legitimate work; East and West African women may be subjected to 
forced labor as domestic workers. 


Turkmenistan is a source country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex 
trafficking; Turkmen who migrate abroad are forced to work in the textile, agriculture, construction, 
and domestic service industries, while women and girls may also be sex trafficked; in 2014, men 
surpassed women as victims; Turkey and Russia are primary trafficking destinations, followed by the 
Middle East, South and Central Asia, and other parts of Europe; Turkmen also experience forced labor 
domestically in the informal construction industry; participation in the cotton harvest is still mandatory 
for some public sector employees. 


Ukraine is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced 
labor and sex trafficking; Ukrainian victims are sex trafficked within Ukraine as well as in Russia, 
Poland, Iraq, Spain, Turkey, Cyprus, Greece, Seychelles, Portugal, the Czech Republic, Israel, Italy, 
South Korea, Moldova, China, the United Arab Emirates, Montenegro, UK, Kazakhstan, Tunisia, and 
other countries; small numbers of foreigners from Moldova, Russia, Vietnam, Uzbekistan, Pakistan, 
Cameroon, and Azerbaijan were victims of labor trafficking in Ukraine; Ukrainian recruiters most 
often target Ukrainians from rural areas with limited job prospects using fraud, coercion, and debt 


Uzbekistan is a source country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and women 
and children subjected to sex trafficking; government-compelled forced labor of adults remained 
endemic during the 2014 cotton harvest; despite a decree banning the use of persons under 18, children 

were mobilized to harvest cotton by local officials in some districts; in some regions, local officials 
forced teachers, students, private business employees, and others to work in construction, agriculture, 
and cleaning parks; Uzbekistani women and children are victims of sex trafficking domestically and in 
the Middle East, Eurasia, and Asia; Uzbekistani men and, to a lesser extent, women are subjected to 
forced labor in Kazakhstan, Russia, and Ukraine in the construction, oil, agriculture, retail, and food 


Venezuela is a source and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to sex 
trafficking and forced labor; Venezuelan women and girls, sometimes lured from poor interior regions 
to urban and tourist areas, are trafficked for sexual exploitation within the country, as well as in the 
Caribbean; Venezuelan children are exploited, frequently by their families, in domestic servitude; 
people from South America, the Caribbean, Asia, and Africa are sex and labor trafficking victims in 
Venezuela; thousands of Cuban citizens, particularly doctors, who work in Venezuela on government 
social programs in exchange for the provision of resources to the Cuban Government experience 
conditions of forced labor. 


Yemen is a source and, to a lesser extent, transit and destination country for men, women, and children 
subjected to forced labor and women and children subjected to sex trafficking; trafficking activities 
grew in Yemen in 2014, as the country’s security situation deteriorated and poverty worsened; armed 
groups increased their recruitment of Yemeni children as combatants or checkpoint guards, and the 
Yemeni military and security forces continue to use child soldiers; some other Yemeni children, mostly 
boys, migrate to Yemeni cities or Saudi Arabia and, less frequently Oman, where they end up as 
beggars, drug smugglers, prostitutes, or forced laborers in domestic service or small shops; Yemeni 
children increasingly are also subjected to sex trafficking in country and in Saudi Arabia; tens of 
thousands of Yemeni migrant workers deported from Saudi Arabia and thousands of Syrian refugees 
are vulnerable to trafficking; additionally, Yemen is a destination and transit country for women and 
children from the Horn of Africa who are looking for work or receive fraudulent job offers in the Gulf 
states but are subjected to sexual exploitation or forced labor upon arrival; reports indicate that adults 
and children are still sold or inherited as slaves in Yemen. 


Zimbabwe is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to 
forced labor and sex trafficking; Zimbabwean women and girls from towns bordering South Africa, 
Mozambique, and Zambia are subjected to forced labor, including domestic servitude, and prostitution 
catering to long-distance truck drivers; Zimbabwean men, women, and children experience forced 
labor in agriculture and domestic servitude in rural areas; family members may recruit children and 
other relatives from rural areas with promises of work or education in cities and towns where they end 
up in domestic servitude and sex trafficking; Zimbabwean women and men are lured into exploitative 
labor situations in South Africa and other neighboring countries. 


The International Labour Organization conservatively estimated that 20.9 million people in 2012 were 
victims of forced labor, representing the full range of human trafficking (also referred to as “modern- 
day slavery”) for labor and sexual exploitation; about one-third of reported cases involved crossing 
international borders, which is often associated with sexual exploitation; trafficking in persons is most 
prevalent in southeastern Europe, Eurasia, and Africa and least frequent in EU member states, Canada, 
the US, and other developed countries (2012). 

SOURCE: CIA WORLD FACT BOOK 2017 https://www.cia.aov/librarv/nublications/the-world-factbook/fields/2196.html 


UNICEF estimates the current number of child laborers aged 5 to 17 at 168,000,000 children, down 1/3 from a 
2000 estimate of 246,000,000 children. (267) If consumers made more conscience buying decisions about where 
the products are made and by what companies, ultimately avoiding products from those countries and companies 
that condone child labor and sweatshops, would this not help to make a difference? If the governments of 
western nations enacted regulations to stop companies from engaging in child labor overseas while also banning 
the importation of products which are manufactured by children and in sweatshops, would this help in 
eliminating child labor and sweatshops? 

Daily, in every country around the world children are victims of violence. The World Health Organization 
reports that every 5 minutes a child dies as a result of violence, and that 1,000,000,000 children have 
experienced physical, sexual, or psychological violence in the past year. (681) If better morals were instilled into 
society through example and education, in addition to more laws being enacted and rigorously enforced, could 
this not help to eliminate child violence? 

Although child marriage is rapidly declining in the United States, a verified 167,000 children in 38 U.S. States, 
some as young as 10, were married between 2000 and 2010, and many were married to adult men often with a 
significant age difference. As the other 12 states and Washington, D.C. could not provide data, the non-profit 
Unchained at Last using the verified data estimated the total for all 50 states to be 248,000 children. (487) How 
can child marriage still be legal and condoned or simply ignored by so many in the United States? 

Many children in Western societies are now raised in isolation and separate from their parents starting at birth. 
Newborns are often placed in a cradle located in a separate room and monitored with an electronic device. They 
are not carried naturally, but rather in a stroller. They are fed formula made with dairy based ingredients and not 
breastmilk. And some are even educated solely by television, the Internet, or in government or private schools. 
These children are separated from their parents at birth and pushed out of the nest as soon as possible, all for the 
convenience of the parent. They are raised by technology, a babysitter, and without direct love from the parents. 
There are even videos and apps which specifically target infants and children, not to educate them, but rather to 
occupy them and make profits from. How would Homo sapiens develop if they were not introduced so early in 
life to the Internet, television, apps, and other things they cannot comprehend, but were instead exposed to nature 
for the first few years? 

Many children are also not allowed to be themselves or develop naturally, with so many children being forced to 
imitate the parents and follow a path set out for them by the parent which tries to make the child over in their 
own image, (e.g. the father is a businessman and thus the child must carry on the legacy of being a 
businessperson) Children are often objectified and are basically like a doll to some parents which have their 
children’s ears pierced or dressing them in ridiculous outfits. They are often labeled as something unrealistic like 
a princess or they are called special, the best, or another faux classification which too often sets them up for 
future disappointment when they come to the realization that they are not what they’ve been labeled. 

Boxing, football, ice hockey, and other barbaric contact sports have all been linked to long-term brain damage, a 
wide range of physical injuries, and even permanent disabilities, so why are youth encouraged to participate? 
Why are so many male children given guns and military toys with which to mimic acts of war? Is it not enough 
evidence that violent toys beget real violence, when children are being shot in the streets by police officers 
because they are holding a toy gun? Why are so many female children given a baby doll to play with and pretend 
they are mothers, and later given a sexualized Barbie type doll to play with? How different would the world be if 
Homo sapiens were educated from youth with more scientific and historical facts versus being brainwashed by 
religious or other negative sources? How much different would the world be if more Homo sapiens were taught 
to live simply and try to help others instead of being taught to spend a lifetime focusing on materialism and 
greed? What would the world be like if it were similar to that proposed in Richard Evans Farson's 
1978 ‘Birthrights ’ where children vote, work, choose their education and guardians, and have other adult 
privileges and rights? 


Women have been oppressed by men since time immemorial, and have only recently begun to gain rights, 
freedoms, and equality in most parts of the world which most men have had for centuries. For thousands of years 
women have been sexually assaulted, sexually harassed, raped, physically abused, murdered, degraded, 
humiliated, intimidated, objectified, and made to feel inferior to men. They have been enslaved and also forced 
into marriage, pregnancy, and prostitution. From foot binding to the burqa women’s physical appearances have 
often been controlled by men for thousands of years, and in a few places in the world this control is still exerted 
even today. Too often in today’s society women are objectified through sex and beauty, and this objectification is 
prevalent in everything from entertainment to the marketing of products. Women are sold a lie by corporations 
which promote an image of artificial beauty through fashion and cosmetics, while being discouraged to accept 
their natural unaltered form of beauty. Women are often paid less wages than men for the same exact job, while 
also being discriminated against in the workplace by not being given leadership roles or other promotions. Their 
reproductive rights are oppressed by religions, politicians, and doctors which attempt to control them through 

antiquated laws, deception, and fearmongering tactics based on their ideology and not what a woman truly wants 
or needs. In 2016, of the 73,700,000 children in the United States 17,200,000 were living with the mother only, 
compared with 3,000,000 which lived with the father only. (675) 

Over the last 24 years, there has been a huge rise in the number of caesarean sections with many not being 
medically justifiable, but being done instead either because of fear of pain, the misconception that a caesarean 
section is safer for the baby, convenience for either the health professionals or the mother and family, or for 
cultural reasons based on luck and fate. Based on the data from 121 countries between 1990 and 2014, the global 
average caesarean section rate has increased from 6.7% to 19.1%. The highest caesarean section rates were in 
Latin America and the Caribbean region with 40.5% of children being bom by caesarean section, 32.3% in North 
America, 31.1% in Oceania, 25% in Europe, and 19.2% in Asia. (693) Male chauvinism, modem societies 
demand for labor, and lack of family or any other form of support too often puts a heavy burden on women and 
children as well. In many societies around the world, and more especially in western societies, women are 
expected to be up and about during pregnancy or during their menstrual cycle, times when most women could 
possibly use more rest and support from their male counterparts. Globally, only 44% of newborns are put to the 
breast within the first hour after birth, and the overall rate of infants under 6 months of age which are exclusively 
breastfeed is only 40%. (488) Breast feeding in public is often shunned in many western societies, and women are 
often considered abnormal if they want to practice traditional natural birth outside a hospital setting. Many 
women do not breastfeed or stop breastfeeding perhaps early than they should because of the necessity to return 
to work, and because dairy based infant formulas are now so widely available and often encouraged over 
breastmilk. If breastfeeding can reduce malnutrition rates and bolster a child's brain development, why then isn't 
the practice being encouraged more by governments through education and longer paid maternity leave? The 
Yana treated women giving birth or menstruating quite differently, which Theodora Kroeber describes as, 

“Nowhere was it expected, or indeed allowed, that the mother should at once be up and back to work. She was kept to her bed 
and to a special diet, cared for by her mother or another older woman and by her husband until the infant's cord had healed 
and dropped off, by which time the mother would nonnally have the milk flow and nursing established. Whoever was caring 
for her helped her also in this, gently sucking off the colostrum if the baby did not do so, and giving the baby a little acorn 
gruel to suck at until he learned to nurse properly. The “strong woman” tradition of northern European peasantry, in which the 
mother “has” her baby out in the field and returns forthwith to scything or other field work in which she was engaged up to 
the actual moment of birth, not only was unknown to our Indians; the idea of such a procedure would have disgusted and 
outraged their sense of propriety and their understanding of medicine and healing.” 

“For six days each month-the ritual if not the actual length of her period-a woman was required to withdraw to a separate 
house and more or less to stay on her bed; there was the length of a moon's waxing and waning to be spent in retirement and 
rest following the birth of her baby, during which she was considered at most convalescent.” (310) 

The global participation rate of women in national governments is around 23%, and currently only around 20% 
of the United States Senate and House of Representatives are women, with the first being elected in the early 20 th 
century. Worldwide many government positions are now held by women the for the first time due to a dramatic 
political shift which began in the 21 st century, a positive change which will hopefully only continue. In Bolivia, 
53% of the parliament are women and 39% of the French parliament are women. In 2016, Faith Spotted Eagle 
became the first indigenous Homo sapiens of the United States to receive an electoral vote for President of the 
United States, in addition to also being one of the first of two women to receive a presidential electoral vote. 
Women are now more involved in businesses, organizations, and governments throughout the world than ever 
before, and one could argue that they have made far more positive changes for the world in the short span of 50 
years than men have throughout all of history. Perhaps more women will enter leadership roles and become the 
majority in power giving society the motherly type love it needs to correct itself, instead of the violent and 
tyrannical shadow which men have cast over the world during the last 10,000 years. Many women live life with 
more love, empathy, and passion than most men, and this could perhaps be the qualities which not only reverse 
the current path of self-destruction which Homo sapiens are going down, but also help in creating a new path of 
coexistence on Earth. Will this increasing participation of women in businesses, organizations, and governments 
ultimately be the salvation Homo sapiens and planet Earth need? What would the governments of the world be 
like if women had equality worldwide and held half or more of all government positions? 

Figure 2. 

Female-to-Male Earnings Ratio and Median Earnings of Full-Time, Year-Round Workers 
15 Years and Older by Sex: 1960 to 2015 

Ratio in percent 


Note: The data for 2013 and beyond reflect the implementation of the redesigned income questions. The data points are placed at 
the midpoints of the respective years. Data on earnings of full-time, year-round workers are not readily available before 1960. 

For more information on recessions, see Appendix A. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, 
and definitions, see < 6.pdf>. 

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 1961 to 2016 Annual Social and Economic Supplements. 

Family and Individualism 

The traditional family unit that existed 100 years ago is now nearly nonexistent and has been replaced by 
individualism and detachment, along with less and less households having both parents. In the United States 
between 1960 and 2016, the percentage of children living in families with two parents decreased from 88% to 
69%. (675) Families and friends now seem to communicate more with text messaging than actual real 
conversation, and too often one observes families dining out at a restaurant with each family member engrossed 
in a mobile device playing a game, surfing the Internet, or engaged in social media. Families today appear as just 
individuals living in groups with everyone doing separate things while being forced to come together at set 
intervals during the day, week, or year. This pointless forced socialization in not only families, but also with 
other members of society can be seen throughout history. Henry David Thoreau wrote, 

"Society is commonly too cheap. We meet at very short intervals, not having had time to acquire any new value for each 
other. We meet at meals three times a day, and give each other a new taste of that old musty cheese that we are. We have had 
to agree on a certain set of rules, called etiquette and politeness, to make this frequent meeting tolerable and that we need not 
come to open war. We meet at the post-office, and at the sociable, and about the fireside every night; we live thick and are in 
each other's way, and stumble over one another, and I think that we thus lose some respect for one another. Certainly less 
frequency would suffice for all important and hearty communications." (648) 

Some Homo sapiens have been taught from an early age to be more individualistic, self-centered, and ignore 
everyone and everything else in the world around them. While some other Homo sapiens have the mentality that 
they are here for only a few short years and are going to die anyway, so they may as well be happy and do 
whatever they want, no matter the consequences to the environment and society. This disregard for not only 
others, but for the Earth itself and future generations is an extremely selfish and asinine way of thinking and 
acting. Many neighbors do not even know each other, but instead live next to each other without ever even 
speaking. Ina Corrine Brown said, 

L In the Modem Western world, the interdependence of human beings is obscured but our emphasis on individualism and by 

the impersonal nature of many of the relationships characteristic of an urban, industrial, money economy. Only in times of 
personal or community disaster do many people become aware of the extent of their dependence on others and that there are 
necessities which money cannot buy. Yet there is a real sense in which we become human only in association with other 
people, and persons who attempt to live in complete isolation are usually those who already are to some degree detached from 
reality.” (23) 

Frivolous Entertainment and Idolization 

Many Homo sapiens have replaced the wonder and amazement of nature, science, and the pursuit of knowledge 
with artificially created time consuming technology and entertainment resulting in a plugged-in society that is 
extremely out of touch with not only nature, science, and the pursuit of knowledge, but often with society itself. 
This has also led to an entertained society with many Homo sapiens being good at some repetitive pointless 
game which gives them a false sense of satisfaction and accomplishment, but which is mostly clueless about the 
reality of the world around them while also making them apathetic regarding environmental and social issues. 
And while this pacified society may be good for some businesses and politicians, it has ultimately led to the 
dumbing down of many in society. Neil Postman wrote, 

“Tyrants of all varieties have always known about the value of providing the masses with amusements as a means of 
pacifying discontent.” (677) 

Technology and the Internet can be a positive thing for society when it is used properly and in moderation, 
otherwise it can have detrimental effects on the members of society. Some Homo sapiens are so absorbed with 
technology and the Internet to the point of addiction and are unable to unplug, ultimately becoming nothing more 
than drones which make billions of dollars for websites and gaming companies through advertising and in-app 
purchases. Future generations may look at their ancestors and wonder how they were force fed a diet of synthetic 
reality, and why they so willingly submitted to it with little to no resistance. Many Homo sapiens spend hours 
each day on social media, surfing the web, watching videos, and gaming, but will not spend 1, 2, or even 3 hours 
a week devoting time to volunteering and making a positive impact on society or the Earth. How clean would the 
Earth be if all Homo sapiens spent 1 hour each week picking up the garbage which litters Earth? How much 
more educated would children be if more adults tutored or mentored a child in need a few hours a week? 

Much of the so called educational TV, documentary films, and other related media today is based on popularity, 
fantasy, and sensationalism, not education, science, or content which encourages good morals or shows the 
actual reality of the world. Over the last 15 years, pseudo reality shows have taken center stage and consist of 
content that is the farthest thing from reality, and the acting is so bad that it is plainly obvious that it only fools 
the gullible which tune in and peipetuate this ridiculousness. Many of these reality shows are nothing more than 
a camera following around an ignorant narcissistic has-been celebrity or are based on the fantasy of becoming a 
star. Many television shows and networks which have a theme of science and history mostly broadcast series 
based on a hoax, myth, pseudo-science, pseudo history, conspiracy, or entertaining fiction, not real science and 
accurate history. Skewed history and selective facts or scientific data are intermixed with entertaining aliens, 
psychics, ghosts, or mythological elements to a gullible audience eager to believe and perpetuate the entertaining 

The idolization of entertainers, religious figures, political leaders, or any individual is senseless and pointless. 
Homo sapiens give awards and accolades to so many who are the least deserving of them, and those who receive 
none are ignored or even persecuted during their lifetime only to be vindicated later and then revered long after 
they are dead. Why are scientist like Fritz Haber who invented and advocated for chemical weapons, or Hermann 
Staudinger who invented plastic, or Egas Moniz who developed the lobotomy awarded a Nobel Prize for work 
that has had such a negative impact on humanity and the Earth, while other far more deserving individuals may 
or may not even be nominated and will never receive one? Albert Einstein said. 

'Let every man be respected as an individual and no man idolized.” (51) 

The Mainstream News Media 

Much of the mainstream news media presents nothing more than entertainment through sensationalism and 
dramatic presentation which targets a gullible audience that tunes in to anxiously await updates on pseudo 
breaking news stories, often which contain little substance or purpose other than to entertain and gain ratings. 
Most of the mainstream news media often do not focus on truly important social and environmental issues, but 
instead place an emphasis on the deaths of famous Homo sapiens, sports, politics, weather, entertainment, 
business, celebrities, trends, shopping, advertising new products, food, pets, health, extreme murders, crime, 
violence, drugs, religion, or some other morbid and meaningless story which contains no real value. And while 
most of these topics are important and should be covered to some extent, by making them the entire focal point 
of the news, it has led to so few mainstream news agencies focusing on or even covering other crucial subject 
matter, such as global warming, nature, environmental issues, indigenous issues, pollution, war, human rights, 
science, education, or other pertinent subjects which are actually affecting the world and desperately need 
attention brought to them. When and if these subjects are ever covered by the mainstream news media it is 
usually very brief. 

Some of the mainstream news media as well as the entertainment industry have used love, fear, hate, worry, 
sadness, and other emotions to manipulate the masses by feeding on these emotions to create an illusory and 
impossible fantasy world that often eliminates reality. Some of the mainstream news media often presents stories 
with a very biased perspective, which can have vast influence on public opinion, rather than simply being factual 
and informative about the truly important social and environmental issues affecting the entire world. Many 
mainstream news sources are extremely redundant, with most all mainstream news agencies focusing on the 
same exact news stories only being slightly reworded or being told from a different biased perspective. The 24/7 
news networks run the same 20 minutes of news stories repeated for hours on end until they finally change, and 
then repeat the endless repetition of news again, often focusing on only one news story for hours and even days 
at a time, while ignoring the hundreds of other news stories which also matter. With this type of reporting, one 
might be led to believe they are in a small world where nothing of any real importance is going on other than the 
same irrelevant sensationalist new stories, when in fact it is just the opposite. News stories are usually 
abandoned after being reported on once, and often little to no updates on the progression of a news story or 
outcome is given and no closure to a developing news story is ever provided. Most of the the mainstream news 
media is more concerned about being the first to report the news than with actually getting the facts first and 
making an accurate report. Even with Internet resources like Snopes, Crosscheck, The Skeptics Society, 
PolitiFact, and others exposing the truth, inaccurate news and rumors are still ever present. How much more 
reliable would the mainstream news be if they used these and other accurate resources to fact check all of their 
news stories, instead of reporting lies based on sensationalism and instant information? 

Negativity and crime seem to dominate much of the mainstream news, leading some to believe that with all the 
murder and mayhem being reported that the world it is a far more dangerous place than it actually is, and can 
result in a paranoid society buying more guns, putting more locks on their doors, and isolating themselves even 
further from the outside world. If one were to look at the actual crime statistics issued by the Federal Bureau of 
Investigation (FBI), they would see that violent crimes as well as property crimes have actually decreased 
dramatically. Nationwide violent crimes (murder and nonnegligent manslaughter, legacy rape, revised rape, 
robbery, and aggravated assault) have fallen from their peak in 1992 of 1,932,274 incidents to 1,197,987 in 2014, 
and property crime (burglary, larceny-theft, and motor vehicle theft) have fallen from their peak in 1991 of 
12,961,116 incidents to 8,277,829 incidents in 2014. (685) Whereas the frequently underreported white-collar 
crimes (Ponzi schemes, fraud, insider trading, bribery, labor racketeering, embezzlement, cybercrime, money 
laundering, forgery, and identity theft) have increased by 847% from 325,519 crimes in 2001 to 3,083,379 
crimes in 2015 being reported to the Federal Trade Commission (FTC). (686) Because of the sensationalism and 
negative spin which is often put on news content, along with the alarmist attitude which is projected through 
overdramatizing issues, many Homo sapiens have an unwarranted phobia regarding some issues based on 
rumors and false information. Most doomsday and worst-case scenarios which are often proposed will never 
happen, and they are used by some mainstream news media organizations to create hype and gain ratings. If 
news were based more on reality and the facts, would this not lead to more contemplation about valid and 

positive change regarding environmental and social issues, instead of irrelevant speculations and pointless 
gossip? Neil Postman wrote, 

“What is happening here is that television is altering the meaning of “being infonned” by creating a species of information 
that might properly be called disinformation. I am using this word almost in the precise sense in which it is used by spies in 
the CIA or KGB. Disinformation does not mean false information. It means misleading information-misplaced, irrelevant, 
fragmented or superficial information-information that creates the illusion of knowing something but which in fact leads one 
away from knowing. In saying this, I do not mean to imply that television news deliberately aims to deprive Americans of a 
coherent, contextual understanding of their world. I mean to say that when news is packaged as entertainment, that is the 
inevitable result. And in saying that the television news show entertain but does not inform, I am saying something far more 
serious than that we are being deprived of authentic infonnation. I am saying we are losing our sense of what it means to be 
well informed. Ignorance is always correctable. But what shall we do if we take ignorance to be knowledge?” (687) 

There is now a tendency to label anything as ‘fake news ’ by those being criticized or whom disagree, even 
though there are undeniable facts present and there is nothing fake whatsoever about it. The problem is not that 
there is inaccurate news or misinformation, this issue has been prevalent since the beginning of civilization and 
gossip first began to spread. The problem is that many Homo sapiens are gullible and perhaps lack education and 
logical thought with which to decipher the inaccurate news from real news, in addition to simply not 
factchecking the news themselves. Yellow journalism will most likely always be present so long as there is an 
uneducated gullible audience which craves such gibberish, along with some mainstream news media 
organizations which base news stories on sensationalism while presenting the news in an entertaining way to 
gain ratings. Neil Postman wrote, 

“The problem is not that television presents us with entertaining subject matter but that all subject matter is presented as 
entertaining, which is another issue altogether. 

To say it still another way: Entertainment is the supra-ideology of all discourse on television. No matter what is depicted or 
from what point of view, the overarching presumption is that it is there for our amusement and pleasure. That is why even on 
news shows which provide us daily with fragments of tragedy and barbarism, we are urged by the newscasters to “join them 
tomorrow.” What for? One would think that several minutes of murder and mayhem would suffice as material for a month of 
sleepless nights. We accept the newscasters' invitation because we know that the “news” is not to be taken seriously, that it is 
all in dun, so to say. Everything about a news show tells us this-the good looks and amiability of the cast, their pleasant 
banter, the exciting music that opens and closes the show, the vivid film footage, the attractive commercials-all these and 
more suggest that what we have just seen is no cause for weeping. A news show, to put it plainly, is a format for 
entertainment, not education, reflection or catharsis. And we must not judge too harshly those who have framed it in this way. 

They are not assembling the news to be read, or broadcasting it to be heard. They are televising the news to be seen.” (678) 

Real news is nothing more than facts and not opinions which can often be biased. Freedom of speech, opinions, 
and debate are excellent, and they are a vital part of democracy, but only in the right forum, and so long as it is 
not labeled as news. If news is based on opinions and is biased creating a one-sided presentation of the issues 
while ignoring most of the facts, then it will never truly be news, it will just be pointless gossip and slander 
interwoven with select facts to support it. If the public looks to the mainstream news media as a source for facts 
and information, then it should be delivering this, otherwise they are misleading the public and causing mass 
confusion, hysteria, and unnecessary paranoia through the spreading of misinformation. Most Homo sapiens do 
not have the time nor the desire to fact-check everything in the news, nor should they be expected to fact-check a 
news organization whose main goal and mission should be to do exactly this, and this precisely why it is 
essential that the mainstream news media provide factual and relevant information. If the public cannot depend 
on the news media organizations for this service, what good are they other than to be a source of entertainment 
and opinions? Shouldn’t they be labeled as entertainment or opinionated, and not news? Perhaps if more news 
was presented like PBS Frontline, PBS NewsFIour, National Public Radio, BBC News, the Associated Press, 
France 24, and a few others do, then this would help in reporting the facts more accurately. Unfortunate these 
exemplary news organizations receive so little funding in comparison with their corporate counterparts. Perhaps 
if the mainstream news was based less on what information the public wants, and more on vital information they 
need, then the public would be far more informed about the real environmental and social issues which are 
occurring in the world and initiate more positive changes. 

Although there are a growing number of alternative news sources since the advent of the Internet, adding to the 

few reliable mainstream news sources, they are still overshadowed by the rest of the mainstream news media 
which is now dominated by coiporations. When corporations and entertainment related companies have taken 
control of most of the mainstream news media sources, they have truly lost their value of being a reputable news 
organization. In 1983, 90% of United States media was owned by more than 50 different companies, in 2017 
only 6 media conglomerates: Comcast, Newscorp, Disney, Viacom, Time Warner, and CBS controlled that same 
90%. Many mainstream news agencies are nothing more than a business, and their reporting and access to their 
news content are based around money and how much profit can be made. When news organizations don’t want 
to progress with technology and offer their content for free and instead require a paid subscription, they have lost 
their value of being a true news agency as they are basing access to news and information on money, while 
focusing more on the profiting of money from news and information rather than being an informative news 
source which spreads truth. The Aljazeera September 2016 broadcast 'US elections and the media: How did we 
get here?' reported that lax regulation in addition to an absence of a strong public broadcasting system, like in 
some other countries, has strongly affected the coverage of US politics. And the March 2017 report ‘Occupation 
of the American Mind ’ details the information wars being waged by Israel and its supporters over the last 50 
years to distort the truth about the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and win over the hearts and minds of Americans. 

In parts of the world which have truly important news being reported on the media is often censored. One need 
only view the Reporters Without Borders yearly World Press Freedom Index to see how freedom of speech 
especially through the news media is silenced in so many countries around the world, and even in some 
democratic nations. Between 1992 and July 2017, there were 1,737 journalists which died either as a result of 
being murdered, caught in crossfire, or another deadly incident from covering a war or other dangerous 
assignment. (414) How much truth was either permanently hidden, delayed, or altered as a result of a journalists 
being murdered for reporting the truth? Suppressing the facts and knowledge until it is relevant based on 
ideology or popularity is not news, it is the control of news and the truth and does nothing more than hinder 
change and progress. 

The reality of a situation is often censored by the news to shield the public from the what is deemed to be too 
graphic or from what is considered inappropriate, and although the Internet has broken down this barrier, 
censorship it is still prevalent within most mainstream news organizations. This content which is labeled as too 
graphic or inappropriate has helped to initiate change throughout history when viewers see the actual horrors of a 
situation like war, starving children, natural disasters, etc. As the old adages go ‘if something is out of sight, it is 
thus out of mind ’ whereas ‘a picture is worth a thousand words ’, and when Homo sapiens see the reality of a 
situation through a visual presentation it cannot be denied or debated. How about an evening news summary of 
worldwide news and the continuous depredations done by Homo sapiens, instead of the current happy face 
which is put on the news? Perhaps if news was based more on the facts presented with real pictures uncensored, 
and Homo sapiens witnessed the real devastation which is occurring in the world instead of being censored from 
it, more would actually care and initiate positive change, instead of just being aware of the issue. How about a 
section in news which is presented in an almanac fashion and has nothing but statistical facts on environmental 
and social issues showing the actual reality of these issues? (e.g. pollution levels, number of children dying every 
minute, amount of oil being consumed, casualties of war, gallons of toxic waste spilled, etc.) Why does the 
mainstream news media too often focus on one or a few Homo sapiens dying or being rescued, while millions of 
other Homo sapiens are dying around the world and need rescuing also? 

‘Saturday Night Live ’ has been showing the reality of the world through comedy since 1975, along with others 
which followed later like ‘The Daily Show with Jon Stewart ’, ‘The Colbert Report ’, and ‘The Soup all of which 
will be sadly missed by a cult following. Their broadcasts will most certainly go down in history for having 
shown the reality of the world, while also serving as a reminder of how truly absurd, ignorant, and insane some 
Homo sapiens truly were. Newer shows like ‘Last Week Tonight with John Oliver’, ‘FullFrontal with Samantha 
Bee ’, ‘The Jim Jefferies Show ’ and ‘The Joel McHale Show with Joel McHale ’ continue this tradition for the few 
million who tune in to watch. 


Homo sapiens Excessive Footprint 

World Population 

The chemical and advanced scientific revolutions helped to create a rapid population explosion over the last 90 
years, and although abortion and contraception are utilized by some around the world, with an estimated 
43,800,000 abortions conducted in 2008, the population of Homo sapiens continues to grow exponentially. (413) 
The United Nations estimated the world population of Homo sapiens at 7,300,000,000 in July 2015, and they 
predict a steady decline in the population growth rate in the near future due to the ongoing global demographic 
transition towards civilization, education, and modernization. If the growth rate declines to zero in the near 
future the world could have a stable population of around 11,000,000,000. However, underestimated 
technological and medical advancements in addition to the possible conversion by many to a vegan-based diet 
could allow for even longer lifespans, and the total future population could be far greater. Future growth in 
population will also mean increased energy, food, and water consumption resulting in additional environmental 
stress and impact. Perhaps the more important population issue in the future will not be how many Homo sapiens 
inhabit the planet, but for how long. Already there are Homo sapiens which have lived 117 years, so it is not 
preposterous to think that they could possibly live even longer in the future. How much of a footprint would 
Homo sapiens leave on Earth if the average lifespan were 150 or even 200 years in duration? How much 
additional food, water, energy, and other resources would this longer living generation consume? Will modem or 
future Homo sapiens perhaps practice more restraint when it comes to procreation? 



35,000 BCE 


10,000 BCE 

15,000,000 (Agricultural Revolution) 




2,000,000,000 (Chemical Revolution) 


3,000,000,000 (Advanced Scientific Revolution) 















SOURCE: Wikipedia and United Nations (72) 

It should also be noted that of the 7,300,000,000 Homo sapiens in the world 1/3 of them reside in only two 
countries, 1,300,000,000 in China and 1,200,000,000 in India. If these two countries had similar populations like 
the next most populated nation, the United States with 321,000,000 the world population would be around 
5,500,000,000. 3% of the world’s population lived in cities in 1800, by 2010, 50% lived in cities, and this 
number is forecasted to reach 70% by 2050. If this trend continues, less Homo sapiens will inhabit the remote 
ecosystems and this could perhaps help with the conservation of many areas allowing these remote areas to be 
rehabilitated and in reverting back to more of a wild natural state. Although, another consideration is the fact that 
many once small communities which only had a few hundred or less inhabitants now have thousands, and the 
communities which had a few thousand now have tens of thousands or more, so in essence the once small 
communities are becoming larger modem cities. 

The United States had so few indigenous Homo sapiens living on its bountiful lands before the conquest of the 
Americas, as did so many other areas of the world. Then came the European invasion of greed and tyranny 
which encroached on, depredated, and finally assimilated the indigenous Homo sapiens. California is a good 
example of this difference in that California's current population is 38,000,000 and growing, and before the 
Europeans invaded and exploited the lands of California there were only 150,000 indigenous encroached that 
inhabited all of California living in perfect harmony with nature on land which most Europeans erroneously 
thought was an uninhabitable wasteland. (94) 

There have been population declines in history mostly due to famine, war, disease, or natural disaster, but now 
most of the current deaths in the western civilized world are self-inflicted and preventable, as they mainly result 
from anthropogenic activities and lifestyle choices. In fact, a 2015 WHO report concluded that fertility rates 
worldwide are declining which has resulted in world population growth slowing nearly everywhere globally 
except Africa. (413) Some scientists warn that past evidence combined with statistical probabilities means that an 
inevitable catastrophic natural disaster at some point in the future will occur, (e.g. extraterrestrial object impact, 
volcanic activities, etc.) Others thi nk that a virus will ultimately emerge or evolve resulting in a deadly 
worldwide pandemic. Will these natural checks and balances disrupt the world population growth as they did 
during the Antonine Plague, Plague of Justinian, Black Death pandemic, and others throughout history? Some 
think that disease, famine, natural disasters, and the like are just natural checks and balances, and they postulate 
that if Homo sapiens would not attempt to save everyone then the population could be held in check naturally 
while also strengthening Homo sapiens genes and developing more natural resistance. Disease, famine, and 
natural disasters keep flora and fauna species in check, so why should it be thought that Homo sapiens would be 
treated any different than the other species on Earth? Will civilization itself through political change, education, 
and modernization stabilize the world population? What would the world be like with 11,000,000,000 Homo 
sapiens or possibly even more? Could the future cities of Earth have a population of 500,000,000 or more, with 
citizens packed into layers of buildings rising above and descending below the surface of Earth? How much and 
what kind of nature would be left in a world of this sort? Could the population of Earth be dramatically reduced 
in the near future to only 100,000,000 Homo sapiens or less because of space exploration and colonization? 

SOURCE: NASA - World population density in 2000. POP 

Mass Consumption 

'Live simply so others may simply live', is a statement that holds true more so today than of any other time in the 
past. There are a very small percentage of Homo sapiens in the world which currently live a very simple non¬ 
impactful minimalist lifestyle upon Earth, utilizing only what they need and recycling everything until it has no 
more usefulness. This lifestyle can be seen in more past than present cultures around the world, J. Eric S. 
Thompson mentioned how frugal the Maya are in writing, 

“The Maya is frugal-he has to be-but nowhere else in the world have I seen such patched clothes, with one neat patch on 
another until, without exaggeration, it was almost impossible to identity more than the smallest areas of the original 
garment.” (422) 

Whereas Henry David Thoreau describes the exact opposite in Western society in writing, 

"Who could wear a patch, or two extra seams only, over the knee? Most behave as if they believed that their prospects for life 
would be ruined if they should do it. It would be easier for them to hobble to town with a broken leg than with a broken 
pantaloon. Often if an accident happens to a gentleman's legs, they can be mended; but if a similar accident happens to the 
legs of his pantaloons, there is no help for it; for he considers, not what is truly respectable, but what is respected.” 

"...perhaps we are led oftener by the love of novelty and a regard for the opinions of men, in procuring it, than by a true 
utility." (638) 

In today’s Western society, consumption is generally regarded as a defining indicator as to how well the society 
is progressing and doing economically, but it is also an indicator of the depredations Homo sapiens have inflicted 
upon the Earth. Science, technological advancements, and the invention of automated machinery have all 
contributed to making the production of products easier and the consumption even greater. The vast majority of 
society have a 'throw away and buy a new one' mentality in regard to consumption and have no conception of 
moderation, and thus they engage in extreme indulgence. There seems to be no real mass consensus or effort to 
reuse, recycle, and conserve anything being used, unless it is monetarily advantageous or absolutely necessary. 
Through narrow-mindedness, unscrupulous behavior, and uneducated decision-making Homo sapiens have acted 
very imprudent towards Earth with their lifestyle choices and habits. Is a high rate of consumption truly a 
distinguishing characteristic of an advanced society as many think, or is it simply nothing more than greed and 
indulgence and a clear indicator that society has become decadent? Can the consumption of everything be 
reduced by Homo sapiens simply not indulging and leading a more moderate lifestyle? Ward Chesworth wrote, 

"Opulent materialism can only be sustained for the relatively few in society - the king and his court, the tyrant and his 
favourites, the president and his bagmen. The eighteenth century radical, Tom Paine, believed that the prototype of them all 
was the thief and his gang. The rest of us aspire to the more modest version of opulence called affluence. The problem is that 
the most fortunate part of the human population has now attained an affluence that approaches historical opulence. The 
affluence of a Canadian or American for example, is roughly the equivalent of 10 to 15 inhabitants of the third world, in 
terns of life-time consumption and waste generation. All 10 to 15 hope to enjoy our level of luxury someday, and indeed the 
Brundtland report states its goal to be exactly that. If achieved, it would scar the biosphere so badly that the downfall of the 
civilization we currently enjoy would be assured. Ten thousand years of trial and error, reaching back before Sumer, would 
simply be another failed experiment. And even if the goal is not achieved, as seems more likely, the stress between the haves 
and the have-nots would leave little chance for the development of a stable world community." (670) 

The idea of a moderate lifestyle can be seen in many ancient cultures, this was the theme during much of ancient 
Greek culture and especially we can see a moderate lifestyle in the Maya culture. J. Eric S. Thompson wrote, 

“As we shall see, Maya character, with its emphasis on moderation, discipline, co-operation, patience, and consideration for 
others, made possible outstanding achievements in the intellectual field. 

Maya philosophy is best summarized in the motto, 'Nothing in excess,' which was inscribed over the temple of Delphi. 

Harmonious living, moderation, and a full comprehension of that spirit of toleration for the foibles of one's neighbors 
contained in the expression 'live and let live' characterize the present-day Maya. The development of a somewhat similar 
philosophy has been considered one of the great achievements of Athenian culture, and rightly has been put before material 

Quiet compromise and the spirit of live and let live were too deeply ingrained in his and his neighbors' characters to let him 

doubt the result. Everyone, and all the trees, the crops, and the animals had their rights. One must not violate these rights or 
try to take more than was his due. All such matters should be looked at from the other point of view as well as one's own. 

It must be remembered that the Maya did not set the human race so far apart from the rest of created life as we do, but then 
the Maya had, and still has, a deeper sense of his relative unimportance in creation.” (26) 

Watching Robert J. Flaherty's 1922 documentary 'Nanook of the North' one can see exactly how simple the 
indigenous Homo sapiens lifestyle once was and still is for some even today. The Maya had no beasts of burden 
and no wheel, they used not a single nail in constructing their dwellings, and yet they built great temples and 
homes in which they lived. There are very few remains from past societies of the last 10,000 years, for the most 
part there are stone buildings or other artifacts that have weathered nature and time. But over the last 300 years, 
there has been an increase in not only the amount of garbage, but also the type. To think of all the mass 
quantities of clothes, shoes, dishes, and other items these ancient societies must have made and utilized, and how 
little remains on the earth today that was not preserved, usually by chance, this is truly how Homo sapiens 
should leave Earth when they die. Homo sapiens of past societies had fewer possessions, all of which were 
handcrafted out of natural bio-degradable materials and were also made to be more durable lasting the lifetime of 
the possessor and even to be passed on to their descendants. Possessions today are more based on social status, 
trend, or indulgence, all of which revolve around the generation of profits from the sale of these items, ultimately 
creating an endless cycle of pollution, garbage, and waste of resources. The excessive hoarding of things based 
on unnecessary preparedness, aesthetical obsession, or object idolization all feed into the trillions of dollars’ 
worth of meaningless, worthless, unproductive, and polluting commerce. 

What is even more appalling is the amount of food which is purchased and never consumed only to be ultimately 
discarded and wasted while others around the world are dying of starvation and malnutrition related diseases. 

The United Nations World Food Programme estimates that 795,000,000 million Homo sapiens worldwide go to 
bed on an empty stomach each night. Many western societies waste an abundant amount of food, and 
1,600,000,000 tonnes of food, or 1/3 of all the food produced worldwide is discarded or goes to waste amounting 
to $990,000,000,000. One-fourth of the food being lost or wasted globally could feed 870,000,000 Homo 
sapiens in the world. (189) The surplus of food being discarded, from grocery stores and restaurants, is 
sometimes now being distributed to low income individuals and families through food banks, but food continues 
to be wasted in so many forms and could be recycled even further. In agricultural operations and in grocery 
stores, billions of pounds of perfectly edible food is discarded because of the size, a bruise, or other blemish in 
an effort to make the marketplace more aesthetically appealing and inviting for consumers. Allot of food is 
purchased and simply left to rot in many Western society kitchen pantries. Much food is discarded simply 
because consumers have a misconception about an expiration date and a freshness date thinking that the 
freshness date means the date it must be consumed by, when in actuality it is when the food tastes freshest by 
and has nothing to do with edibility. Some consumers discard food because of freezer bum thinking that the food 
is spoiled, but again it is still very edible. Vast amounts of food are wasted because of the large portions served at 
restaurants with many consumers not taking the leftovers home to consume later or give to a less fortunate 
individual. Could many of these issues not be corrected by better individual food management habits? Could not 
all soon to expire food be given to a food hank or directly to individuals by placing an ad on Craigslist free 
section or on social media, instead of discarding it into the trash? Flow much money could households save if 
they had more access to all the perfectly edible food being discarded? Flow many millions of pumpkins are 
carved every year for Halloween and not consumed? Why don't consumers instead make a pie or other pumpkin 
based dish? How many millions of chicken eggs are boiled and dyed each year during Easter and never 
consumed? How much food is wasted making an offering during a religious ceremony? How much food is not 
simply washed and instead is discarded when it touches the floor or another undesired surface? How much food 
could be saved through better eating habits? (e.g. not discarding leftovers, or using a kitchen utensil to scrape the 
sides of a food container, or adding a small amount of water to a partially sealed food container to get the tad of 
food stuck to the sides of the container) 

Carl Haub estimates that 107,602,707,791 births have occurred since the dawn of modem Homo sapiens around 
52,000 years ago (700), yet most of the environmental damage has been done mainly during the last 200 years by 
only 15,000,000,000 or so of the total number of Homo sapiens to have ever inhabited the Earth. The lifestyle 

the inhabitants of a planet lead and the materials which are chosen to create things, makes the difference in 
leaving barely a footprint or any sign one ever inhabited the planet like a few pottery sherds, maybe a wall of an 
adobe house, or a painting on a cave wall, versus leaving a footprint of synthetically made unnatural non- 
biodegradable things that will take thousands to perhaps millions of years to decompose. That isn't to say that the 
Homo sapiens which have inhabited Earth throughout all eras of history haven’t done some damage to the Earth 
in their own way, slashing and burning forest for agriculture, cutting down forests to build cities and ships, 
draining swamps for agriculture, overkill of species, etc. But the scale at which it has occurred in modem times 
is infinitely vaster with the help of science and technology, and these tools and chemicals with which to 
depredate the Earth have only continued to increase in severity over time. Paleontologists and anthropologists 
have speculated that Homo sapiens have been causing mass extinctions for 50,000 or more years. Evidence is 
emerging which shows a strong correlation with the arrival of Homo sapiens in North and South America, 
Australia, and other areas of the world and the extinction of megafauna species. Richard Leakey and Roger 
Lewin state that, 

“Nevertheless, in recent years it has become undeniable that the evolution of Homo sapiens was to imprint a ruinous 

signature on the rest of the natural world, perhaps right from the beginning... 

The message of the complexity of ecosystems-their interconnectedness and their vulnerability to disruption by human hands- 
repeats again and again... 

The coincidence of this mass dying with the end of the glacial epoch is precise, and would seem compelling as a putative 
casual agent. Yet there are few detailed hypotheses about exactly how the extinction might have occurred. It is not sufficient 
to say that plant communities were plunged into disarray; therefore animal species became extinct. This was one of the 
reasons why, in 1967, Paul Martin, a paleontologist at the University of Arizona, revived the overkill hypothesis of Wallace 
and Owen, and termed the phenomenon "Pleistocene overkill.” He argued that climatic change was not the only event with 
which the end-Pleistocene extinction coincided. At the same time, a new kind of mammalian species was spreading though 
the Americas, beginning about 11,500 years ago in the north (after having crossed the exposed Bering land bridge from Asia), 
and continuing for a millennium, reaching Tierra del Fuego, at the southern tip of South America, 10,500 years ago. The 
immigrants to the New World are known to archaeologists as Clovis people, named after their delicately crafted projectile 

Martin calculates that within 350 years of entering North America, the original bands of Clovis people had increased their 
numbers to 600,000 and had reached the Gulf of Mexico. This explosive expansion was facilitated by unlimited resources- 
land and prey-opening up before their inexorable advance. Before their first millennium in the New World was over, the 
Clovis people had reached the southern tip of the continent, and now numbered many million. This north-to-south population 
expansion left a trail of destruction, as hunters were easily able to kill large, lumbering prey unused to a new kind of predator. 

The animals probably had no innate fear of humans, as is often the case in regions of the world (usually islands) that have 
evolved in the absence of humans; they would therefore have been particularly vulnerable to efficient hunters. The hunters, in 
their turn, were unused to this kind of prey, and so were perhaps freed from the usual hunters' constraint against mass 
killing.” (123) 

There is a prevalent theme of moderation, coexistence, and respect for Earth in most indigenous societies 
throughout the world, be it North America, South American, Africa, or other parts of the world. Could these 
morals have originated, because of oral stories passed down throughout the generations about this overkill and 
extinction thousands of years ago? Could they have learned from their ancestor’s depredations, about over- 
exploitation, and the over-killing of faunae, and this was one of the reasons for their nearly perfect symbiotic 
relationship and coexistence with the natural world around them when the Europeans arrived? Is history 
repeating itself and modern-day Homo sapiens are experiencing a similar lesson? Will they learn from this lesson 
or will it simply be ignored? Can future generations be different through education and shown by example how 
to live a better more natural alternative lifestyle with a smaller footprint as their ancient ancestors did? How 
much less consumption would there be if Homo sapiens just lived more simply and had minimalism lifestyles 
with less material possessions? Will future generations perhaps be more self-sufficient like their ancestors 
growing fruits and vegetables and making their own clothes and other household items? What if Homo sapiens 
shared more items with their fellow Homo sapiens, or if more products could be rented, wouldn’t this reduce 
consumption if there were less items which had to be purchased per individual, especially for products which are 
only used occasionally or once in a lifetime? 

How Much Consumption is Too Much? 

The billions of plastic items that are being consumed daily and which have been consumed over just the last 100 
years is extensive. Most products today have more packaging than product to aid in marketing or for 
manufacturing convenience, and this packaging usually lasts far longer than the product being consumed, (e.g. 
most food packaging is synthetic plastic and only stores the food for a few weeks or days while the packaging is 
around for hundreds or thousands of years afterwards) All of the waste, consumption of resources, and product 
packaging for food alone immense. What if grocery stores sold more food items via bulk merchandising and 
consumers brought their own containers to dispense the desired amount of food into? This may not be feasible 
for all food products, but it could be used for a variety of foods, and this system is already being used in some 
grocery stores for food items like granola, nuts, candy, etc., so certainly many more food items could be sold in 
this fashion. Many products are made in abundance and consumed in the same manner, some products are sold 
only via bulk-packaging to either market them better to consumers as being a better value or to make 
manufacturing costs lower, but this method can also result in even more consumption of the product. Millions of 
novelty and trend-based products are marketed and sold to gullible consumers each year who hoard thousands of 
useless collectables throughout their lifetime, only to have them discarded in a landfill when they die. Many 
items which are disposed of still have use left in the product, (e.g. toothpaste has several more servings of 
toothpaste in the container, it can easily be accessed by cutting the container open with scissors) 

A good example of the amount of consumption and waste of products can be illustrated in the simple exercise of 
looking at a product around you, pick anything, lip balm for instance. Now imagine that one company and how 
many tubes of lip balm they have created since their inception, 1,000,000 or 10,000,000 or perhaps more. Also 
factor in that this consumption has been increasing and going on for over 75 years so that would make 
75,000,000 or perhaps 750,000,000 used plastic lip balm tubes that were made and disposed of throughout the 
history of the product thus far and counting. Then think of all the empty useless lip balm tubes that now occupy 
space in a landfill and the toxic chemicals which are going into the soils of Earth or if the tubes were incinerated 
the toxic chemicals went into the atmosphere. Now do that exercise for automobile tires, plastic water bottles, 
batteries, computers, cellphones, automobiles, toothbrushes, disposable razors, or any of the other millions of 
products which are produced in vast quantities, the list is nearly infinite. Also, don’t forget to factor in the many 
tiny plastic parts and other things which make up the larger product as a whole, the gaskets, casings, stickers, 
glue, paint, lubricants, safety seals, etc. 

Technology is always advancing, and electronic manufacturers now offer a wide variety of product choices, 
many of which are cheaply manufactured products with an infinitesimal lifespan. Since their invention, how 
many of the billions of laptops, printers, desktop PCs with monitors, smartphones, and tablets which were sold 
are now sitting in a landfill? How many billions of printer ink cartridges have been manufactured and sold over 
that same time? Prescription medicine bottles are never reused by pharmacies refilling prescriptions, how many 
millions of these bottles are thrown away each month? How many billions of unwanted and unused ketchup, 
mustard, relish, hot sauce, salt, pepper, lemon juice, sugar, artificial sweetener, honey, and other condiment 
packets are given away with take-out food meals and drinks, only to be discarded unopened into the trash? How 
many millions of straws, stirrers, lids, silverware, and other plastic items are also given out unnecessarily? How 
many billions of product safety seals are used because of nothing more than paranoia? Washable and reusable 
cotton diapers have been used for thousands of years until their recent replacement by the disposable plastic 
diapers. How many trillions of plastic diapers have been used and now sit in a landfill or pollute an ecosystem? 
How many millions of plastic tampons are discarded every month? How many millions of plastic ribbons and 
silicone wristbands for charity or cause awareness have been made? Would not conversing about a charity or 
cause also bring about awareness and attention perhaps even more so than a color symbol which most are unable 
to decipher? How many billions of one use or convenience items have been consumed? How many billions of 
products have been made that are simply a fad and will only be looked at or used for a short period of time, 
perhaps only once and then thrown away? (e.g. party, holiday, festival, sporting event, items like plastic cups, 
hats, glasses, or other things) How many billions of lime desiccant or other oxygen absorbers are added to 
products in an attempt to maintain a longer shelf life? How many road flares are used each year when a simple 
flashing led light could be used instead? How many billions of toxic one-use items like glow sticks have been 

consumed? How many billions of instruction manuals are senselessly printed in 5 or more irrelevant languages 
adding unnecessary paper in order to make manufacturing or distribution easier? How many billions of vinyl 
records, 8-track tapes, cassette tapes, CDs, and DVDs were consumed until their near replacement with MP3s 
and other online digital media sources? How many millions of headphones, pillows, bars of soap, mini shampoo 
and conditioner bottles, and other plastic items distributed by airlines, hotels, and cruise ships and then discarded 
unused or after only being temporary used? 

Why are so many billions of plastic disposable items made without any recycling options? Shouldn’t any product 
which will be manufactured in such large quantities, say more than 50,000 times, be required by law to have 
recycling program in place for that product? How much paper is wasted with unwanted and unnecessary 
receipts? How much paper could be saved, if instead of automatically printing and giving a receipt to ever 
customer cashiers asked the customer if they even wanted a receipt? Don’t credit card transactions in essence 
make paper receipts obsolete as there is a permanent electronic record of the purchase? How many billions of led 
lights consume needless power while on standby, powered off, or charging? Why aren't automatic on/off energy 
saving systems on new homes mandatory by law? Why aren't water flow control devices for water conservation 
mandatory by law also? How many billions of tires have been used since the car was invented more than 100 
years ago, and were either disposed of through incineration contaminating the atmosphere, or now occupy space 
in a landfill? How many fragments of tires, brakes, and other automobile parts now pollute the ecosystems of 
Earth? How many thousands of helium filled balloons are let go everyday during events or by children and float 
off into the atmosphere to only later come down and kill faunae or pollute an ecosystem? How many minute 
particles of synthetic plastic flake off of the billions of pairs of shoes every day and end up polluting the water or 
soil? How many trillions of cheaply made plastic toys are consumed every year to only end up in a landfill 
within that same year? How many billions of air cushions, pieces of bubble wrap, polystyrene foam peanuts, and 
other plastic padding is over used each year shipping products to customers and then discarded? How much toxic 
antifreeze leaks out of automobiles only to pollute the soil or water? How many billions of gallons of toxic paint 
and varnish have been used for aesthetics, only to flake off and contaminate the soil and water? How many 
millions of perfectly habitable buildings have been demolished throughout history simply to build a more 
elaborate structure? How many millions of gallons of toxic tree paint has been applied to trees after pruning to 
bandage a wound caused by the pruning itself or to prevent cracking of new bark? How many billions of toxic 
mothballs made of naphthalene or 1,4-dichlorobenzene have been used? Why would anyone put a toxic pesticide 
with their clothes which could then be absorbed through their skin? Is there a real threat to clothes from insects 
which are sealed in a house or closet, or is this simply a custom which continues to peipetuate because of 
ignorance? Would not natural camphor be less toxic and perhaps be equally effective? 

How much electricity is wasted on senseless lighting to illuminate statues, buildings, or other structures each 
night? How much energy could be saved if millions of Homo sapiens participated in a monthly Earth Hour type 
event turning off all lights and electronic devices? What would happen to carbon dioxide pollution output levels 
if every automobile driver didn’t drive their personal automobile, and instead used public transportation or 
utilized a ride-share opportunity with a friend or co-worker, for one entire day or even for one whole week each 
month? How much power could be saved if more lights were energy efficient LEDs? How much energy could be 
saved if more individual electronic products had built in solar chargers? How much energy could be saved if all 
grocery stores used closed refrigeration systems instead of the doorless refrigeration units, which most grocery 
stores have only to make food more accessible and marketable to consumers? 

There is also much waste that could be stopped by simply modifying some of the practices that many industries 
engage in, like senseless labels on products and product packaging which is often excessive brand names, 
company logos, or pointless instructions and warnings which should be common sense. Many labels are stamped 
or painted onto products which easily wear off after a few uses, flaking off into the environment or they are 
possibly absorbed through the skin of the consumer. How much ink is wasted each year printing a company or 
organizations name on products for nothing more than advertising? How many stickers are used each year to 
advertise product features? There is also an abundance of waste throughout the world from things like items 
which have no purpose other than convenience like the stickers on fruit in grocery stores. Can there not just be a 
sign with the fruit name and price, and the cashiers would know what the fruit is or have a paper identification 

table for reference? Or can cashiers not simply be trained to identify fruits and vegetables? Or a cash register 
system which has the ability to scan the fruit and determine what it is? 

A Surplus of Senseless Waste 

In 2015, in the United States alone, there were 37,716 grocery stores offering an average of 42,214 separate 
products. These are the larger stores which have $2,000,000 or more in annual sales and it does not include the 
thousands of other smaller grocery stores. (49) In the United States, there are 428 Wal-Mart Discount Stores each 
offering 120,000 separate products, in addition there are 3,499 Wal-Mart Supercenters each offering 142,000 
separate products. Globally Wal-Mart Supercenters include an additional 321 in Canada, 385 in China, 256 in 
Mexico, and 338 in the United Kingdom. In addition, there are international warehouse clubs like Costco with 
727 warehouses and Walmart's subsidiary Sam's Club with 820 warehouses, which offer around 4,000 products 
with many sold as bulk-packaged goods, thus allowing for even easier mass consumption with a discounted 
monetary rate. Worldwide, there are hundreds of thousands of variety stores where most products cost $1.00 or 
less and is usually cheaply made junk made from synthetic plastic which ends up in a landfill soon after being 
purchased. In the United States, there are 12,483 Dollar General stores and 13,600 Dollar Tree stores. There are 
750 Hobby Lobby stores and 1,367 Michaels Stores Inc. containing millions of cheaply made synthetic plastic 
products for home decor, arts and crafts, and senseless hobbies. In 2014, Amazon sold a total of 5,000,000,000 
items. (181) Many of the products that all of these stores offer are nothing more than the same thing packaged 
and priced differently, in fact many of the brands are owned by just a few companies. How many billions of 
useless, pointless, or redundant products exist only to generate more profits? How many thousands of new 
products are created each day? 

Consumers in western societies have so much stuff they accumulate, never use, and will never use in their 
lifetime. So many perishable products are purchased with the intent to use only to be stored and eventually 
expire leaving it useless. Look around you right now in your home and ask yourself, “Has that product ever been 
used? Is it superfluous? Will that product ever be used again? Could someone else less fortunate be using it 
instead?” Why doesn’t this clearly visible mass accumulation of products awaken those out of their slumber of 
indulgence? This addiction to consumption and the erroneous notion that the products are needed could be 
defined as a mental illness. Many consumers are addicts, and product consumption is like all addictions in that it 
is the temporary pleasure itself and pseudo sense of satisfaction and security which perpetuates the addiction. 

The only difference, is that in this case it doesn’t result in the destruction of the user, it results in the destruction 
of the Earth, in essence Homo sapiens are addicted to the consumption of Earth itself. A1 Gore wrote, 

“The cleavage in the modem world between mind and body, man and nature, has created a new kind of addiction: I believe 
that our civilization is, in effect, addicted to the consumption of the earth itself. This addictive relationship distracts us from 
the pain of what we have lost: a direct experience of our connection to the vividness, vibrancy, and aliveness of the rest of the 
natural world. The froth and frenzy of industrial civilization mask our deep loneliness for that communion with the world that 
can lift our spirits and fill our senses with the richness and immediacy of life itself.” 

“...huge quantities of pollution, products for which we spend billions on advertising to convince ourselves we want, massive 
surpluses of products that depress prices while the products themselves go to waste, and diversions and distractions of every 
kind. We seem increasingly eager to lose ourselves in the forms of culture, society, technology, the media, and the rituals of 
production and consumption, but the price we pay is the loss of our spiritual lives.” 

“Our industrial civilization makes us a similar promise: the pursuit of happiness and comfort is paramount, and the 
consumption of an endless stream of shiny new products is encouraged as the best way to succeed in that pursuit. The 
glittering promise of easy fulfillment is so seductive that we become willing, even relieved, to forget what we really feel and 
abandon the search for authentic purpose and meaning in our lives.” 

“Many people seem to be largely oblivious of this collision and the addictive nature of our unhealthy relationship to the earth. 

But education is a cure for those who lack knowledge; much more worrisome are those who will not acknowledge these 
destructive patterns. Indeed, many political, business, and intellectual leaders deny the existence of any such patterns in 
aggressive and dismissive tones. They serve as “enablers,” removing inconvenient obstacles and helping to ensure that the 
addictive behavior continues.” 

“What 1 have called our addictive pattern of behavior is only part of the story, however, because it cannot explain the full 
complexity and ferocity of our assault on the earth. Nor does it explain how so many thinking and caring people can 

unwittingly cooperate in doing such enormous damage to the global environment and how they can continue to live by the 
same set of false assumptions about what their civilization is actually doing and why. Clearly, the problem involves more than 
the way each of us as an individual relates to the earth. It involves something that has gone terribly wrong in the way we 
collectively determine our mutual relationship to the earth.” (277) 

Homo sapiens endless consumption of not only trend-based products, but of products which have an 
infinitesimal lifespan or period of use before the item is buried in a landfill, has led to more manufacturing and 
an endless growing cycle of consumption, waste, and pollution. If the 'throw away buy a new one' attitude 
changes, will society stop consuming so much, and will this change also be done at the manufacturing level by 
making things more durable which last longer and of natural materials which can be recycled and are also bio¬ 
degradable? If consumers would purchase more natural and permanent onetime products for tasks that will be 
done throughout their entire life, (e.g. glass jar in s tead of plastic container, wooden box instead of a plastic box) 
this would also lead to less consumption of everyday items, which are often designed and manufactured for one¬ 
time use so the consumer will purchase more, thus spending more money. In regard to the consumption of trend- 
based products this change is dependent on the consumer, but given Homo sapiens history over the last 10,000 
years there will be trends in the near future and the majority of consumers will most likely continue to demand 
the latest and greatest, again one enters into morals and lifestyle changes on the individual level to limit this type 
of consumption. To consume unneeded things simply for convenience, self-gratification, or to simply allow 
something useful to go unused are true examples of indulgence and waste. The following table lists the dollar 
amounts of products sold and not actual product numbers, as these are virtually non-existent or only known by 
the companies selling the products, but it still gives an idea as to the number of products consumed if one takes 
the total sales and then divides it by the average price of the product, (e.g. an average package a batteries costs 
$4.00 and sales were $1,067,182,489 which would mean that an estimated 266,795,622 packages of batteries 
were sold) 

Some Products Being Consumed in Mass Quantities in the United States Based on Sales Figures 2013-2014 



Baby Food 




Beer Domestic and Imported 


Bottled Water 


Cat Food (Diy only, not including canned food or treats) 


Cereal (Ready to eat or cold cereals, not including hot cereals) 


Chocolate Candy 


Coffee Regular and Decaffeinated 




Dog Food (Dry only, not including canned food or treats) 


Frozen Pizza 


Ice Cream 


Potato Chips 


Salad dressing 


Soft Drinks Regular and Low-calorie 


SOURCE: The World Almanac and Book of Facts 2015 ISBN-13: 978-1-60057-190-9 p.78 

Many Homo sapiens from all income brackets shop at thrift stores buying used items, and this type of recycling 
is more important in today's world than ever, because of all the excess products Homo sapiens have accumulated 
and continue to accumulate throughout their lifetime and remain long after they are dead. Think of all the 
products Homo sapiens have accumulated by the time they die, and if no one inherits it family wise it all either 
goes into the trash or is resold. If Homo sapiens attempted to acquire most products via second hand this would 

have a major impact on recycling efforts like never before and most certainly lead to less manufacturing. It is a 
simple matter the products being easily available on the internet to a worldwide market and consumers choosing 
to buy something used or new. When purchasing a product based on a monetary amount, most likely only a 
minority of worldwide consumers would choose the new product. If consumers who are choosing new products 
based on a biased and illogical fear of used products can overcome this hurdle, it would help in reducing new 
product consumption even further. 

Most of the wealthy elite in the world squander their wealth on overpriced materialistic products and services, 
(e.g. $500 shoes, $100,000 jewelry, $51,500 jacket, $400 salon visit, $300 meal at a restaurant, $500 spa 
treatment, $100 dog grooming, etc.) The enormous scale of the squandering in the United States is evident in the 
fact that 70% of wealthy families lose their wealth by the second generation, and 90% loose it by the third 
generation. (348) How can someone squander such an excessive amount of money on useless materialism while 
being surround by billions of others who are so less fortunate? How can businesses charge so much for 
something which in reality is worth so little? Life is not about materiel possessions, it is about other things far 
more valuable which cannot be bought, but only discovered. Albert Einstein wrote, 

“The ideals which have lighted my way, and time after time have given me new courage to face life cheerfully, have been 
Kindness, Beauty, and Truth. Without the sense of kinship with men of like mind, without the occupation with the objective 
world, the eternally unattainable in the field of art and scientific endeavors, life would have seemed to me empty. The trite 
objects of human efforts-possessions, outward success, luxury-have always seemed to me contemptible.” (50) 

A similar point made about luxury was made by Henry David Thoreau nearly 100 years before when he wrote, 

"Most of the luxuries, and many of the so-called comforts of life, are not only not indispensable, but positive hindrances to 
the elevation of mankind. With respect to luxuries and comforts, the wisest have ever lived a more simple and meagre life 
than the poor. The ancient philosophers, Chinese, Hindoo, Persian, and Greek, were a class than which none has been poorer 
in outward riches, none so rich in inward. We know not much about them. It is remarkable that we know so much of them as 
we do. The same is true of the more modem reformers and benefactors of their race. None can be an impartial or wise 
observer of human life but from the vantage ground of what we should call voluntary poverty." (639) 

Some Homo sapiens build enormous and excessive housing structures using vast amounts of labor and materials 
with the intention of it being some sort of legacy. They ignore the fact, that not only are they here for such a 
short period of time to even enjoy the structure, but that it too given time will crumble like every other 
materialist thing on this Earth. Nothing lasts forever, and yet Homo sapiens attempt to make all things last 
forever or longer than they naturally should by putting synthetic chemicals on things, but these futile attempts do 
nothing more than create more pollution and waste, (e.g. putting varnish on wood or other toxic synthetic 
chemical coatings on products) Many Homo sapiens get so involved with materialism and social standing, that 
they often miss out on an entire lifetime of reality. This unfortunate myopic focus on materialism and nothing 
else, is perhaps even more prevalent today with technology, the abundance of products, and a society which too 
often encourages this behavior. Henry David Thoreau wrote, 

"Shams and delusions are esteemed for soundest truths, while reality is fabulous. If men would steadily observe realities only, 
and not allow themselves to be deluded, life, to compare it with such things as we know, would be like a fairy tale and the 
Arabian Nights' Entertainments. If we respected only what is inevitable and has a right to be, music and poetry would 
resound along the streets. When we are unhurried and wise, we perceive that only great and worthy things have any 
permanent and absolute existence, that petty fears and petty pleasures are but the shadow of the reality. This is always 
exhilarating and sublime. By closing the eyes and slumbering, and consenting to be deceived by shows, men establish and 
confirm their daily life of routine and habit everywhere, which still is built on purely illusory foundations. Children, who 
playlife, discern its true law and relations more clearly than men, who fail to live it worthily, but who think that they are wiser 
by experience, that is, by failure." (647) 

Many actions are done for profit, entertainment, or comfort, and sometimes with the full knowledge of the 
negative consequences, but often times they are simply done out of ignorance as this is the path which has been 
set for them by others. The short-term goals of Homo sapiens appear to outweigh the u nk nown long-term goal of 
an Earth that is natural and untouched by Homo sapiens. Society could be described as passive, demoralized, and 
engulfed within civilization and all the artificially created things which formulate it, blinded to the negative 
consequences of their actions, searching for something that isn't lost. If Homo sapiens become less passive 

towards what they are being force fed and regain their moral ground, will corporations then be forced towards 
change? Based on recent consumer demand for more natural organic products, coiporations have had no choice 
but to offer these types of products. Will coiporations continue to get more organic and natural by the acquisition 
of smaller mom and pop organic natural companies? Will this be the path to making all consumer products more 
organic, natural, biodegradable, and manufactured environmentally friendly? 


Since 1851, Americans have been harvesting Christmas trees in the United States, and originally all trees were 
taken directly from the forests. In 2000, more than 33,000,000 Christmas trees were produced in North America, 
and more than 50,000,000 Christmas trees were produced in Europe. (304) How much fertilizer, pesticides, 
water, transportation resources, and other valuable resources are wasted each year as a result of Christmas tree 
consumption? Why are they called live Christmas trees, when they are in fact dead or dying Christmas trees? An 
estimated 50,000,000 U.S. households own an artificial Christmas tree, of which about 20,000,000 are so old 
that they contain older PVC made with lead potentially exposing families every Christmas holiday. (305) How 
much wrapping paper, tape, ribbon, tinsel, etc. are used once and then discarded every year for birthdays, 
Christmas, and other holidays? Can’t a gift be given without repackaging it? How much electricity is used for 
the billions of Christmas and other holiday lights? How many millions of Christmas, Halloween, Easter, and 
other holiday decorations overwhelm society each year? How much silly string, confetti, and other plastic 
decorations are used once and then discarded during these holidays? How many millions of pieces of unhealthy 
candy are children and even adults inundated with during Christmas, Halloween, Easter, and Valentine’s Day? 
How many millions of Halloween costumes are worn once and then discarded? Most of these Western created 
holidays are based on a lie and the generation of profits through consumption. Is it not time that society stop 
lying to children about Santa Claus, the Easter bunny, Halloween monsters, the tooth fairy, and other mythical 
wise tales, which only fill their heads with fantasy and expectations, ultimately ending in disappointment a few 
years later? Is it not time to abandon these holiday traditions which are based mainly around money and 
consumption? Is not the true meaning of many holidays the celebration of love and happiness? Can family and 
friends not come together a few days out of the year, and share a delicious meal and reminisce, perhaps giving a 
small gift which is from the heart and not based on wants and needs? How many billions of candles are wasted 
each year in churches and for other ceremonious occasions? How many thousands of bonfires around the world 
are lit every year during Lag BaOmer, burning man, and other ritualistic gatherings, wasting resources and 
polluting the atmosphere? All for the worshiping or a mythological God and/or because of tradition. What would 
the world be like if more Homo sapiens celebrated and devoted as much time and money to Arbor Day and Earth 
Day, as they do for other mainstream holidays like Christmas, Easter, Valentine’s Day, Thanksgiving, New 
Years, etc.? How much less consumption would there be around the holidays if more consumers celebrated Buy 
Nothing Day instead of Black Friday? 

Each year, for New Years, Independence Day, and other celebrations, thousands of large scale firework displays 
explode millions of fireworks in cities throughout the world. Everyday worldwide, millions of small scale 
fireworks are exploded at weddings, parties, festivals, and by firework enthusiasts. During the summer in Japan, 
hundreds of fireworks festivals are held, some setting off more than 100,000 fireworks during one fireworks 
display. The Walt Disney World Resort has the Wishes Nighttime Spectacular show nearly every night which 
usually has a fireworks display. Some cities around the world like in San Cristobal de las Casas, Mexico engage 
in fireworks displays almost daily. Fireworks contain many toxic chemical elements like aluminum, antimony, 
barium, carbon, calcium, chlorine, cesium, copper, iron, lithium, magnesium, potassium, phosphorus, radium, 
rubidium, sodium, sulfur, strontium, titanium, and zinc which can be dispersed into the atmosphere, soil, or 
water when the firework explodes. As many fireworks displays take place over urban areas, most of these 
chemicals rain down onto the buildings and city streets to be washed away during the next rain, entering the soils 
and water. These explosions not only pollute the Earth, but also displace and disrupt fauna from stress. Research 
done between 1999 and 2013 by NOAA, found that concentrations of fine particulate matter were 42% higher 
than on the days preceding and following the 4 th of July holiday. At one air quality monitoring station where 
fireworks were set off in an adjacent field particulate matter concentration rose 370%. (403) On New Year’s Eve 
in 2010, fireworks in Arkansas scared roosting red-winged blackbirds forcing them to take flight, because they 

are poor night fliers they crashed into homes and cars, and more than 3,000 birds died from blunt-force trauma. 
(289) Why are fireworks not regulated by the EPA, are they not an environmental pollutant? Why have so few 
studies been done about the effects of fireworks on wildlife and the environment? How many spectators inhale 
this fine toxic particulate matter, perhaps causing future respiratory or other health issues? How many florae and 
faunae are injured or killed each year as a result of ground and aerial based fireworks? Is the environmental 
damage worth an aesthetically pleasing light show that many are often too inebriated to even remember? 

Excessive Use of Anti-Bacterial Agents 

Homo sapiens daily use of synthetic toxic chemicals in things like dish soap, hair care products, laundry 
detergents, household cleaners, etc., has led to severe stress throughout the ecosystems of the world. All of these 
synthetic chemicals are used in vast quantities and end up polluting the air, water, and soil during the 
manufacturing process, the consumption phase, and ultimately the waste phase. This over emphasis on sanitation 
was created and is peipetuated by a billion-dollar chemical cleaning industry which markets synthetically made 
sanitation chemicals that are toxic to all living organisms. Mass production and consumption of sprays, powders, 
and heavily concentrated liquid cleaners that use a wide range of toxic chemicals has been occurring now for 
more than 75 years. How many millions of gallons of these toxic agents of death get used every day? How many 
billions of gallons have polluted Earth since their discovery over 75 years ago? 

Jessica Metcalf from the University of Colorado at Boulder has studied fossilized feces from Homo sapiens as 
far back as 1,000 years and has discovered that they contain far more diverse gut bacteria. Another study, which 
examined the gut microbial communities of the Hadza of western Tanzania, found that some dynamic lineages of 
microbes have become less prevalent and abundant in some modernized populations. (530) These helpful 
protective bacteria have been lost, most likely due to intensive hygiene practices, dietary changes, antibiotics, 
and spending less time outdoors. Bacteria existed billions of years before Homo sapiens inhabited Earth, in fact 
trillions of bacteria and other microbes live on and inside Homo sapiens creating an ecosystem in essence. These 
bacteria help in many ways from the immune system to the digestive tract. Isolation and separation from nature 
could lead to future medical issue by not allowing for the development of natural immunity. Attempting to kill 
bacteria seem to have only made them stronger and more resistant to chemicals and drugs, while also making 
them even more deadly. Homo sapiens have a natural immunity to many germs and the immune system can 
actually weaken overtime with less exposure to natural occurring bacteria. So why then do so many Homo 
sapiens have an extreme fear of all bacteria and think that they must be eradicated because they are a sign of 
germs and filth that will cause disease? 

By attempting to isolate nature and Homo sapiens pseudo perfected world from each other, all Homo sapiens 
have done is pollute the Earth with unnecessary and unnatural chemicals in their attempt to sterilize everything. 
Ultimately, having no real impact on the bacteria as it has adapted and become stronger, evolving faster than 
Homo sapiens futile attempts to eradicate it. Germaphobes and perfectionists certainly have made a negative 
impact on the environment, usually with unwarranted fear while striving for an unattainable goal to create a 
germ and dirt-free area by utilizing toxic chemicals, which in fact do more harm than good, especially when used 
in such vast and frequent quantities. This mentality has led to consuming mass quantities of disinfectant sprays, 
anti-bacterial soaps, hand sanitizers, and wipes in a futile attempt to sanitize everything. In most instances this 
disinfection is unneeded, overused, and could easily be replaced by a natural Eco-friendly alternative when 
needed. Natural bio-degradable alternatives like simple hot water, vinegar, baking soda, citrus, or other flora- 
based cleansing solutions can be used just as effectively. 

Another consumer cleaning consumption concern are the scrubbers, mops, and other cleaning tools, all of which 
are made of synthetic plastics and when used flake off millions of microscopic plastic particle fragments that 
ultimately end up in the water and soil. In addition, many dishes are made from plastic, Teflon, or another 
synthetic chemical, and when cleaned microscopic particle fragments also flake off directly from the dishes and 
other kitchenware. How much of a negative impact on Earth are all these chemicals and microscopic fragments 
of plastic having? Could this antibacterial paranoia breed even more deadly bacteria resistant to even the most 
powerful known anti-bacterial agents? How can all of these chemicals going into sewage sludge for possible 

agricultural fertilizer, or directly into the soil and water of Earth be acceptable? Could dependence on these 
products result in Homo sapiens natural immune system becoming less effective? Have Homo sapiens only 
created more problems with their attempted sanitization solutions? Would one need so many antibacterial and 
degreaser agents to clean dishes if they did not consume fatty fauna-based foods? How much excessive soap is 
applied out of habit, when none is even necessary as hot water would work sufficiently (e.g. rinsing simple non¬ 
sticking foods like bread crumbs off a plate)? 

Sunscreen, Tanning, Cosmetics, and Tattoos 

A variety of toxic ingredients like, p-Aminobenzoic acid, phenylbenzimidazole sulfonic acid, benzophenone-3, 
and titanium dioxide are used to make most sunscreens. A study which sampled the U.S. general population > 6 
years of age found that 96.8% of participants had benzophenone-3 in their urine sample. (420) Chemicals used in 
sunscreen have also been found to awaken dormant coral viruses causing the coral to become sick and often die. 
An estimated 4,000 to 6,600 tons of sunscreen are washed off in oceans, lakes, and rivers polluting these aquatic 
ecosystems and can also kill the florae and faunae which inhabit them. (418) A 2014 report conducted by 
researchers in Spain on sunscreen as a source of hydrogen peroxide production stated, 

“Sunscreens have been shown to give the most effective protection for human skin from ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Chemicals 
from sunscreens (i.e., UV filters) accumulate in the sea and have toxic effects on marine organisms. In this report, we 
demonstrate that photoexcitation of inorganic UV filters (i.e., TiCb and ZnO nanoparticles) under solar radiation produces 
significant amounts of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), a strong oxidizing agent that generates high levels of stress on marine 
phytoplankton. Our results indicate that the inorganic oxide nanoparticle content in 1 g of commercial sunscreen produces 
rates of H 2 O 2 in seawater of up to 463 nM/h, directly affecting the growth of phytoplankton. Conservative estimates for a 
Mediterranean beach reveal that tourism activities during a summer day may release on the order of 4 kg of Ti02 
nanoparticles to the water and produce an increment in the concentration of H 2 O 2 of 270 nM/day. Our results, together with 
the data provided by tourism records in the Mediterranean, point to Ti02 nanoparticles as the major oxidizing agent entering 
coastal waters, with direct ecological consequences on the ecosystem.” (419) 

Not only does sunscreen destroy aquatic ecosystems and the biota within these ecosystems, it does not even truly 
protect the skin, because ultimately the toxic chemicals are washed off, or they are absorbed through the skin 
potentially causing health issues. Would it not be more logical to stay out of the sunlight during peak exposure 
hours, or use an umbrella and tan with non-direct sunlight? Is an ever-fading aesthetical tan worth destroying 
aquatic ecosystems and getting skin cancer? Why aren't eco-friendly ingredients like almond oil, coconut oil, red 
raspberry seed oil, carrot seed oil, shea butter, or other flora-based ingredients used instead which naturally 
contain a sun protection factor (SPF)? 

Since the late 1970s, some Homo sapiens have practiced indoor tanning with tanning beds which emit ultraviolet 
radiation, and can potentially cause skin cancer, weakening of the immune system, and skin aging. Other Homo 
sapiens practice sunless tanning by utilizing a variety of potentially toxic ingredients like carotenoids, lycopene, 
beta-carotene, canthaxanthin, dihydroxyacetone, temporary bronzers, SlK-lnhibitors, tyrosine-based products, 
melanotan peptide hormones, and other melanogenesis stimulants. There are also some in Asia, Africa and the 
Middle East with dark skin pigmentation who reduce the content of melanin of their skin by utilizing a 
concoction of potentially toxic chemicals, either internally in the form of prescription medication, or externally 
in the form of a skin cream. Is the aesthetical appearance of having light or dark skin worth the possible negative 
medical side-effects and environmental impacts? Does changing skin color really make you a different race or 
ethnicity? If a Caucasian, Asian, African, or Indian alters their skin color, does it change what race or ethnicity 
they originated from or their true physical characteristics, is this not actually in the deoxyribonucleic acid 

Coiporations, entertainment, and even some members of society itself promote an image of artificially created 
beauty, one made up of synthetic toxic chemicals which consist of cosmetics, clothing, diet products, surgery, 
and other related beauty products and services. Consumers are made to think they can look like the model who is 
used to market the products or services through advertisements, and most will never achieve this impossible 
unrealistic image which is based mainly around narcissism and profits. Why can’t Homo sapiens simply be 
themselves as they are when they are bom without additions and modifications? Are not all Homo sapiens 

naturally beautiful, even with all their so called physical flaws, and more especially without all the artificial 
additions? Why does society say to be what you want and not what you are, shouldn’t one be encouraged to want 
to be who they really are and the way nature made them, and not the way someone else tries to make them, 
which is often based on what is currently trending or deemed acceptable? For thousands of years florae and even 
the Earth itself was used to create cosmetics, today most cosmetics are made of toxic synthetic chemicals. How 
much nail polish, perfume, make-up, hair dye, hairspray, hair gel, and other cosmetics made with toxic chemicals 
are used daily only to wash off and pollute the water and soils of Earth? 

Millions of Homo sapiens have tattoos, and although there are non-metallic less toxic sources available which 
are also more eco-friendly, most tattoo ink which used is derived from toxic ingredients like mercury, lead, 
cadmium, nickel, zinc, chromium, cobalt, aluminum, titanium, copper, iron, barium, ferrocyanide and 
ferricyanide, antimony, arsenic, beryllium, calcium, lithium, selenium, sulfur, para-phenylenediamine, and 
polymethylmethacrylate. After death these toxic elements are released into the atmosphere or soils of Earth. 


Fast fashion is the new business model of the fashion industry, and it is about promoting a rapidly changing style 
for profits and based on how many units can be cheaply made and sold, and not about quality, functionality, and 
durability. One can watch Andrew Morgan's 2015 documentary 'The True Cost' for a good perspective on the fast 
fashion issue. When no longer wanted, much of this fashion is not recycled and is instead discarded into 
landfills. In the United States alone, about 24,510,000 tons of rubber, leather and textiles were discarded into 
landfills in 2014. (599) How many billions of pairs of shoes are bought each year and rarely worn? How much 
fashion is too much? Does one really need so many outfits and other fashion accessories, 50 t-shirts, 30 pairs of 
socks, or 20 pairs of shoes? 

All clothing, footwear, and other fashion accessories were made entirely from durable hemp, bamboo, cotton, 
linen, or other natural 100% bio-degradable flora fibers, stones, or other natural materials until around 100 years 
ago. Now most is made with synthetic fibers like polyamide, acrylic, and polyester, while using toxic chemicals 
for dyes, all of which pollutes the Earth when washed and ultimately when discarded. In the United States, there 
are 22,000 dry cleaners most of which use toxic chemicals, excessive energy, and water resources. Dry cleaners, 
individual washing machines, and other methods to wash clothes often produce a toxic sludge containing dyes, 
microscopic fragments of synthetic fibers, toxic chemicals from detergents, and other residues. Is polluting the 
Earth with toxic laundry detergents necessary when so many natural flora-based alternatives are available? 

Dry Cleaning Methods 

Cleaning Agent 




Perchloroethylene (tetrachloroethylene) has been in use since the 1940s. Perc is the most common 
solvent, the “standard” for cleaning performance. It is a most aggressive cleaner. It can cause color 
bleeding/loss, especially at higher temperatures, and may damage special trims, buttons, and beads on 
some garments. Better for oil-based stains (which account for about 10% of stains) than more common 
water-soluble stains (coffee, wine, blood, etc.). Known for leaving a characteristic chemical smell on 
garments. Nonflammable. Perc is becoming less popular due to its ground contamination problems and 

health effects. Perc, however, was incidentally the first chemical to be classified as a carcinogen by the 
U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission. 


Hydrocarbon is most like standard dry cleaning but the processes use hydrocarbon solvents such as 
Exxon-Mobil's DF-2000 or Chevron Phillips' EcoSolv. These petroleum-based solvents are less 
aggressive than perc and require a longer cleaning cycle. Although combustible, these solvents do not 
present a high risk of fire or explosion when used properly. Hydrocarbon also contains volatile organic 
compounds (VOCs) that contribute to smog. Pure Diy is another brand. 

D i bu to xyme thane 

Dibutoxymethane is a product offered by Kreussler. It is sold under the trade name SolvonK4. It is a 
bipolar solvent that removes water based stains and oil based stains. SolvonK4 is considered to be one 
of the best replacements solvents for perc as cleaning performance is very similar. 

Liquid silicone 

Liquid silicone (decamethylcyclopentasiloxane or D5) is gentler on garments than perc and does not 

or D5) 

cause color loss. It is licensed by GreenEarth Cleaning. Though more environmentally friendly, it is 
more expensive. Degrades within days in the environment to silicon dioxide and trace amounts of 
water and CO 2 . Produces nontoxic, nonhazardous waste. Toxicity tests by Dow Coming shows the 
solvent to increase the incidence of tumors in female rats (no effects were seen in male rats), but further 
research concluded that the effects observed in rats are not relevant to humans because the biological 
pathway that results in tumor fonnation is unique to rats. (170.6 °F/77 °C flash point). 

Brominated solvents n-Propyl 
bromide (Fabrisolv, DrySolv) 

Brominated solvents n-Propyl bromide (Fabrisolv, DrySolv) is a solvent with a higher KB-value than 
Perc. This allows it to clean faster, but it can damage some synthetic beads and sequins if not used 
correctly. Flealth-wise, there are reported risks associated with 11 PB such as numbness of nerves. The 
exposure to the solvents in a typical dry cleaner is considered far below the levels required to cause any 
risk. Environmentally, it is approved by the U.S. EPA as an alternative to hazardous solvents used in 
the past. It is among the more expensive solvents, but due its faster cleaning, lower temperatures, and 
quick dry times, it’s considered to have the same or lower costs overall for the entire process. 

Supercritical CO 2 

Consumer Reports rated this method superior to conventional methods, but the Diycleaning and 

Laundry Institute commented on its “fairly low cleaning ability” in a 2007 report. Another industry 
certification group, America’s Best Cleaners, counts CO 2 cleaners among its members. Machinery is 
expensive—up to $90,000 more than a perc machine, making affordability difficult for small 
businesses. Some cleaners with these machines keep traditional machines on-site for the heavier soiled 
textiles, but others find plant enzymes to be equally effective and more environmentally sustainable. 
CCh-cleaned clothing does not off-gas volatile compounds. CO 2 cleaning is also used for fire- and 
water-damage restoration due to its effectiveness in removing toxic residues, soot and associated odors 
of fire. The environmental impact is very low. Carbon dioxide is almost entirely nontoxic, it does not 
persist in clothing or in the environment, and its greenhouse gas potential is lower than that of many 
organic solvents. 

Glycol ethers (dipropylene 
glycol tertiary-butyl ether) 
(Rynex, Solvair, Caled 


Glycol ethers (dipropylene glycol tertiary-butyl ether) (Rynex, Solvair, Caled Impress) is a proposed an 
environmentally friendly competitor with perc with processing advantaged. However these solvents are 
generally a blended product and not pure like GreenEarth or SolvonK4. 

SOURCE: Wikipedia (with some corrections, additions, and other edits) 


Until around 150 years ago all paints were 100% natural and biodegradable, but now paints are usually made 
with a variety of mostly synthetic toxic chemicals like: volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polyesters, alkyds, 
epoxy, acrylics, vinyl-acrylics, vinyl acetate/ethylene (VAE), polyurethanes, melamine resins, silanes, siloxanes, 
and other toxic chemicals. In 2015, global paint sales were 37,270,000 tons, or around 8,926,946,108 gallons, 
which were used for the architectural, industrial, and special purpose coatings markets. (587) How many billions 
of gallons of toxic paint have been used in the world over the last 150 years? How much lead paint was used 
when it was the industry standard? How much paint flakes off everyday releasing toxic chemicals into the 
environment? Why isn’t a more natural and bio-degradable paint used instead? For more than 30,000 years, 
Homo sapiens used stone, mica, glass, and other natural materials to create glitter used in art, cosmetics, and 
other products. Then, in 1934, synthetic plastic glitter was invented, and although there are now even more 
methods of creating natural bio-degradable glitter, millions of pounds of synthetic plastic glitter are used each 
year instead, which ultimately flakes off and pollutes the Earth. 


In most cities there is far less vegetation and natural landscape, so most of the sun’s energy is instead absorbed 
by buildings and asphalt which leads to higher surface temperatures. How much do these urban heat islands 
contribute to global warming? How much energy is wasted, and pollution is generated through using more air 
conditioning because of urban heat islands? How many thousands of residents have died during heat waves as a 
result of living within an urban heat island? Could not solar panels be designed to replace traditional roof tiles 
and shingles so that this heat energy could be absorbed and utilized instead? Could not glass windows be 
replaced with a solar panel type glass to harness even more energy? Could urban heat islands be eliminated 
entirely by simply planting flora on rooftops, thus reducing surface temperatures while also providing residents 
with fresh fruits and vegetables? Will more cities continue to greenify areas allowing for more coexistence with 


0 55 

SOURCE: NASA - Impervious surfaces which include pavement surfaces like roads, sidewalks, driveways, parking lots, airports, ports 
and other distribution centers, etc. cover a large percentage of urban land area. The map above shows increasing percentage of impervious 
surfaces in darker shades of pink. Among the data used to identify impervious surfaces are satellite observations of city lights at night. 
(Map by Robert Simmon, based on data from Chris Elvidge, NOAANational Geophysical Data Center.) 

Vast portions of the Earth have been, and are still, being permanently sealed as a result of city expansion, with 
most cities sealing 70% or more of the municipality areas with buildings, roads, sidewalks, parking lots, and 
other structures. In the wake of this invasion, millions of faunae and florae have perished as a result of habitat 
destruction, and many species having been extirpated. In 2013, the CIA estimated there were 64,285,009 km or 
39,944,852 miles of paved and unpaved roads in the world. (474) These roads have sealed portions of the Earth 
while also fragmenting habitats and disrupting migration routes for some migrating species. These roads also 
allow rainwater and snowmelt runoff to easily collect oil, heavy metals, trash, road salt, and other toxic 
chemicals, and then transport them into the hydrosphere. In addition, when the rainwater falls onto hard city 
surfaces, the water runs off and is taken away by rivers and the water never reaches the ground to replenish the 
water table, ultimately resulting in the many areas becoming drier and drier. 

City infrastructures are built and maintained with collected taxes, yet many lack even the most basic 
maintenance, and when there are budget problems because of poor management it is the citizens which 
ultimately pay the price and suffer. When so many cities where struggling during the 2008 financial crisis, 
educational services like library hours were the first to see cutbacks, city workers were laid off, recreation 
programs were slashed, and some cities even cut other vital services like police and fire protection and trash 
service. Some cities around the world either charge for restroom access or do not even offer a public restroom, 
forcing their citizens to urinate and defecate on the city sidewalks when they can no longer wait or have no other 
option. In addition to paying taxes, tolls and parking meters levy a charge to drive and park on certain roads. 
Many city streets around the world have fallen into ruin from lack of maintenance, as the money which is 
collected in the form of taxes and which is supposed to be spent wisely on services for the citizens and the 
maintenance of the city’s infrastructure, are diverted and spent on other useless things, or they are stolen by 
greedy politicians and their business associates in the form of a $435 claw hammer or a $437 measuring tape 
(546) with little or no consequences. How can the federal government and most states say that parks and other 
protected areas of nature are for the citizens and belong to the citizens and yet charge for access to them? 
Shouldn't tax dollars be used for maintaining parks and allow access to all for free? 

SOURCE: NASA - For more than four decades, Landsat satellites have collected images of Shanghai. This series from Landsat 5, 7, and 8 
shows the city’s growing footprint between 1984 and 2016. Developed areas appear gray and white; farmland and forests are green; 
shallow, sediment-filled water is tan. 

SOURCE: NASA - In 1984, the core of the city was centered on the west bank of the Huangpu River, a manmade tributary of the Yangtze 
River. Since then, Shanghai has expanded in all directions, filling in what had mainly been farmland with new housing, factories, 
shopping, parking lots, and roads. Pudong, the once rural district west of Huangpu River, now has a population of more than 5 million 
people and is home to some of Shanghai’s tallest and most iconic buildings. Unlike the images at the top of the page, each of which 
captures one day roughly every five years, these "best-pixel mosaics" are made up of small parts of many images captured over five-year 
periods. The first image is a mosaic of scenes captured between 1984 and 1988; the second shows the best pixels captured between 2013 
and 2017. This technique makes it possible to strip away clouds and haze, which are common in Shanghai. 

March 14, 1991 

March 2, 2016 

Source: U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Landsat Missions Gallery; “New Delhi Among Fastest Growing Urban Areas in the World;” U.S. 
Department of the Interior / USGS and NASA. Images taken by the Thematic Mapper on board Landsat 5 and the Operational Land 
Imager onboard Landsat 8. Urban expansion in New Delhi, India March 14, 1991 - March 2, 2016 Between the times these two images 
were taken, the population of India’s capital and its suburbs (known collectively as “Delhi”) ballooned from 9.4 million to 25 million. It is 
now second in population only to Tokyo, which has 38 million people. The United Nations Report on World Urbanization projects that 
Delhi will have 37,000,000 residents by 2030. 

SOURCE: NASA - To expand the possibilities for beachfront tourist development, Dubai, part of the United Arab Emirates, undertook a 
massive engineering project to create hundreds of artificial islands along its Persian Gulf coastline. Built from sand dredged from the sea 
floor and protected from erosion by rock breakwaters, the islands were shaped into recognizable forms, including two large palm trees. 
The first Palm Island constructed was Palm Jumeirah, and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer 
(ASTER) on NASA’s Terra satellite observed its progress from 2000 to 2011. In these false-color images, bare ground appears brown, 
vegetation appears red, water appears dark blue, and buildings and paved surfaces appear light blue or gray. 

May 1, 2014 

Source: U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Landsat Missions Gallery "Huang He Delta and Lauzhou Bay," U.S. Department of the Interior / 
USGS and NASA. Images taken by the Thematic Mapper onboard Landsat 5 and the Operational Land Imager onboard Landsat 8. Huang 
He (Yellow) delta growth, China May 1, 1985 - May 1, 2014 China's Huang He (Yellow) River is the most sediment-filled river on Earth. 
Each year, it transports millions of tons of soil from a plateau it crosses to a delta it has built in the Bohai Sea. These images show the 
delta's growth from 1985 to 2014. The latter image also shows another change: ponds that hold shrimp and other seafood (seen here as 
dark geometric shapes along the coastline) were built on what were once tidal flats. 

Water Consumption, Desertification, and Surface Water and Groundwater Depletion 

In 2017, it was estimated that 70% of world water consumption is from agricultural related activities, 19% is 
consumed for industrial related purposes, and 11% is consumed by municipalities. ( 352 ) The majority of the 
agricultural water consumption is from livestock agriculture, which uses far more than flora-based agriculture as 
can be seen in the previous table Average Water Consumption for Meat and Dairy Production. By reducing or 
ultimately eliminating meat and dairy consumption, water consumption could be drastically reduced, while also 
producing less contaminated water through use. Better water management practices from the individual to the 
commercial level would also help to ensure water is not wasted and instead goes towards a positive use. Since 
the 1990’s, the Delaware Aqueduct, which provides half of New York City’s municipal water, has been leaking 
between 15,000,000 to 35,000,000 gallons of water per day. In 2010, the city announced a plan to address the 
leaks and construction is expected to continue through the year 2021. ( 355 ) Why has the government known 
about this leak and yet allowed it to persist for so long? Why has this waste of such a precious resource like 
water been tolerated? How much water is lost from millions of leaky faucets constantly dripping? 

Good tasting drinkable water is not freely available in the vast majority of cities around the world because of 
either a contaminated source, improper treatment, or old deteriorating pipes. A 2009 Associated Press 
investigation about pharmaceuticals in America’s drinking water, found a variety of pharmaceuticals which 
included antibiotics, anti-convulsants, mood stabilizers, and sex hormones in the drinking water supplies of at 
least 41,000,000 Americans in two dozen major American metropolitan areas. ( 615 ) Drinking water has become 
just another industry in which many thirsty Homo sapiens must resort to a commercial company in order to 
obtain properly purified, good quality tasting water from a reliable source. In 2015, global bottled water 
consumption was 87,000,000,000 gallons. ( 506 ) If one brews coffee or tea utilizing tap water from an ordinary 
sink, versus commercially filtered spring water there usually is a vast difference in taste between the two. And an 
even greater taste difference between water consumed from an old plastic container which has absorbed liquid 
odors over time versus a glass vessel. Have Homo sapiens drank from plastic containers so much they no longer 
notice this taste difference? Why should citizens be forced to buy bottled water and purification systems using 
more plastic and creating more waste, shouldn't the water be clean directly from the pipes and ultimately from 
the sources the municipalities tap? How can a municipality collect taxes and still charge citizens a monthly fee 
for water while also delivering such poor-quality water? 

Since the 1950’s, water fluoridation, adding fluoride to the municipal water supply, has been a forced medical 
treatment by governments on the population in an attempt to reduce cavities. Today it is forced on citizens of 25 
countries around the world by medicating the water of 435,000,000 Homo sapiens, most of whom have no idea 
their water has been tainted, and none of whom have given consent for this medical treatment. In some 
municipalities, excessive amounts of fluoride have been added which has led to overfluoridation in some of the 
population causing severe dental fluorosis, skeletal fluorosis, and weakened bones. Does this forced medical 
procedure really even work, as there were still around 175,000,000 filling operations every year in the United 
States alone? ( 54 ) (How can governments, based on the recommendations of just a few doctors, unethically force 
this medical treatment on their citizens? Can citizens not obtain adequate levels of fluoride from fresh fruits and 
vegetables that also contain calcium, iron, potassium, phosphorus, niacin, folic acid, B12, B2, B6, zinc, vitamin 
A, vitamin C, and vitamin E, which also promote healthy teeth and gums? Would not promoting better dietary 
habits and dental hygiene perhaps be equally, if not more effective? 

Around 10,000,000 homes and buildings in the United States receive water from service lines that are at least 
partially lead pipes. ( 199 ) In the United States, from 1999 to 2010, an estimated 1,200,000 children aged 12 
months to 5 years old had elevated blood lead levels with 607,000 cases reported to the CDC. ( 339 ) Why are lead 
pipes still used when they can possibly cause lead poisoning which is fatal and irreversible? Why has such a 
known and easily preventable toxic exposure issue been allowed to continue in a nation which has the 
technology and financial ability to so easily correct it? 

May 15, 1984 

Source: U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Landsat Missions Gallery; Lake Mead Reaches Historic Low; U.S. Department of the Interior / 
USGS and NASA. Images taken by the Thematic Mapper on board Landsat 5 and the Operational Land Imager onboard Landsat 8. Lake 
Mead at record low May 15, 1984 - May 23, 2016 Lake Mead, the largest reservoir in the U.S., has fallen to the lowest level since it 
began filling in the 1930s, the result of 16 years of drought in the Colorado River Basin. The 1984 image shows the lake nearly full, 
compared to 37 percent full in the 2016 image. Lake Mead supplies water to 25 million people, including virtually all of Las Vegas and 
farms, tribes and businesses in Arizona, California, Nevada and northern Mexico. Also see this image pair. 

SOURCE: NASA - The Colorado River flows from the Rocky Mountains in Colorado through the southwestern United States. Along its 
route, the river passes through an elaborate water-management system designed to tame the yearly floods from spring snowmelt and to 
provide a reliable supply of water for residents as far away as California. The system is appreciated for the water it supplies, but criticized 
for the environmental problems and cultural losses that have resulted from its creation. 

Among the dams on the Colorado is Arizona’s Glen Canyon Dam, which creates Lake Powell. The deep, narrow, meandering reservoir 
extends upstream into southern Utah. In the early 21st century, this modem marvel of engineering faced an ancient enemy: prolonged 
drought in the American Southwest. Combined with water withdrawals that many believe are not sustainable, the drought has caused a 
dramatic drop in Lake Powell’s water level. 

Global warming is expected to make droughts more severe in the future. Even in “low emission” climate scenarios (forecasts that are 
based on the assumption that future carbon dioxide emissions will increase relatively slowly), models predict precipitation may decline by 
20-25 percent over most of California, southern Nevada, and Arizona by the end of this century. Precipitation declines combined with 
booming urban populations will present a significant challenge to Western water managers in the near future. powell.php 

April 12, 2013 

January 15, 2016 

Source: NASA Earth Observatory - Images taken by the Operational Land Imager onboard Landsat 8 - Drying Lake Poopo, Bolivia April 
12, 2013 - January 15, 2016 Lake Poopo, Bolivia’s second-largest lake and an important fishing resource for local communities, has dried 
up once again because of drought and diversion of water sources for mining and agriculture. The last time it dried was in 1994, after 
which it took several years for water to return and even longer for ecosystems to recover. In wet times, the lake has spanned an area 
approaching 1,200 square miles (3,000 square kilometers). Its shallow depth—typically no more than 9 feet (3 meters)—makes it 
particularly vulnerable to fluctuations. 

Overuse and prolonged droughts resulting from shifting weather patterns caused by global warming, have both 
contributed to major water level decreases in some lakes and other bodies of water throughout the world. 
Desertification is usually a natural occurring event caused by climate shifts, but in recent decades it has been 
attributed to anthropogenic activities in the ecosystem, mainly overgrazing, agriculture, and deforestation which 
have ultimately led to land exhaustion. The Aral Sea was once the fourth largest lake in the world, but now, 
because of anthropogenic activities and ultimately overuse, it is now a dry toxic barren wasteland from all the 

pesticides, fertilizers, and microbiological warfare experiments. And the once natural dust storms of the past, are 
now literally toxic dust storms blowing these toxic elements around. A dam and over-exploitation by means of 
irrigation to grow food crops and cotton, a high water consuming crop, in an arid climate has resulted in the lake 
literally disappearing within 37 years, along with the flora and fauna species, some no doubt endemic. Mark 
Synnott in the June 2015 National Geographic Magazine stated, 

"Besides toxic levels of sodium chloride, the dust is laced with pesticides such as DDT, hexachlorocyclohexane, toxaphene, 
and phosalone—all known carcinogens. The chemicals have worked their way into every level of the food chain. 

Today Karakalpakstan registers esophageal cancer rates 25 times as high as the world average. Multidrug-resistant 
tuberculosis is a major problem, and respiratory diseases, cancers, birth defects, and immunological disorders are widespread. 

Perhaps even more frightening is the revelation that the Aral Sea once was home to a secret Soviet biological weapons testing 
facility. Located on Vozrozhdeniya Island—which, now that the sea is gone, is no longer an island—the facility was the main 
test site for the Soviet military’s Microbiological Warfare Group. Thousands of animals were shipped to the island, where 
they were subjected to anthrax, smallpox, plague, brucellosis, and other biological agents. 

When the Aral was healthy, the water was brackish, with a salinity level of 10 grams per liter (the world’s oceans range from 
33 to 37 grams per liter). Today the salinity exceeds 110 grams per liter, making it deadly to every species of fish." 

The Aral Sea is yet another chapter in the history of Homo sapiens destructive hand on the fragile environment 
of Earth, and the consequences of those actions. Will this lake ever cover 26,000 square miles again? Possibly 
over time with proper conservation, but the endemic species of florae and faunae that have may have already 
become extinct will never return. How inhabitable is the area now or in the future to most florae or faunae 
because of the salinity, fallout from the toxic fertilizers and pesticides that were used during the cotton farming, 
and the remaining side effects of the microbiological warfare experiments? 

SOURCE: NASA - Aral Sea in 1989 (left) and in 2008 (right) - 

SOURCE: NASA - Overuse and other anthropogenic activities led to the rapid depletion of Lake Chad in Africa. 

SOURCE: NASA - “Key reservoirs in South Africa’s Western Cape province have dropped to critical levels. At the start of 

November 2017, Theewaterskloof reservoir, the largest in the province’s water supply system, had dropped to 27 percent of 

capacity. Voelvlei, the second largest, was at 28 percent of capacity. 

Following two successive dry years, the Western Cape government declared the province a disaster area in May 2017. With 
the rainy season (April through September) now past, hopes that nature would ease the drought this year have faded. 

The two satellite images above show Theewaterskloof before and during the drought. The top image was acquired on October 
18, 2014, when the reservoir was at full capacity. The second image was collected on October 10, 2017, when it was at 27 
percent capacity. Notice the tan “bathtub ring” of exposed sediment around the edges of the basin—an indication of lowered 
water levels.” 

September 24, 2011 

September 20, 2016 

SOURCE: NASA - “For more than 150 years, humans have been taking more water out of the Salt Lake watershed than is 
flowing into it. They are now diverting about 40 percent of the river water (which would normally fill the lake) and using it 
for farming, industry, and human consumption. In October 2016, the Great Salt Lake reached its lowest recorded level: 
1277.5 meters (4,191.2 feet), averaged between the lake's north and south arms. Five years of drought in the American West 
have contributed to the recent drop in the water line, as have higher-than-normal temperatures. But the region has seen dry 
cycles before, and according to scientists, there has not been a significant long-term change in precipitation in the basin. 

Nonetheless, the volume of water in Great Salt Lake has shrunk by 48 percent and the lake level has fallen 3.4 meters (11 
feet) since 1847. 

In a white paper released in February 2016, Wurtsbaugh and colleagues described the impact of water development on the 
Great Salt Lake. Using hydrogeologic data and models, the team found that river flow into the basin—from the Bear, Jordan, 
and Weber rivers—has been reduced 39 percent since the middle of the 19th century. Water that once spread across roughly 
4100 square kilometers (1,600 square miles) now covers just 2700 square kilometers (1,050 square miles). “The solution to 
the water issue is greater conservation, particularly for agricultural irrigation,” said Wurtsbaugh. The state has been 
promoting water conservation for urban and suburban areas, but this is only about 8 percent of water use. And while per 
person water use is down by 18 percent, those gains are offset by a growing population that is increasing overall water use. 

The hardest work lies in convincing farmers to do more with less, as approximately 63 percent of the water usage goes to 
agriculture. Researchers and conservationists are also concerned about future plans for development along Bear River, the 
largest tributary flowing to the lake. The loss of water in Great Salt Lake has led to more and larger dust storms in the area, 
while making it harder for companies to get the water they need for extracting salt and other minerals, a key piece of the local 
economy. Marinas and other water recreation operations are also struggling with the moving shoreline.” - 

For thousands of years Homo sapiens have constructed simple wells and pumps to access groundwater, but over 
the last 75 years technology has now allowed Homo sapiens to pump vast quantities of previously inaccessible 
groundwater to the surface for use. If the water table is not allowed to be replenished because of sealed surface 
areas and overuse, it will only become shallower and shallower until it eventually it becomes completely 
exhausted. Throughout history, groundwater depletion has been an issue with some civilizations, the Maya 
civilization may have perhaps collapsed in part as a result of groundwater depletion, and although an earthquake 
initiated the cracking of the limestone beneath Ubar, the ancient fabled city was ultimately swallowed into the 
Earth as a result of groundwater depletion. Nicholas Clapp wrote that, 

“Over millennia, Ubar's great well had watered countless caravans and had been drawn upon to irrigate a sizable oasis. 

Hadspan by handspan, its water had receded, and the limestone shelf on which the fortress rested became less and less stable, 
for it was the water underneath Ubar that quite literally held the place up. If, as in legend, there was a severe drought - and 
ever more reliance on a single, dwindling spring - the situation would have become critical.” (560) 

SOURCE: NASA - “About one third of Earth’s large groundwater basins are being rapidly depleted by human consumption 
even though we have scarce and inaccurate data about how much water remains in them, according to two new studies 
published in June 2015 in Water Resources Research. This means significant segments of Earth’s population are consuming 

groundwater without knowing when it might run out. “Groundwater is currently the primary source of freshwater for 
approximately two billion people,” the researchers wrote. “Despite its importance, knowledge on the state of large 
groundwater systems is limited as compared to surface water, largely because the cost and complexity of monitoring large 
aquifer systems is often prohibitive.” 

The map above shows the annual change in groundwater storage from 2003 to 2013 in the 37 largest aquifer systems in the 
world. Basins shown in shades of brown have had more water extracted in the study years than could be naturally 
replenished; basins in blue saw increases in underground water storage, perhaps due to changes in precipitation, ice or 
permafrost melting, or changes in surface water. The multidisciplinary research team found that 13 of Earth’s 37 largest 
aquifers are being depleted while receiving little to no recharge. Eight were classified as “overstressed,” with almost no 
natural replenishment to offset usage, while the other five were found to be highly stressed, with that rate of extraction far 
exceeding the little bit of natural replenishment. Climate change and population growth are expected to intensify the 
problem.” - image 

Groundwater depletion related sinkholes have been observed in Florida (479), and land subsidence is occurring 
worldwide because of groundwater depletion. Over the last 100 years, some areas and cities, like: the San 
Joaquin Valley, Mexico City, Shanghai, New Orleans, Bangkok, Beijing, and others have been sinking as a result 
of groundwater depletion. Groundwater depletion has also become widespread throughout the United States. The 
USGS reported that, 

“Atlantic Coastal Plain - In Nassau and Suffolk Counties, Long Island, New York, pumping water for domestic 
supply has lowered the water table, reduced or eliminated the base flow of streams, and has caused saline 
groundwater to move inland. 

Many other locations on the Atlantic coast are experiencing similar effects related to groundwater depletion. 
Surface-water flows have been reduced due to groundwater development in the Ipswich River basin, 

Massachusetts. Saltwater intrusion is occurring in coastal counties in New Jersey; Hilton Head Island, South 
Carolina; Brunswick and Savannah, Georgia; and Jacksonville and Miami, Florida. 

Gulf Coastal Plain - Several areas in the Gulf Coastal Plain are experiencing effects related to groundwater 
depletion: Groundwater pumping by Baton Rouge, Louisiana, increased more than tenfold between the 1930s 
and 1970, resulting in groundwater-level declines of approximately 200 feet. In the Houston, Texas, area, 
extensive groundwater pumping to support economic and population growth has caused water-level declines of 
approximately 400 feet, resulting in extensive land-surface subsidence of up to 10 feet. Continued pumping since 
the 1920s by many industrial and municipal users from the underlying Sparta aquifer have caused significant 
water-level declines in Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Tennessee. The Memphis, Tennessee area is one of 
the largest metropolitan areas in the world that relies exclusively on groundwater for municipal supply. Large 
withdrawals have caused regional water-level declines of up to 70 feet. 

High Plains - The High Plains aquifer (which includes the Ogallala aquifer) underlies parts of eight States and 
has been intensively developed for irrigation. Since predevelopment, water levels have declined more than 100 
feet in some areas and the saturated thickness has been reduced by more than half in others. 

Pacific Northwest - Groundwater development of the Columbia River Basalt aquifer of Washington and Oregon 
for irrigation, public-supply, and industrial uses has caused water-level declines of more than 100 feet in several 

Desert Southwest - Increased groundwater pumping to support population growth in south-central Arizona 
(including the Tucson and Phoenix areas) has resulted in water-level declines of between 300 and 500 feet in 
much of the area. Land subsidence was first noticed in the 1940s and subsequently as much as 12.5 feet of 
subsidence has been measured. Additionally, lowering of the water table has resulted in the loss of streamside 

Chicago-Milwaukee area - Chicago has been using groundwater since at least 1864 and groundwater has been 
the sole source of drinking water for about 8.2 million people in the Great Lakes watershed. This long-term 
pumping has lowered groundwater levels by as much as 900 feet.” (480) 

Base from U.S. Geological Survey digital data, 1972,1:2,000 000 
Albers Equal-Area Conic Projection 

Standard parallels 30 N and 45* 30 N, central mericfcan 96‘ 00 W 

Figure 2. Map of the United States (excluding Alaska) showing cumulative groundwater depletion, 1900 through 2008, in 40 assessed 
aquifer systems or subareas. Index numbers are defined in table 1. Colors are hatched in the Dakota aquifer (area 39) where the aquifer 
overlaps with other aquifers having different values of depletion. 

March 31, 1987 

December 7, 2000 + May 16, 2001 

SOURCE: NASA - “The Amistad Reservoir is located on the Rio Grande along the border of the United States and Mexico. 
Combined with the Falcon Reservoir downstream of it, Amistad regulates the flow of the Rio Grande for downstream users. 
Combined, these two reservoirs are running around thirty-three percent of foil capacity, the lowest levels recorded since they 
were first constructed in the 1960s. During the summer of 2002, it was possible to walk across the mouth of the Rio Grande 
without getting wet: where the river normally met the sea at the Gulf of Mexico, there was only a dry, sandy beach. U.S. 
border patrol officers placed an orange nylon fence in what should have been the riverbed to discourage unintended 
international beach strolls. 

This pair of Landsat images of the Amistad International Water Reservoir shows the changes in the lake level between 1987 
and 2000. The early image in the spring of 1987 shows a healthy supply of water behind the dam. But by late 2000, water 

levels had dropped dramatically. This trend has continued and even intensified since these images were acquired. The reduced 
water levels are the result of a combination of forces on the water supply. First and foremost is that the area is in the midst of 
a major sustained drought in which, year after year, land in the drainage basin of the upper Rio Grande has received little in 
the way of rain or snow. Water deliveries from tributaries in northern Mexico have been well below historical norms for the 
past decade. 

In addition, population in the area has been growing at extraordinary rates. Factories in northern Mexico just across the 
border have blossomed, bringing people into the area for jobs. In 1970, not long after the Amistad and Falcon international 
water reservoirs were completed, the population of the lower Rio Grande valley was estimated to be around 1.1 million. In 
2003, it is roughly 2.2 million. The population has doubled in just over thirty years. This trend is expected to continue with a 
population of roughly 4.9 million anticipated by 2030. But while the population had grown, the water supply has not. The 
prioritization system for water use in the valley puts municipal needs first. This system has greatly affected agriculture. 

Between 1997 and 2001, agricultural water supply was reduced by 42% compared to the five years prior. Over a hundred 
thousand acres of agricultural land have been taken out of production in Cameron and Hidalgo counties since 1992 for lack of 
water to irrigate them. 

Normally, the water released from the reservoir for agricultural maintains the flow of water to the municipal users 
downstream. But when the agricultural releases are restricted, water flows above and beyond the municipal demands are 
needed just to maintain the river flow to the cities' water intakes. Further complicating the water situation, water weed 
infestations clog the waterways and restrict flow, requiring still greater volumes of water to be released from upstream to get 
the river water to its destinations. In Matamoros, the river level has actually fallen below the city's intake pipes, while in 
Brownsville last year, the local water authority had to clear clogged weeds off the intake grates. A final environmental insult 
of the low water levels is the concentration of pollutants and runoff contaminants in the water. Wildlife that depends on the 
river, from birds to shrimp, has been adversely affected.” - image 

Wastewater and Sewage Sludge 

Between all the clothes, automobiles, dishes, homes, and even Homo sapiens themselves, Earth's hydrosphere 
not only helps to wash these things, but it also transfers the enormous amount of dirt, bacteria, toxic chemicals, 
and other things that Homo sapiens come in contact with daily to Earth's other spheres and the ecosystems 
within these spheres, (e.g. motor oil from the clothes of auto mechanic to the hair product chemicals of a 
hairstylist, most all professions expose the worker to some sort of toxic chemicals, these chemicals can be 
transferred to the workers clothing and then to the hydrosphere when doing laundry) Additional toxic chemicals 
are further added during the cleaning process by means of a cleanser or soap product, very few of which are 
biodegradable or natural and are fatal if ingested by living organisms. 

Over 80% of the world’s wastewater containing raw sewage, chemicals, agricultural runoff, and other toxically 
discarded wastewater, is released into the environment without treatment contaminating aquatic ecosystems. 

(353) In 2012, an estimated 1,800,000,000 Homo sapiens globally used a source of drinking water that was 
faecally contaminated. (354) flow can the western world be utilizing so much clean water on things like washing 
an automobile, maintaining a golf course, swimming pool, or aesthetically pleasing lawn, while at the same time 
1,800,000,000 globally are drinking faecally contaminated water? 

7,300,000,000 Homo sapiens produce an enormous amount of feces, urine, and wastewater from cleaning. Some 
of this waste is treated by a wide range of methods, and the by-product is sewage sludge. Eleavy amounts of 
hormones, steroids, prescription drugs (mainly antidepressants and antihistamines) (6), nutritional supplements, 
lead, silver, arsenic, copper, chromium, cadmium, and other toxic chemicals are present in the sewage sludge of 
the United States and many other industrialized nations. In short, anything excreted by Homo sapiens or any 
products which are used and then go down the drain ends up composing sewage sludge. Much of this treated 
sewage sludge, called biosolid, is spread over or injected into soils and used as a fertilizer on agricultural crops. 
Studies have shown that florae bioaccumulate large quantities of heavy metals and toxic pollutants which are 
then consumed by humans. (45) Why is this toxic waste being used on food crops? M. B. Kirkham states that, 

“Industrialized sludges, of course, can contain high concentrations of trace elements. Source control with limits on discharges 
of toxic trace elements is practiced by cities that use their sludge for agricultural purposes. But even the tightest source control 
is unlikely to reduce the trace-element content much below the median value. This is because household products contain 
trace elements. The trace elements likely to cause toxicities to plants in soils treated with large amounts (for example, 400 t 
ha-1) of domestic sludge for a number of years (15 yr) are cadmium, copper, zinc, boron, and possibly nickel. 

Cadmium is the element of most concern in sludge, because it poses the greatest threat to human health. Food obtained from 
plants grown on sludge treated soil might contain concentrations of cadmium toxic to man and animals. Cadmium is used in 
electroplating, pigments, chemicals, batteries, alloys, photographic supplies, fungicides, as well as other products. Even 
though industrial sources of cadmium in sludge can be controlled, domestic sources cannot. For example, cigarette ends 
flushed down toilets raises the cadmium concentration in sludge, because tobacco has a high concentration of cadmium.” (5) 

Sewage sludge can also have an effect on soil organisms, and like most other pollution on Earth it can very 
easily enter the food chain as Kirkham further points out in writing, 

“One result of sludge disposal on land is an increase in earthworms. Trace elements also can accumulate in earthwonns that 
live in polluted soils, thereby entering the food chain, when birds eat the wonns.” (5) 

A 2017 assessment of irrigated croplands being influenced by urban wastewater flows stated, 

“When urban areas expand without concomitant increases in wastewater treatment capacity, vast quantities of wastewater are 
released to surface waters with little or no treatment. Downstream of many urban areas are large areas of irrigated croplands 
reliant on these same surface water sources. Case studies document the widespread use of untreated wastewater in irrigated 
agriculture, but due to the practical and political challenges of conducting a true census of this practice, its global extent is not 
well known except where reuse has been planned...This study found that 65% (35.9 Mha) of downstream irrigated croplands 
were located in catchments with high levels of dependence on urban wastewater flows. These same catchments were home to 
1.37 billion urban residents. 

Our analysis provides the first spatially-explicit global estimates of the extent to which irrigated croplands are influenced by 
wastewater, both treated and untreated, finding 35.9 Mha of irrigated croplands located in wastewater dependent catchments 
(RFR > 20%), of which 82% (29.3 Mha) are located in countries where less than 75% of wastewater is treated. 86% of these 
irrigated croplands were located in five countries: China, India, Pakistan, Mexico, and Iran.” (402) 

A 2017 evaluation of 2003 to 2013 FDA collected and assayed data found that 20% of baby food samples, and 
14% of other food samples had detectable levels of lead. (440) While the FDA has acceptable limits for lead 
exposure, the CDC clearly states, 

“Protecting children from exposure to lead is important to lifelong good health. No safe blood lead level in 
children has been identified. Even low levels of lead in blood have been shown to affect IQ, ability to pay 
attention, and academic achievement. And effects of lead exposure cannot be corrected.” (441) 

Why does lead and other toxic chemicals have acceptable levels of ingestion or exposure? If something is toxic 
should not the acceptable level of ingestion or exposure be 0 and nothing more? 

Golf Courses 

Farge amounts of land have been converted into golf courses, with each course occupying between 100 and 200 
acres. In March 2015, there were 34,011 golf courses in the world along with almost 700 additional golf courses 
either under construction or in the advanced planning stages. Most of these golf courses, were located within the 
United States, Japan, Canada, England, Australia, Germany, France, Scotland, South Africa, and Sweden. (18) 
The environmental impact of these courses can be considerable, from the destruction of the ecosystem when 
creating the golf course, to using harmful fertilizers and pesticides for maintenance. Further impacts can be felt 
when billions of gallons of water are used each year to sustain the pristine green grass, with the typical golf 
course using between 100,000 and 1,000,000 gallons of water per day during the summer. (209) 

Artificial Snow 

In the 1950s, snowmaking technology was developed which allowed for artificial snow in places where once no 
ski resort could have been before, in fact without this technology many ski resorts throughout the world would 
not exist. Artificial snow was used extensively during the 2014 and 2018 Winter Olympics. Currently there are 
around 5,500 ski resorts in the world, and many of them are in areas which now have warmer winters, so they 
have begun to rely even more heavily on artificial snow. With global warming there will most likely be far less 

snow in the future, and in some areas perhaps even none at all forcing resorts to rely even more on artificial 
snow. Snowmaking utilizes vast amounts of water and energy resources and there are also severe impacts on 
mountain ecosystems. It takes 106 gallons of water to produce one cubic meter of snow, and the average 
snowmaking machine use about 107 gallons of water per minute. A significant amount of the water being used is 
lost through evaporation and is never returned to the water table. The water used is often mineralized during the 
snow making process which can potentially contaminate the soil and groundwater supply when the snow melts. 

Swimming Pools and Hot Tubs 

According to the CDC, there are 10,700,000 swimming pools and 7,300,000 hot tubs in the United States alone. 
(34) It is estimated that swimming pools in the United States lose 150,000,000,000 gallons of water every year as 
a result of evaporation. Many of these swimming pools are nothing more than an extreme waste of water as they 
are infrequently used for swimming and are a nothing more than a symbol of social status or display of wealth. 
Swimming pools and hot tubs consume an enormous amount of resources, from the energy is used for pumping 
water and sometimes heating the water, to the water consumption from draining and cleaning the pool as well as 
through natural evaporation. In addition, pools are also a toxic mix of chlorine and other chemicals which are 
used to maintain the water and can potentially go into the soils and water table, or if not carefully measured can 
cause chlorine toxicity to those swimming in the pool. Swimming pools can also act as disease incubators and 
faunae can potentially drown in them or be affected negatively from the chemicals used in the pool. These 
swimming pools and hot tubs also lock-up vast amounts of fresh water which has been tainted with chemicals, 
with each swimming pool holding between 50,000 and 660,000 gallons of water and each hot tub holding around 
400 gallons of water. 


Worldwide, there are millions of commercial and recreational watercraft which have a negative impact on the 
environment in various ways, such as carbon emissions, gasoline, oil, and other chemicals leaking into the water, 
boat propellers and other collisions can injure and even kill marine faunae, and the landscape itself can be 
damaged through fishing and from modifications to accommodate large watercraft. Motorized fishing and tour 
boats that visit remote areas of nature are similar to off highway vehicles (OHV), in that they also pollute once 
pristine aquatic ecosystems. In 2014, there were an estimated 4,600,000 fishing vessels worldwide, with 64% of 
reported fishing vessels being engine-powered. (543) There were also 11,804,002 registered recreational 
watercraft in the United States alone, in addition to the thousands of Navy and Coast Guard watercraft which 
patrol the coastlines, oceans, and other waterways of the world. 

As of 2017, there were more than 300 cruise ships operating around the world, with more than 22,100,000 Homo 
sapiens going on cruise ships in 2014. (170) Since the year 2000, there have been 60 new cruise ships constructed 
weighing more than 100,000 gross tonnes, with an additional 40 currently under construction. (169) Cruise ships 
consume mass amounts of fuel and emit large amounts of carbon dioxide. Some cruise lines have been known to 
intentionally pollute marine environments when they discharge sewage, grey water, oily bilge water, garbage, or 
other hazardous waste while in port, but more especially while sailing in international waters where laws do not 
apply. In April 2017, a United States federal judge issued the largest water pollution fine in U.S. history to 
Princess Cruise Lines in the amount of $40,000,000 for dumping oil waste into the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of 
Mexico bypassing the ship's filtration systems in an effort to save money. (344) Previously, from 1996 to 2001, in 
the Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean, and Gulf of Mexico, Carnival Cruise Lines dumped oily waste, and agreed to pay 
a $18,000,000 fine in 2002. In 1999, Royal Caribbean plead guilty to similar charges and also paid a 
$18,000,000 fine. (411 ) Why are these cruise lines allowed to repeatedly break the laws with little to no 
consequences? When a company generates more than $8,000,000,000 in revenue, is an $18,000,000 fine really 
going to deter future illegal activities? 

In 2017, there were around 6,000 active cargo ships operating throughout the world, (249) most are powered by 
massive diesel engines which operate 24/7 emitting atmospheric pollution, and like cruise ships they also have 
the potential to discharge sewage, grey water, oily bilge water, garbage, and other hazardous waste. Another 

impact of commercial ships is the anthropogenic noise generated, and over the last 150 years it has become so 
intense that right whales may shift their call frequency to compensate for the increased band-limited background 
noise. (531) Each year, cargo ships loose nearly 10,000 or more shipping containers, some containing thousands 
and even millions of individual consumer products. (245) Can these containers not be made airtight, so they float 
and be more securely attached to the shipping vessel? Can they not be outfitted with GPS to be salvaged, instead 
of just left at sea to potentially release their cargo polluting the oceans and beaches? In 2013, there were 138 
cargo ships which were beyond repair or recovery, either from fire, collision, mechanical failure, or other type of 
accident, most became shipwrecks and now pollute an aquatic ecosystem. (493) How many thousands of other 
commercial ships and recreational watercraft have sunk over the last 500 years and still pollute the ocean, a 
river, lake, or other aquatic ecosystem, some even being ticking toxic time bombs waiting to release a toxic 

In an attempt to impede the growth of barnacles, algae, and other marine organisms, most watercraft are coated 
with anti-fouling paints which can contain cuprous oxide or other copper compounds, Teflon, silicon, and/or 
other highly toxic pesticides. During the 1960s and 1970s, commercial vessels commonly used bottom paints 
containing tributyltin, this highly toxic chemical had serious negative impacts on marine life, and it also led to 
the collapse of some French shellfish fisheries. How many billions of marine organisms have died as a result of 
using these toxic chemicals? Could not a more natural less toxic solution be developed and used instead? How 
many billions of non-target marine organisms have also perished as a result of these toxic anti-fouling paints? 
How many trillions of toxic microscopic particles from anti-fouling paints and other plastic fragments have 
flaked off watercraft and now pollute the oceans, lakes, or rivers? 

SOURCE: NASA - "No fishing activity causes more physical and ecological “collateral damage” than bottom trawling. 
Fishing boats drag large nets across the sea floor, scooping up seafood from shrimp to squid. But in addition to their 
harvesting of intended species, many trawls indiscriminately capture non-target species, like sea turtles, which are discarded. 
Trawling crushes or destroys the seafloor habitat that feeds and shelters marine life; the nets literally scrape the mud off the 
ocean bottom. As the mud resettles, it can smother surviving bottom-dwelling creatures. 

The pervasiveness of the influence of bottom trawlers on the Gulf of Mexico is evident in these images from NASA’s 

Landsat satellite. Showing two different areas of a single scene captured on October 24, 1999, the images reveal dozens of 
mudtrails streaking the Gulf in the wake of numerous trawlers, which appear as white dots. The amount of re-suspended 
sediment dredged up by the trawlers gives the water a cloudy appearance.” - 

Each year tankers, cargo ships, cruise ships, navy ships, yachts, fishing boats, whale watching vessels, or other 
watercraft collide with whales, dolphins, sharks, seals, and other marine faunae and florae, some of them fatal 
and many of the collisions often going unnoticed or unreported. (376) Since 2007, the International Whaling 
Commission has been developing a global database of collisions between ships and whales, as of May 2016 the 
database contained more than 1,200 incidents. In 2005, billionaire Jeff Greene's luxury yacht Summerwind 
allegedly damaged a coral reed off the coast of Belize And although the incident was well documented but still 
denied, neither Greene or the captain were criminally charged, nor did they perform any reef restoration. (426) In 
January 2016, billionaire Paul Allen's super yacht ‘Tatoosh ’ damaged 13,000 square feet of a coral reef in the 
Cayman Islands. Allen had remediation work done to the reef reattaching more than 1,600 organisms in March 
2016. (427) If passing ships have the potential to damage fragile and rare coral reefs, why are these areas not 
deemed a no-sailing zone? How many thousands of similar unreported incidents have possibly happened at coral 
reefs and in other fragile marine ecosystems throughout the world? 


There are more than 57,000 dams worldwide which have flooded 154,440 square miles of once dry land, an area 
about the size of California. (208) When dams are built, ecosystems are disrupted and changed forever displacing 
and killing many species of flora and fauna, some even endemic. Dams change the ecology of an ecosystem 
affecting natural floodplains and waterways, while also creating a barrier between the upstream and downstream 
movements of migratory river faunae, especially fish species like salmon and trout. River sediment which 
creates deltas, alluvial fans, levees, and coastal shores is also disrupted when a river is dammed. Homo sapiens 
are also displaced causing disruption and excessive stress on resources of other areas which must accommodate 
new inhabitants. A recent example of this was the Three Gorges Dam in China which forced over 1,000,000 
Homo sapiens to relocate. Dams also result in a possible loss of productive agricultural land area, archaeological 
sites, and natural wonders. Dam failure can potentially cause massive damage and result in loss of life, like the 
1975 Banqiao Dam failure in China which killed more than 171,000 Homo sapiens and displaced 11,000,000 
surviving residents. There are only enough water resources in an area to sustain a certain number of inhabitants, 
and this number is determinant as to what is available naturally in each type of ecosystem on Earth, some with 
more abundant water resources than others. Instead of attempting to change this and disrupt the regions ecology, 
would not the more logical solution be to have less inhabitants in the area and do less water consuming activities 
such as practicing agriculture in the desert? Are there not enough other natural sources like solar and wind to 
harness energy from, instead of creating massive ecologically disruptive dams? 

Mineral Extraction 

For thousands of years Homo sapiens have extracted, used, and disposed of improperly a variety of minerals, 
many of them toxic. These minerals, some of which are extremely toxic, were buried in the Earth for millions of 
years slowly being recycled by natural processes, and now they have been brought to Earth’s surface potentially 
exposing all terrestrial lifeforms to their toxicity. In December 2016, between 3,000 and 4,000 migrating snow 
geese died from exposure to heavy metals and sulfuric acid when they landed in the toxic Berkeley Pit, a former 
open pit copper mine in Montana. (448) If birds die on contact with a body of water, is this not a sign that there 
should be even more strict environmental regulations and cleanup when mining? Should Homo sapiens be 
extracting vast amounts of lead, zinc, mercury, or other highly toxic chemicals to remain on the surface 
potentially contaminating the water, air, and soils? How many thousands of mines now have millions of gallons 
of toxic tailings leftover? Are Homo sapiens creating a cesspool of toxic waste to live in on Earth, and what 
consequence will there be to not only Homo sapiens, but to other life on Earth as well? Should not these highly 
toxic minerals be more conservatively used, if at all? How many millions of holes have been drilled into Earth to 
extract all of these minerals? There is already serious discussion about space mining and the potential to 
extracting minerals and other natural resources from outer space. What negative effects could this possibly have 
on Earth’s ecosystems by adding vast quantities of additional cobalt, titanium, iron, nickel, platinum, or other 

potentially unknown toxic elements to Earth? 

Since Homo sapiens began working with mercury thousands of years ago, anthropogenic activities have released 
an estimated 350,000 tonnes of mercury onto Earth, with 39% being emitted before 1850 and 61% after 1850. 
(424) Some mercury has been intentionally dumped into the hydrosphere and lithosphere causing severe 
pollution, but the majority has been released into the atmosphere from the burning of coal and from the 
production of gold, cement, and steel. The Arctic tundra has also become a global sink for atmospheric mercury 
pollution resulting from coal burning and other anthropogenic activities which release mercury into the 
atmosphere. (406) This mercury depository slowly releases the mercury from the soils into the rivers, and 
ultimately it flows into the oceans. If the permafrost thaws as a result of global warming, will this release vast 
sums of mercury into the oceans and if so what effect will this have? 

For thousands of years, materialistic views have led to the excessive mining of gold, diamonds, silver, copper, 
and other precious minerals to produce unnecessary and extravagant items like jewelry and other aesthetically 
appealing things. Historically through 2011, an estimated 171,300 metric tons of gold was mined, and currently 
84,300 tons are held privately in the form of jewelry, 33,000 tons is held as an investment, 29,500 tons is held 
commercially by central hanks as official stocks, 20,800 tons has been fabricated into other products, and the 
remaining 3,600 tons is unaccounted for. In 2017, an estimated 73% of the world’s jewelry production was done 
by India, China, Italy, Turkey, the United States, and Russia. (496) How much environmental damage has been 
done mining for gold over the last 4,000 years, mostly for jewelry and mainly for materialism? How many 
millions of Homo sapiens have been killed or injured throughout history during the pursuit and fight over gold? 

During the cold war, to supply the demand for United States nuclear weapons, the Navajo Nation in the western 
United States was so exploited for Uranium that homes and drinking water sources still today have elevated 
levels of radiation. Between 1944 and 1986, nearly 30,000,000 tons of uranium ore was extracted from Navajo 
lands leaving some 500 abandoned uranium mines (AUMs). The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has 
been working to resolve this toxic legacy since the 1990s, but progress has been extremely slow, as is often the 
case with environmental remediation done by the government. (642) 


Asbestos has been used by Homo sapiens for thousands of years, and although consumption peaked in 1973 at 
804,000 tons after it was li nk ed to asbestosis, mesothelioma, and lung cancer, it is still not banned in the United 
Sates and its use continues throughout the world with more than 2,000,000 tons being used in 2014. (446) In 
2004, there were 107,000 deaths worldwide which were related to occupational exposure to asbestos. (447) A 
2005 monograph by RAND Corporation found that the asbestos litigation was the longest-running mass tort 
litigation to date in United States history, and that through 2002 there have been 730,000 individuals that were 
exposed to asbestos and have brought claims against 8,400 business entities. They also found that 
$70,000,000,000 was spent by defendants and insurers, with more than half of this money being consumed by 
the claimants’ and defendants’ litigation expenses. (539) Why is the use of asbestos still tolerated, why has it not 
been completely banned by the government? How many millions of metric tons of asbestos have been mined and 
now pollute the Earth? How many millions of tons of asbestos still insulate buildings waiting to be exposed in 
the future when being remodeled or demolished? How many millions of deaths have been caused by asbestos 
exposure? How many millions more coidd die as a result of future asbestos exposure? 

During alumina production derived from bauxite, for each ton of metallic aluminum produced some 2 tons of 
toxic red mud are generated. This extremely toxic by-product which is very difficult to dispose of is toxic to 
most all living organisms. Each year, 30,000,000 tons of red mud are produced worldwide, consisting of 
alumina, iron oxide, titanium oxide, silica, calcium oxide, alkali, and other trace elements. (283) 

2015 Global Mineral Commodity Production Statistics 


World Production 

(Metric Tons / Dry Tons 


When Applicable) unless 
otherwise noted 

Fused aluminum 


Up to 30% of fused aluminum oxide may be recycled. 

Silicon carbide 


About 5% of silicon carbide is recycled. 



In 2015, aluminum recovered from purchased scrap in the United States was about 3.61 
million tons, of which about 54% came from new (manufacturing) scrap and 46% from 
old scrap (discarded aluminum products). Aluminum recovered from old scrap was 
equivalent to about 30% of apparent consumption. 



The bulk of secondary antimony is recovered at secondary lead smelters as antimonial 
lead, most of which was generated by, and then consumed by, the lead-acid battery 

Arsenic trioxide 


Arsenic metal was recycled from GaAs semiconductor manufacturing. Arsenic contained 
in the process water at wood treatment plants where CCA was used was also recycled. 
Although electronic circuit boards, relays, and switches may contain arsenic, no arsenic 
was recovered from them during recycling to recover other contained metals. No arsenic 
was recovered domestically from arsenic-containing residues and dusts generated at 
nonferrous smelters in the United States. 















Beryllium was recovered from new scrap generated during the manufacture of beryllium 
products and from old scrap. Detailed data on the quantities of beryllium recycled are not 
available but may account for as much as 20% to 25% of total beryllium consumption. 

The leading U.S. beryllium producer established a comprehensive recycling program for 
all of its beryllium products, recovering approximately 40% of its new and old beryllium 
alloy scrap. Beryllium manufactured from recycled sources requires only 20% of the 
energy as that of beryllium manufactured from primary sources. 



Bismuth-containing new and old alloy scrap was recycled and thought to compose less 
than 10% of U.S. bismuth consumption, or about 80 tons. 






Some bromide solutions were recycled to obtain elemental bromine and to prevent the 
solutions from being disposed of as hazardous waste. Hydrogen bromide is emitted as a 
byproduct in many organic reactions. This byproduct waste is recycled with virgin 
bromine brines and is a source of bromine production. Plastics containing bromine flame 
retardants can be incinerated as solid organic waste, and the bromine can be recovered. 

This recycled bromine is not included in the virgin bromine production reported to the 

U.S. Geological Survey by companies but may be included in data collected by the U.S. 
Census Bureau. 



Secondary cadmium is mainly recovered from spent consumer and industrial NiCd 
batteries. Other waste and scrap from which cadmium can be recovered includes copper- 
cadmium alloy scrap, some complex nonferrous alloy scrap, and cadmium-containing 
dust from electric arc furnaces (EAF). The amount of cadmium recovered from secondary 
sources in 2015 was withheld to avoid disclosing company proprietary data. 



Cement kiln dust is routinely recycled to the kilns, which also can make use of a variety 
of waste fuels and recycled raw materials such as slags and fly ash. Various secondary 
materials can be incorporated as supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) in blended 
cements and in the cement paste in concrete. Cement is not directly recycled, but 
significant quantities of concrete are recycled for use as construction aggregate. 



Consumption, import, and export data for cesium have not been available since the late 
1980s. Because cesium metal is not traded in commercial quantities, a market price is 
unavailable. Only a few thousand kilograms of cesium are consumed in the United States 
every year. Cesium fonnate brines are typically rented by oil and gas exploration clients. 
After completion of the well, the used cesium formate brine is returned and reprocessed 
for subsequent drilling operations. Cesium formate production from Canada was 
estimated to be 5,630 tons per year, including 3,890 tons of cesium from 17,300 tons of 
pollucite ore. The formate brines are recycled with a recovery rate of 85%, which can be 
retrieved for further use. 



In 2015, recycled chromium (contained in reported stainless steel scrap receipts) 
accounted for 34% of apparent consumption. 

(Clay) Bentonite 



(Clay) Fuller’s 



(Clay) Kaolin 





In 2015, cobalt contained in purchased scrap represented an estimated 28% of cobalt 
reported consumption. 



Old scrap, converted to refined metal and alloys, provided 160,000 tons of copper, 
equivalent to 9% of apparent consumption. Purchased new scrap, derived from fabricating 
operations, yielded 670,000 tons of contained copper. Of the total copper recovered from 
scrap (including aluminum- and nickel-base scrap), brass mills recovered 79%; copper 
smelters, refiners, and ingot makers, 15%; and miscellaneous manufacturers, foundries, 
and chemical plants, 6%. Copper in all scrap contributed about 32% of the U.S. copper 



54,000,000 carats 

In 2015, the amount of diamond bort, grit, and dust and powder recycled was estimated to 
be 37.8 million carats with an estimated value of $27.4 million. It was estimated that 
477,000 carats of diamond stone was recycled with an estimated value of $ 1.36 million. 
Natural diamond accounts for about 1% of all industrial diamond used; synthetic diamond 
accounts for the remainder. At least 15 countries have the technology to produce synthetic 
diamond. In 2015, China was the world’s leading producer of synthetic industrial 
diamond, with annual production exceeding 4 billion carats. 




Feldspar and 
nepheline syenite 


Feldspar and nepheline syenite are not recycled by producers; however, glass container 
producers use cullet (recycled container glass), thereby reducing feldspar and nepheline 
syenite consumption. 



A few thousand tons per year of synthetic fluorspar are recovered—primarily from 
uranium enrichment, but also from petroleum alkylation and stainless steel pickling. 

Primary aluminum producers recycle HF and fluorides from smelting operations. HF is 
recycled in the petroleum alkylation process. 



Old scrap, none. Substantial quantities of new scrap generated in the manufacture of 
GaAs-based devices were reprocessed to recover high-purity gallium at one facility in 


Gamet (industrial) 


Small quantities of gamet reportedly are recycled. 


165,500 kilograms 

Worldwide, about 30% of the total germanium consumed is produced from recycled 
materials. During the manufacture of most optical devices, more than 60% of the 
germanium metal used is routinely recycled as new scrap. Germanium scrap is also 
recovered from the window blanks in decommissioned tanks and other military vehicles. 



In 2015, 140 tons of new and old scrap was recycled, slightly less than the reported 
consumption. Following the decline in price, the domestic and global supply of gold from 
recycling continued to decline from the high level in 2011. 

Graphite (Natural) 


Refractory brick and linings, alumina-graphite refractories for continuous metal castings, 
magnesiagraphite refractory brick for basic oxygen and electric arc furnaces, and 
insulation brick were the leading sources of recycled graphite products. The market for 
recycled refractory graphite material is growing, with material being reused in products 
such as brake linings and thermal insulation. Recovering high-quality flake graphite from 
steelmaking kish, a mixture of graphite, desulfurization slag, and iron, is technically 
feasible, but not practiced at the present time because it is not economical. The abundance 
of graphite in the world market inhibits increased recycling efforts. Information on the 
quantity and value of recycled graphite is not available. 



Some of the more than 4 million tons of gypsum scrap that was generated by wallboard 
manufacturing, wallboard installation, and building demolition was recycled. The 
recycled gypsum was used primarily for agricultural purposes and feedstock for the 
manufacture of new wallboard. Other potential markets for recycled gypsum include 
athletic field marking, cement production as a stucco additive, grease absorption, sludge 
drying, and water treatment. 


cubic meters 

In the United States, helium used in large-volume applications is seldom recycled. Some 
low-volume or liquid boil-off recovery systems are used. In the rest of the world, helium 
recycling is practiced more often. 



Data on the quantity of secondary indium recovered from scrap were not available. 

Indium is most commonly recovered from ITO scrap in Japan and the Republic of Korea. 

A small quantity of scrap was recycled domestically. 



Small amounts of iodine were recycled, but no data were reported. 

Iron and Steel 


Pig Iron 


Raw Steel 

Recycled iron and steel scrap is a vital raw material for the production of new steel and 
cast iron products. The steel and foundry industries in the United States have been 
structured to recycle scrap, and, as a result, are highly dependent upon scrap. In the 

United States, the primary source of old steel scrap was the automobile. The recycling 
rate for automobiles in 2013, the latest year for which statistics were available, was about 
85%. In 2013, the automotive recycling industry recycled more than 14 million tons of 

steel from end-of-life vehicles through more than 300 car shredders, the equivalent of 
nearly 12 million automobiles. More than 7,000 vehicle dismantlers throughout North 
America resell parts. The recycling rates for appliances and steel cans in 2013 were 82% 
and 70%, respectively; this was the latest year for which statistics were available. 

Recycling rates for construction materials in 2013 were, as in 2012, about 98% for plates 
and beams and 72% for rebar and other materials. The recycling rates for appliance, can, 
and construction steel are expected to increase not only in the United States, but also in 
emerging industrial countries at an even greater rate. 

Iron Ore 



Kyanite and 
related minerals 





In 2015, about 1.12 million tons of secondary lead was produced, an amount equivalent to 
69% of apparent domestic consumption. Nearly all secondary lead was recovered from 
old (post-consumer) scrap. 



Large quantities of lime are regenerated by paper mills. Some municipal water-treatment 
plants regenerate lime from softening sludge. Quicklime is regenerated from waste 
hydrated lime in the carbide industry. Data for these sources were not included as 
production in order to avoid duplication 



Historically, lithium recycling has been insignificant but has increased steadily owing to 
the growth in consumption of lithium batteries. One U.S. company has recycled lithium 
metal and lithium-ion batteries since 1992 at its facility in British Columbia, Canada. In 
2009, the U.S. Department of Energy awarded the company $9.5 million to construct the 
first U.S. recycling facility for lithium-ion vehicle batteries. Construction neared 
completion in 2015. Lithium consumption for batteries has increased significantly in 
recent years because rechargeable lithium batteries are used extensively in the growing 
market for portable electronic devices and increasingly are used in electric tools, electric 
vehicles, and grid storage applications. There are an estimated 14,000,000 metric tons of 
known lithium reserves worldwide. 




Some magnesia-based refractories are recycled, either for reuse as refractory material or 
for use as construction aggregate. 

Magnesium metal 


In 2015, about 25,000 tons of secondary magnesium was recovered from old scrap and 
55,000 tons were recovered from new scrap. Aluminum-base alloys accounted for 77% of 
the secondary magnesium recovered. Magnesium chloride produced as a waste product of 
titanium sponge production at a plant in Utah is returned to the primary magnesium 
supplier where it is reduced to produce metallic magnesium; however, this metal is not 
included in the secondary magnesium statistics. 



Manganese was recycled incidentally as a constituent of ferrous and nonferrous scrap; 
however, scrap recovery specifically for manganese was negligible. Manganese is 
recovered along with iron from steel slag. 



In 2015, six companies in the United States accounted for the majority of secondary 
mercury production. Mercury-containing automobile convenience switches, barometers, 
compact and traditional fluorescent lamps, computers, dental amalgam, medical devices, 
thermostats, and some mercury-containing toys were collected by as many as 50 smaller 
companies and shipped to the refining companies for retorting to reclaim the mercury. In 
addition, many collection companies recovered mercury when retorting was not required. 
The increased use of mercury substitutes has resulted in a shrinking reservoir of mercury- 
containing products for recycling. Minimizing the use of mercury in products that still 
require mercury has further reduced the amount of secondary mercury available for 

Mica (natural) 





Molybdenum is recycled as a component of catalysts, ferrous scrap, and superalloy scrap. 
Ferrous scrap comprises revert scrap, and new and old scrap. Revert scrap refers to 
remnants manufactured in the steelmaking process. New scrap is generated by steel mill 
customers and recycled by scrap collectors and processors. Old scrap is largely 
molybdenum-bearing alloys recycled after serving their useful life. The amount of 
molybdenum recycled as part of new and old steel and other scrap may be as much as 

30% of the apparent supply of molybdenum. There are no processes for the separate 
recovery and refining of secondary molybdenum from its alloys. Molybdenum is not 
recovered separately from recycled steel and superalloys, but the molybdenum content of 
the recycled alloys is significant, and the molybdenum content is reused. Recycling of 
molybdenum-bearing scrap will continue to be dependent on the markets for the principal 
alloy metals of the alloys in which molybdenum is found, such as iron, nickel, and 



In 2015,101,900 tons of nickel was recovered from purchased scrap in 2015. This 

represented about 45% of reported secondary plus apparent primary consumption for the 



Niobium was recycled when niobium-bearing steels and superalloys were recycled; scrap 
recovery specifically for niobium content was negligible. The amount of niobium 
recycled is not available, but it may be as much as 20% of apparent consumption. 

Nitrogen (fixed) 








Not available. 

Phosphate rock 



metals Platinum, 
iridium, osmium 

178,000 kilograms 

208,000 kilograms 

An estimated 125,000 kilograms of platinum, palladium, and rhodium was recovered 
globally from new and old scrap in 2015, including about 55,000 kilograms recovered 
from automobile catalytic converters in the United States. 




Pumice and 


Not Available. 

Quartz crystal 


An unspecified amount of rejected cultured quartz crystal was used as feed material for 
the production of cultured quartz crystal. 

Rare earths 


Limited quantities, from batteries, permanent magnets, and fluorescent lamps. 


46,000 kilograms 

Nickel-based superalloy scrap and scrapped turbine blades and vanes continued to be 
recycled hydrometallurgically to produce rhenium metal for use in new superalloy melts. 
The scrapped parts were also processed to generate engine revert—a high-quality, lower 
cost superalloy meltstock—by a growing number of companies, mainly in the United 

States, Canada, Estonia, Germany, and Russia. Rhenium-containing catalysts were also 







Sand and gravel 



(United States only World 
total unavailable) 

Recycling of asphalt road surface layers, cement concrete surface layers, and concrete 
structures was increasing, although it was still a small percentage of aggregates 

Sand and gravel 



Some foundry sand is recycled, and recycled cullet (pieces of glass) represents a 
significant proportion ofreused silica. About 34% of glass containers are recycled. 






(World total excluding 
United States) 

Domestic production of secondary selenium was estimated to be very small because most 
scrap from older plain paper photocopiers and electronic materials was exported for 
recovery of the contained selenium. 






In 2015, approximately 1,200 tons of silver was recovered from new and old scrap, about 
15% of apparent consumption. 

Soda ash 


No soda ash was recycled by producers; however, glass container producers are using 
cullet glass, thereby reducing soda ash consumption. 

Stone (crushed) 


(United States only World 
total unavailable) 

Road surfaces made of asphalt and crushed stone and portland cement concrete surface 
layers and structures were recycled on a limited but increasing basis in most States. 

Asphalt road surfaces and concrete were recycled in all 50 States. The amount of material 
reported to be recycled increased by 3% in 2015 compared with that of the previous year. 

Stone (dimension) 


Small amounts of dimension stone were recycled, principally by restorers of old stone 






Typically, between 2.5 million and 5 million tons of spent sulfuric acid is reclaimed from 
petroleum refining and chemical processes during any given year. 

Talc and 





Tantalum was recycled mostly from new scrap that was generated during the manufacture 
of tantalumcontaining electronic components and from tantalum-containing cemented 
carbide and superalloy scrap. 



(World total excluding 
United States) 

For traditional metallurgical and chemical uses, there was little or no old scrap from 
which to extract secondary tellurium because these uses of tellurium are highly dispersive 
or dissipative. Avery small amount of tellurium was recovered from scrapped selenium- 
tellurium photoreceptors employed in older plain paper copiers in Europe. A plant in the 

United States recycled tellurium from CdTe solar cells; however, the amount recycled was 
limited, because CdTe solar cells were relatively new and had not reached the end of their 
useful life. 


less than 10,000 








About 12,600 tons of tin from old and new scrap was recycled in 2015 accounting for 
about 30% of apparent consumption. Of this, about 10,600 tons was recovered from old 
scrap at 2 detinning plants and about 75 secondary nonferrous metal-processing plants. 

Titanium and 
titanium dioxide 


About 51,000 tons of scrap metal was recycled by the titanium industry in 2015. 

Estimated use of titanium scrap by the steel industry was about 10,200 tons; by the 
superalloy industry, 500 tons; and by other industries, 1,200 tons. 

Titanium mineral 


Ilmenite 5,610,000 
Rutile 6,090,000 




In 2015, the estimated tungsten contained in scrap consumed by processors and end users 
represented 59% of apparent consumption of tungsten in all forms. 



The quantity of vanadium recycled from spent chemical process catalysts was significant 
and may compose as much as 40% of total vandium catalysts. Some tool steel scrap was 
recycled primarily for its vanadium content but this only accounted for a small percentage 
of total vanadium used. 








8,000- 10,000 

Small quantities, primarily from phosphors. 

Zeolites (natural) 


Zeolites used for desiccation, gas absorbance, wastewater cleanup, and water purification 
may be reused after reprocessing of the spent zeolites. Infonnation about the quantity of 
recycled natural zeolites was unavailable. 



In 2015, about 37% (65,000 tons) of the refined zinc produced in the United States was 
recovered from secondary materials at both primary and secondary smelters. Secondary 
materials included galvanizing residues and crude zinc oxide recovered from electric arc 
furnace dust. 

Zirconium and 


Companies in Oregon and Utah recycled zirconium from new scrap generated during 
metal production and fabrication and/or from post-commercial old scrap. Zircon foundry 
mold cores and spent or rejected zirconia refractories are often recycled. Hafnium metal 
recycling was insignificant. 

SOURCE: USGS 2016 USGS Mineral Commodity Summaries ISBN 978-1-4113—4011-4 - 

Fossil Fuels 

Fossil fuels (oil, natural gas, and coal) are carbon that was removed from Earth’s carbon cycle millions of years 
ago, this natural carbon sequestration process balances all the carbon on Earth by slowly releasing the carbon 
over millions of more years, versus rapidly releasing it back into the environment when it is used as a fuel like 
Homo sapiens have done over the last 200 years. Continuing to use oil, natural gas and coal will only further 
release more stored carbon into the Earth's delicately balanced equilibrium formula, and only cause more 
environmental damage. In every stage of fossil fuel use, be it the extraction, processing, or consumption phase, 
there are negative environmental impacts. Pollution is caused in every sphere of Earth, and as a result of fossil 
fuel consumption the air, water, and soil have all been negatively impacted to some degree. Fossil fuel use 
should not be cutback so that greenhouse gas emissions can be maintained at a so called acceptable level, fossil 
fuel use should be eliminated entirely, as it is toxic to the Earth in all forms. Fossil fuels and other toxic minerals 
are buried within Earth for a reason, they are toxic to Earth’s surface and to most all living organisms on Earth, 
including Homo sapiens. No lifeform is naturally made with them, nor does any other species utilize them to 
facilitate their existence except Homo sapiens. 

Since 1751, more than 337,000,000,000 metric tonnes of carbon have been released into Earth’s atmosphere 
from the consumption of fossil fuels and cement production, with half of these emissions having been emitted 
since the mid-1970s. (179) Richard Fleede did an 8-year study on carbon dioxide emissions and the companies 
which were responsible for those emission. He concluded that almost 2/3 of carbon dioxide emitted since the 
1750s were from the 90 largest fossil fuel and cement producers, most of which are still conducting operations to 
this day. Heede’s research also attributes 63% of the carbon dioxide and methane emissions between 1751 and 

2010 to just 90 entities aka the ‘Carbon Majors’. In total, Heede’s research investigated 56 oil and natural gas 
companies, 37 coal producers, and the carbon dioxide emissions from 7 cement manufacturers. (174) 

FEBRUARY 9,2011 

History of energy consumption in the United States, 

History of energy consumption in the United States, 1775-2009 

quadrillion Btu 

Source: U S. Energy Information Administration - Annual Energy Review 2009 

— Petroleum 

— Hydroelectric 

— Coal 

— Wood 

— Natural Gas 

— Nuclear 


Most societies today have a severe addiction to fossil fuels and have developed a dependency on it, nearly 
everything is linked to it in some form, be it the materials, energy generation, or transportation. Petroleum is 
most commonly associated with oil and gasoline which is used in automobiles, but in addition to supplying fuel 
for transportation and as an energy source, petroleum is used to create a wide range of plastics, lubricants, motor 
oil, machine oils, tar, asphalt, synthetic rubbers, fertilizers, dyes, insecticides, solvents, detergents, and many 
other everyday products used by consumers. When most of these toxic products are made the processes used to 
create the desired product will also create a toxic by-product, this by-product or waste must also be dealt with 
can potentially causes even more pollution. 

Oil and other Transportation Fuels 

In most areas of the United States, shared transportation, (e.g. buses, subways, trains, taxis, etc.) are not utilized 
by the majority of citizens and most do not walk or ride bicycles to get to their desitnation either, but instead 
drive automobiles. How many automobiles are just sitting most of the time parked, when they could be shared 
and utilized by all? Perhaps automobiles in the future will not be owned by individuals but will be more like a 
form of shared community transportation, a fleet of self-driving automobiles which all have access to. The World 
Health Organization reported that there were 1,250,000 road traffic deaths globally in 2013. (597) In November 
2017, a driver in Virginia hit a bobcat, the driver didn’t stop, but rather continued to her destination 50 miles 
away only to later find the bobcat still alive and lodged in the grill of the automobile. The bobcat suffered head 
trauma, a minor cut on the back, and no doubt psychological trauma, but wildlife officials said they planned to 
release it back into the wild once it had fully recovered in about a month. (603) How many millions of deer, 

moose, rabbits, snakes, racoons, opossums, birds, insects, and other faunae are injured or killed by automobiles 
every year? Will autonomous vehicles reduce or perhaps even eliminate vehicle fatalities and even other non- 
fatal vehicle accidents? 

Gasoline is one of the most inefficient automobile fuel sources, as up to 70% of the energy produced is wasted 
and emitted in the form of exhaust heat. The VW Beetle manufactured between 1938 and 2006 is an example of 
an automobile that has polluted the atmosphere for more than 65 years and continues to pollute long after 
emissions were set up and mandatory in most countries around the world. Currently, in the United States, antique 
or classic automobiles are exempt from emission standards, will they always be allowed to pollute the Earth 
because they are historic? Automobile fuel efficiency begins to decline once 55 mph (89 kph) is reached, so why 
even make an automobile that can travel faster than this, unless it is for emergency purposes? (e.g. fire, medical, 
police, etc.) During the conversion to electric vehicles, how many of the billions of gasoline and diesel 
automobiles that have already been made will perhaps remain on the roads for the next 50 years or more 
polluting the Earth? How long will it take for poorer less developed nations to convert over to electric vehicles? 
When will gasoline become obsolete and unavailable like whale oil and other fuels of the past? 

In 2016, the world consumed 3,990,000,000 gallons of oil per day, which added up to an annual consumption of 
145,635,000,000,000,000 gallons. (180) Between 1950 and 2013, the world manufactured around 1,105,764,000 
gasoline or diesel-based passenger automobiles and light commercial vehicles, (e.g. pickup trucks and vans) This 
total does not include the millions of additional military vehicles, tractor trailers, buses, recreational vehicles, 
and other commercial vehicles in service. Between 1978 and 2014, 9,312,700 recreational vehicles were 
manufactured in the United States. (201) These millions of off highway vehicles (OHV) often operate in U.S. 
National Forests, State Parks, and other remote ecosystems contributing directly to invasive species, erosion, 
pollution, litter, and noise pollution. In 2014, there were nearly 11,000,000 registered semi-trucks in the United 
States, a 3% increase from the previous year. (282) Most of these semi-trucks are fueled by dirtier diesel fuel, and 
only get around 6.5 miles per gallon. Many semi-truck drivers sleep in their trucks with it running, as it is less 
expensive than a hotel room. If a semi-truck bums on average around 1 gallon of fuel when idling, how many 
millions of gallons of diesel fuel are burned in all the millions of semi-trucks every day just while idling? Why 
don’t transportation companies pay for drivers lodging to prevent this unnecessary waste of fuel and pollution of 
the environment? 

In 2012, there were 111,289,906 registered vehicles in the United States, most of them gasoline powered, 
compared with only 2,893,450 hybrid automobiles sold in the United States between 2000 and 2013. (88) Some 
automobile manufacturers are ramping up production on electric vehicles, Volvo announced that by 2019 all the 
automobiles it will produce will be either hybrid or 100% electrically powered, (407) and GM announced that it 
plans to add 20 all-electric models by 2023. (547) Some other automobile manufacturers are also currently 
offering or plan on adding at least one electric or hybrid model, and while the new all electric vehicle company 
Tesla sold 76,230 electric automobiles in 2016, it is a very miniscule amount compared with 1,105,764,000 
gasoline or diesel-based automobiles which have been produced. (408) How long will it take for every driver of a 
fossil fuel powered automobile to convert to an all-electric automobile? Will governments around the world 
enact environmental legislation which prohibit the future production and use of all gasoline and diesel vehicles? 
If gas prices remain low, will this make consumers switching to an electric automobile take even longer, as many 
consumers seem to be more motivated by money and not about reducing their carbon footprint? 

The first electric automobile was invented by Robert Davidson in 1837, and yet in 2017 only 777,497 electric 
automobiles were sold worldwide. (349) The technology has been in existence for 180 years, but the conversion 
to electric automobiles has been done at a very slow pace, and with much reluctance from not only the 
automobile industries, but by many consumers also. Knowing that gasoline automobiles have been a major 
source of carbon dioxide emissions for more than 50 years, why has so little been done to curb emissions, 
convert to electric automobiles, and setup a more reliable vast public transportation network of electric trains and 
buses? General Motors and other companies purposely derailed electric transportation since its inception, from 
the ‘General Motors Streetcar Conspiracy’ between 1938 and 1950, to the termination ofthe EV1 in 1999. Jim 
Klein's 1996 documentary 'Taken for a Ride' and Chris Paine's 2006 documentary 'Who Killed the Electric Car?' 

both give a detailed history on how early electric transportation was obstructed. 

A fact which is often overlooked, is that unless all future land, sea, air, and space vehicles are independently 
solar powered, converting to electric vehicles will also require a significant increase in electricity generation in 
order to fuel these vehicles. This will not only place stress on worldwide electricity infrastructures, but would 
also increase pollution from these sources, thus making the conversion pointless unless electricity infrastructures 
are first converted to 100% renewable energy sources like solar and wind. Another point to consider are the vast 
amounts of resources which will need to be mined to create the billions of batteries. What will be the 
environmental consequences of extracting the vast amounts of lithium, nickel, cobalt, and manganese to 
manufacture the billions of lithium-ion batteries for the newly emerging electric transportation industry? Will 
another less toxic substance like molten salt or another innovation be used to store thermal energy in the future? 
Perhaps other future technologies which have even less environmental impacts than electric vehicles will be 
further developed, like compressed air automobiles. The Sun has abundant and endless energy radiating down on 
Earth, if development resources in the future are focused on improving solar panel technology, perhaps the solar 
panel alone would power everything from a cellphone to a rocket with no thermal storage needed. Batteries and 
charging systems not only pollute, but they can be made into another commodity which a corporation can make 
money from, as they have with coal and oil. If every electric device, all transportation, and every home were 
power independent, requiring only a third party for repairs, how much less polluted would the world be and how 
much money would the world save? 

The future of transportation appears to be slow at starting to the conversion of electric vehicles, but it appears 
that eventually a total conversion towards not only electric, but also autonomous vehicles from automobiles to 
airplanes will occur. The first manned free flight by an electrically powered airplane was made in 1973, and in 
2016 the ‘Solar Impulse 2 ’ was the first piloted fixed-wing aircraft using only solar power to circumnavigate the 
Earth. And while most modern-day electrical aircraft are only experimental demonstrators, the future of aviation 
is rapidly undergoing major design changes with electrical power upgrades. Airbus is developing the E-Fan X, a 
hybrid-electric airliner, with Rolls-Royce and Siemens which is expected to fly in 2020. In September 2017, 
EasyJet announced it had also started developing a 180-seat electric airliner with Wright Electric that is 
forecasted to be operational by 2027. NASA has the X-57 Maxwell experimental aircraft which aims to reduce 
fuel use, emissions, and noise. In addition, NASA has the Puffin Project which is another technology-concept 
proprotor aircraft that has been proposed and would be a personal vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) which 
would have hover-capabilities, be electrically-powered, and have low-noise. How long will it take until all 
aircraft are 100% electric, perhaps 100 years or more? 

In 2016, there were more than 416,000 general aviation helicopters, airplanes, and other aircraft flying in the 
world, (e.g. aircraft for personal and recreational use, business, flight instruction, aeromedical, etc.) ( 566 ), in 
addition to the 29,730 military aircraft and attack helicopters mentioned in the previous chapter. In 2014, there 
were 37,960,000 flights worldwide, airlines carried more than 3,000,000,000 passengers, and shipping 
companies transported more than 50,000,000 tonnes of freight by aircraft. ( 571 ) Depending on the fuel type, an 
aircraft can emit large quantities of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, black carbon, sulfur 
oxides, and tetraethyllead from piston aircraft engines. Aircraft noise receives very little attention and has been 
accepted as just another city noise even though it can cause annoyance, stress, hearing impairment, hypertension, 
sleep disturbance, and other negative health impact. Although the subject has been studied very little, contrails 
produced by aircraft do affect the cloudiness of the Earth’s atmosphere, which in turn might affect the 
atmospheric temperature and climate of Earth. Observations from 1971 to 1995, showed that cirrus cloud cover 
increased significantly in some areas, while decreasing in other areas because of contrails produced from air 
traffic. (318) These cirrus clouds formed by contrails are capable of increasing average surface temperatures, and 
they are thought to be responsible for the warming trend between 1975 and 1994. ( 319 ) Beginning in the 1920s, 
Tetraethyllead was added to gasoline, but was phased out in most parts of the world when it was found to be 
accumulating in the atmosphere, soils, and in the population. As of 2017, Tetraethyllead was still being added to 
automobile fuels in Yemen, Iraq, and Algeria while also still being widely used in avgas aviation fuels for more 
than 300,000 piston powered aircraft around the world. 

More than 5,000 rockets have been launched from Earth consuming millions of gallons of rocket fuel. When 
burned, these vast amounts of rocket fuel pollute and can even destroy the atmosphere and rain down large 
quantities of microscopic soot onto the Earth. There are little to no emission controls or other environmental 
impact standards set by governments in regard to rocket launches, which are done by the government itself and 
now by private companies joining the new space race. Between 1967 and 1973, NASA launched 13 Saturn V 
rocket's, the tallest, heaviest, and most powerful rockefs ever launched into space. In total all 13 rockets 
consumed 2,644,200 gallons of kerosene fuel and 4,134,000 gallons of liquid oxygen. Modern-day rocket fuels 
consist of chemicals like liquid oxygen, nitrogen tetroxide, liquid hydrogen, hydrogen peroxide, hydrazine, 
nitrous oxide, and a range of other chemicals. Some rocket fuels also deplete the ozone, solid rocket fuels 
contain aluminum, ammonium perchlorate, and a polymer matrix, which when combusted gives rise to chlorine. 
The SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket launched in 2017, was so powerful that it generated the first known circular 
acoustic shock wave which created an enormous 900-kilonreter-wide hole in the ionosphere of Earth’s upper 
atmosphere, and possibly caused a temporary disruption to Global Positioning System (GPS) navigation. (4) 

Natural Gas and Hydraulic Fracturing 

For nearly 200 years, natural gas has been extracted from the Earth and it is now widely used to manufacture 
fabrics, glass, steel, plastics, paint, and other products, as a transportation fuel source, for domestic heating and 
cooking, power generation, and as a major feedstock for the production of ammonia used in fertilizer production. 
In 2014, the world consumed an estimated 3,560,000,000,000 cubic meters of natural gas. (643) Natural gas is 
often promoted as a clean renewable energy, but in reality, atmospheric methane is a more potent greenhouse gas 
in that it is more efficient at trapping heat in the atmosphere. In addition to emitting carbon dioxide, natural gas 
also contains carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, particulates, and mercury. It also takes vast 
resources to extract natural gas, and like oil it is a very dangerous and potentially deadly fuel source. Gas is 
highly explosive and toxic to organic lifeforms if inhaled directly or when burned because of carbon monoxide 
poisoning. How much natural gas leaks out of old pipes before it even reaches the building for consumption? 
Why invest billions of dollars into a deadly and finite energy source which is not clean, but only pollutes the 

Hydraulic fracturing is the process of releasing stored natural gas by injecting water, sand, and a plethora of 
chemicals into the shale layer at an extremely high pressure. A variety of proppants and other substances are 
used during the fracking process, some of which may also be toxic, these fracturing fluid chemicals and 
wastewater have the potential to contaminate the nearby soil, air, and water with leakage and spillage sometimes 
occurring during truck transport, the injection of the wells, and when the tainted water is in storage tanks and 
holding pits. Between 1,200,000 and 5,000,000 gallons of water may be consumed during the process of 
hydraulically fracturing a gas well. The USGS estimates that 60% to 80% of injected water returns to the surface 
as ‘flowback’, with an estimated 15,000 gallons of chemicals in the waste water per 3,000,000 gallons of injected 
water. In 2015, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency identified 692 unique ingredients in the hydraulic 
fracturing fluids used between January 2011 and February 2013, with some of the most frequently used 
chemicals being methanol, isopropanol, glutaraldehyde, potassiumhydroxide, sodium hydroxide, ethylene 
glycol, and peroxydisulfuric acid. ( 527 ) When present, this wastewater also brings naturally occurring radioactive 
materials (NORM), like radium, radon, and uranium to the surface potentially allowing exposure to deadly 
elements which were once safely buried within the Earth. ( 524 ) The Energy Policy Act of 2005 exempted fluids 
used in hydraulic fracturing from the Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, Safe Drinking Water Act, and CERCLA. 
What is the point of having environmental regulations meant to safeguard the Earth like the Clean Air Act, Clean 
Water Act, Safe Drinking Water Act, and CERCLA if exemptions are given? 

Since the early 1950's, it is estimated that more than 2,500,000 frack jobs have been pumped worldwide, with 
more than 1,000,000 having been done in the United States. ( 525 ) If each of these frack jobs used an average of 
10,000 gallons of added chemicals, the total would equal 25,000,000,000 gallons of toxic chemicals used. 
Fracking has also been li nk ed to a dramatic increase in the number of earthquakes. Between 1973 and 2008, 
there was an average of 21 M3+ earthquakes in the central and eastern United States, this rate increased to more 
than 600 M3+ earthquakes in 2014, more than 1,000 M3+ earthquakes in 2015, and more than 500 M3+ 

earthquakes between January and August 2016. (526) The documentary films, ‘Gasland’ and ‘Gasland Part II’ 
by: Josh Fox 2010 and 2013, show the negative impacts that fracking it is having on nearby communities. 

SOURCE: USGS - Cumulative number of earthquakes with a magnitude of 3.0 or larger in the central and eastern United States, 1973- 
2016. The long-tenn rate of approximately 29 earthquakes per year increased sharply starting around 2009. 


For thousands of years Homo sapiens have extracted coal from the Earth to use mainly as an energy source. 
Global coal production has been around 9,000,000,000 short tons each year since around 2012. (644) At this 
consumption rate and with estimated world coal reserves around 948,000,000,000 short tons, it would take 
around 100 more years before coal resources would be fully depleted. Not only is coal a finite resource, it is also 
an extremely dirty energy source producing a toxic concoction of carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide (which causes 
acid rain), nickel, arsenic, mercury, vanadium, cadmium, barium, chromium, uranium, thorium, copper, 
molybdenum, zinc, lead, selenium and radium, beryllium, and black carbon. The burning of coal leads to vast 
amounts of a toxic radioactive by-product known as fly ash, with about 125,000,000 tons being produced in the 
United States alone in 2006, of which about 43% was recycled for commercial purposes, and the remainder went 
into landfills. (645) Worldwide there are thousands of coal seam fires beneath the Earth’s surface burning an 
estimated 20,000,000 to 200,000,000 tons of coal each year. Some of these abandoned coal mines have been 
burning for more than 100 years, and towns like Centralia, Pennsylvania are no longer habitable as a result of 
coal seam fires. In addition, thousands of other coal seam fires were started in places like Indonesia when coal 
lying near the surface was exposed during deforestation. (220) 



<(U) > Seattle 

V ^ 


<j > 







0 Frandsco 




1 j "" v. ... s 

- 1 


Salt .J 





*14 -j 









1X1 . 


- 1 © - 1 

gj t< | 



_j Kansas , .J, > 

-j jt' “ij 

Ottawa Montreal 

loronio — 

“^.Detroit <J ^ mi VA * xfc 

[ fe^Und 

s ®"' ““ «j J * @i , I 

,-J mi -as Y 

Coliynbifci I'i.fc (A*iIj^j Hadelphi 

-J uSllfgoi 





A*! i& 



© * 


^ lhvllle , Knot 

■i#ir ^ l# C| 

m Gr 5 >~gvil M Chari otte 

^ A (ft - J 

Atlanta ''©fy* ■ J 
SA : mi mi mi 

gj jnlr idiam o 



Houstoff^ 1 

►> New 
^ ,rtea " 

MAnionio — 

-I -J ® W ^rlando 



nterrey Miami 


SOURCE: National Library of Medicine / TOXMAP - Commercial nuclear plants (yellow icon) and EPA coal plants 2016 (black icon) - 

Nuclear Weapons and Power 

In 2017, the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons was finalized by some United Nations members, if 
successful, it would destroy all existing nuclear weapons and prohibit any future development. Of the 193- 
member states, 70 did not participate, this included all the nuclear superpowers, 122 voted in favor and one 
against which was the Netherlands, the only NATO member that participated. In 2017, there were 14,900 nuclear 
weapons in the world, this is down from the peak of 70,300 nuclear weapons in 1986. Although this would 
appear to be a vast reduction and a step towards total nuclear disarmament, it is far from the reality in that the 
nuclear weapons themselves are now far more powerful than those created in the past. The United States, Russia, 
France, Pakistan, China, United Kingdom, India, and Israel all possess active nuclear weapons, 93% of these 
nuclear weapons are owned by Russia and the United States. (261) Since 1945, over 2,000 nuclear weapon tests 
have been conducted, with the United States conducted more than half of these tests. Have Homo sapiens not 
tested enough nuclear weapons? Is it not wise to stop testing and completely disassemble all of these weapons of 
mass destruction? What is the point of possessing so many weapons of mass destruction that can so easily 
destroy the Earth 100 times over and leave it uninhabitable for anyone? What was the untold environmental 
impact and human health implications of all these tests and accidents listed below? How many millions of flora 
and fauna species died during these thousands of atomic bomb tests? 

Photographs of the mushroom clouds above Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945, taken shortly after killing thousands oiHomo 
sapiens simultaneously within 1 second. These were the only two Nuclear weapons to have ever been used on a civilian population or 
during wartime resulting in the deaths of an estimated 129,000 - 226,000 Homo sapiens, mostly civilians. Source: United States 
Department of Defense, photos taken by: Enola Gay Tail Gunner S/Sgt. George Caron and Charles Levy aboard a B-29 Superfortresses. 

Some Major Nuclear Incidents 



August 1945 

On the orders of President Harry S. Truman, a uranium-gun design bomb, Little Boy, was used against the city of 
Hiroshima, Japan. Fat Man, a plutonium implosion-design bomb was used against the city of Nagasaki. The two 
weapons killed between 129,000 to 226,000 civilians and military personnel, some instantly, and thousands more 
dying over the years after the initial blast from radiation sickness and related cancers. 

Kyshtym Disaster 

The Mayak plant was one of the largest producers of weapons-grade plutonium for the Soviet Union during much 
of the Cold War, particularly during the Soviet atomic bomb program. Built and operated with great haste and 
disregard for safety, between 1945 and 1957 the plant dumped and released large amounts of solid, liquid and 
gaseous radioactive material into the area immediately around the plant. Over time, the sum of radionuclide 
contamination is estimated to 2-3 times the release from the explosions from the Chernobyl accident. In 1957, the 
Mayak plant was the site of a major disaster,among all the other such accidents, releasing more radioactive 
contamination than Chernobyl, again. An improperly stored underground tank of high-level liquid nuclear waste 
exploded, contaminating thousands of square kilometres of territory, now known as the Eastern Ural Radioactive 
Trace (EURT). The matter was quietly and secretly covered up, and few either inside or outside Russia were aware 
of the full scope of the disaster until 1980. The Chelyabinsk region has been reported as being one of the most 
polluted places on Earth, having previously been a center of production of weapons-grade plutonium. 


During the 1950s, the mushroom clouds from atmospheric tests could be seen for almost 100 mi (160 km). The city 
of Las Vegas experienced noticeable seismic effects, and the distant mushroom clouds, which could be seen from 
the downtown hotels, became tourist attractions. St. George, Utah, received the brunt of the fallout of above¬ 
ground nuclear testing in the Yucca Flats/Nevada Test Site. Winds routinely carried the fallout of these tests 
directly through St. George and southern Utah. Marked increases in cancers, such as leukemia, lymphoma, thyroid 
cancer, breast cancer, melanoma, bone cancer, brain tumors, and gastrointestinal tract cancers, were reported from 
the mid-1950s through 1980. 

December 1952 NRX AECL Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario, Canada. Partial meltdown, about 10,000 Curies 

released. Approximately 1202 people were involved in the two year cleanup. President Jimmy Carter was one of 
the many people that helped clean up the accident. 

March 1954 

The Castle Bravo nuclear test far exceeded expectations, causing widespread radioactive contamination. It spread 
considerable nuclear fallout on many of the islands, including several which were inhabited, and some that had not 
been evacuated. The fallout also spread traces of radioactive material as far as Australia, India and Japan, and even 
the United States and parts of Europe. 

September 1957 

A plutonium fire occurred at the Rocky Flats Plant, which resulted in the contamination of Building 71 and the 
release of plutonium into the atmosphere. 

September 1957 

Kyshtym disaster: Nuclear waste storage tank explosion at Chelyabinsk, Russia.200+ fatalities, believed to be a 
conservative estimate; 270,000 people were exposed to dangerous radiation levels. Over thirty small communities 
were removed from Soviet maps between 1958 and 1991. 

October 1957 

Windscale fire, UK. Fire ignites plutonium piles and contaminates surrounding dairy farms. 


In 1959 the US Navy removed a nuclear reactor from the submarine USS Seawolf (SSN 575) and replaced it with a 
new type. The removed reactor was scuttled in the Atlantic Ocean, 200 km east of Delaware, at a depth of 2,700 m. 
In 1972, the London Dumping Convention restricted ocean disposal of radioactive waste and in 1993, ocean 
disposal of radioactive waste was completely banned. The US Navy began a study on scrapping nuclear 
submarines; two years later shallow land burial of reactor compartments was selected as the most suitable option. 


Rocketdyne located at the Santa Susanna Field Lab, 30 miles north of Los Angeles, California operated ten 
experimental nuclear reactors. Numerous accidents occurred including a core meltdown. Experimental reactors of 
that era were not required to have the same type of containment structures that shield modem nuclear reactors. 
During the Cold War time in which the accidents that occurred at Rockedyne, these events were not publicly 
reported by the Department of Energy. 


The second USS Thresher (SSN-593) was the lead boat of her class of nuclear-powered attack submarines in the 
United States Navy. She was the U.S. Navy's second submarine to be named after the thresher shark. On 10 April 
1963, Thresher sank during deep-diving tests about 220 miles (350 km) east of Boston, Massachusetts, killing all 

129 crew and shipyard personnel aboard. Her loss was a watershed for the U.S. Navy, leading to the 
implementation of a rigorous submarine safety program known as SUBSAFE. The first nuclear submarine lost at 
sea, Thresher was also the first of only two submarines that killed more than 100 people aboard; the other was the 
Russian Kursk, which sank with 118 aboard in 2000. The U.S. Navy has periodically monitored the environmental 
conditions of the site since the sinking and has reported the results in an annual public report on environmental 
monitoring for U.S. Naval nuclear-powered craft. These reports provide specifics on the environmental sampling of 
sediment, water, and marine life which was done to ascertain whether Thresher's nuclear reactor has had a 
significant effect on the deep ocean environment. The reports also explain the methodology for conducting deep- 
sea monitoring from both surface vessels and submersibles. The monitoring data confirm that there has been no 
significant effect on the environment. Nuclear fuel in the submarine remains intact. 


Philippine Sea A-4 crash, where a Skyhawk attack aircraft with a nuclear weapon fell into the sea. The pilot, the 
aircraft, and the B43 nuclear 

bomb were never recovered. It was not until the 1980s that the Pentagon revealed the loss of the onemegaton 

January 1966 

The 1966 Palomares B-52 crash occurred when a B-52G bomber of the USAF collided with a KC-135 tanker 
during mid-air refueling off the coast of Spain. The KC-135 was completely destroyed when its fuel load ignited, 
killing all four crew members. The B-52G broke apart, killing three of the seven crew members aboard. Of the four 
Mk28 type hydrogen bombs the B-52G carried, three were found on land near Almeria, Spain. The non-nuclear 
explosive in two of the weapons detonated upon impact with the ground, resulting in the contamination of a 2- 
square-kilometer (490-acre) (0.78 square mile) area by radioactive plutonium. The fourth, which fell into the 
Mediterranean Sea, was recovered intact after a 2Vi-month-long search. 

January 1968 

The 1968 Thule Air Base B-52 crash involved a United States Air Force (USAF) B-52 bomber. The aircraft was 
carrying four hydrogen bombs when a cabin fire forced the crew to abandon the aircraft. Six crew members ejected 
safely, but one who did not have an ejection seat was killed while trying to bail out. The bomber crashed onto sea 
ice in Greenland, causing the nuclear payload to rupture and disperse, which resulted in widespread radioactive 

January 1969 

Lucens reactor in Switzerland undergoes partial core meltdown leading to massive radioactive contamination of a 

May 1968 

USS Scorpion (SSN-589) was a Skipjack-class nuclear submarine of the United States Navy and the sixth vessel of 
the U.S. Navy to carry that name. Scorpion was lost on 22 May 1968, with 99 crewmen dying in the incident. USS 
Scorpion is one of two nuclear submarines the U.S. Navy has lost, the other being USS Thresher. It was one of four 
mysterious submarine disappearances in 1968, the others being the Israeli submarine INS Dakar, the French 
submarine Minerve and the Soviet submarine K-129. 

Today, the wreck of Scorpion is reported to be resting on a sandy seabed at the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean in 

approximately 3,000 m (9,800 ft) of water. The site is reported to be approximately 400 nmi (740 km) southwest of 
the Azores, on the eastern edge of the Sargasso Sea. The actual position is 32°54.9 r N 33°08.89'W.[21] The U.S. 
Navy has acknowledged that it periodically visits the site to conduct testing for the release of nuclear materials 
from the nuclear reactor or the two nuclear weapons aboard her, and to detennine whether the wreckage has been 
disturbed. The Navy has not released any information about the status of the wreckage, except for a few 
photographs taken of the wreckage in 1968, and again in 1985 by deep water submersibles. 

The Navy has also released infonnation about the nuclear testing performed in and around the Scorpion site. The 
Navy reports no significant release of nuclear material from the sub. The U.S. Navy has periodically monitored the 
environmental conditions of the site since the sinking and has reported the results in an annual public report on 
environmental monitoring for U.S. nuclear-powered ships and boats. The reports provide specifics on the 
environmental sampling of sediment, water, and marine life that is done to ascertain whether the submarine has 
significantly affected the deep-ocean environment. The reports also explain the methodology for conducting this 
deep sea monitoring from both surface vessels and submersibles. The monitoring data confirm that there has been 
no significant effect on the environment. The nuclear fuel aboard the submarine remains intact and no uranium in 
excess of levels expected from the fallout from past atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons has been detected by 
the Navy's inspections. In addition, Scorpion carried two nuclear-tipped Mark 45 anti-submarine torpedoes 
(ASTOR) when she was lost. The warheads of these torpedoes are part of the environmental concern. The most 
likely scenario is that the plutonium and uranium cores of these weapons corroded to a heavy, insoluble material 
soon after the sinking, and they remain at or close to their original location inside the torpedo room of the boat. If 
the corroded materials were released outside the submarine, their density and insolubility would cause them to 
settle into the sediment. 

April 1970 

During the large-scale "Ocean-70" naval exercise, K-8 suffered fires in two compartments simultaneously on 8 

April 1970. Due to short circuits that took place in III and VII compartments simultaneously at a depth of 120 
metres (390 ft), a fire spread through the air-conditioning system. Both nuclear reactors were shut down. The 
captain ordered his entire crew to abandon ship but was countermanded once a towing vessel arrived. Fifty-two 
crewmen, including the commander, Captain 2nd Rank Vsevolod Borisovich Bessonov, re-boarded the surfaced 
submarine that was to be towed. This was the first loss of a Soviet nuclear-powered submarine, which sank in 
rough seas as it was being towed in the Bay of Biscay of the North Atlantic Ocean. Eight mariners had already died 
due to certain compartments being locked to prevent further flooding as well as the spread of the fire as soon as it 
was detected. All hands on board died due to CO 2 poisoning and the flooding of the surfaced submarine during 80 
hours of damage control in stonny conditions. 73 crewmen survived. K-8 sank with four nuclear torpedoes out of 
total 24 on board to a depth of 4,680 metres (15,350 ft) approximately 490 kilometres (260 nmi) northwest of 


July 1979 

Church Rock Uranium Mill Spill in New Mexico, USA, when United Nuclear Corporation’s uranium mill tailings 
disposal pond breached its dam. Over 1,000 tons of radioactive mill waste and millions of gallons of mine effluent 
flowed into the Puerco River, and contaminants traveled downstream. 

March 1979 

Three Mile Island accident in Pennsylvania, United States exposed 2 million people near the plant to low doses of 
radiation, it was also discovered later that not only those who lived close by were affected, but Three Mile Island 
operators ordered the dumping of radioactive water into the Susquehanna River, thus impacting those downstream. 
Disease rates in areas further than 10 miles from the plant were never examined by the government, but 
epidemiologist Joseph Mangano reported a spike in infant mortality in the downwind communities two years after 
the accident. Anecdotal evidence also records effects on the region’s wildlife. For example, according to one anti¬ 
nuclear activist, Haivey Wasserman, the fallout caused “a plague of death and disease among the area’s wild 
animals and farm livestock”, including a sharp fall in the reproductive rate of the region’s horses and cows, 
reflected in statistics from Pennsylvania’s Department of Agriculture, though the Department denies a link with 

TMI. Cleanup started in August 1979, and officially ended in December 1993. Starting in 1985, almost 100 short 
tons of radioactive fuel were removed from the site. The first major phase of the cleanup was completed in 1990, 
when workers finished shipping 150 short tons of radioactive wreckage to Idaho for storage at the Department of 
Energy’s National Engineering Laboratory. However, the contaminated cooling water that leaked into the 
containment building had seeped into the building’s concrete, leaving the radioactive residue impractical to 
remove. In 1988, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission announced that, although it was possible to further 
decontaminate the Unit 2 site, the remaining radioactivity had been sufficiently contained as to pose no threat to 
public health and safety. Accordingly, further cleanup efforts were deferred to allow for decay of the radiation 
levels and to take advantage of the potential economic benefits of retiring both Unit 1 and Unit 2 together. 

Although the citizens of the three counties surrounding the site voted by a margin of 3:1 to retire Unit 1 and close 
the plant permanently, it was pennitted to resume operations in 1985. In 2009, the NRC granted a license extension 
which allows the TMI-1 reactor to operate until April 19, 2034. Ironically the accident at the plant occurred twelve 
days after the release of the movie The China Syndrome staring Jane Fonda, Michael Douglas, and Jack Lemmon. 


K-27 was officially decommissioned on 1 February 1979 and its reactor compartment was filled with a special 
solidifying mixture of furfuryl alcohol and bitumen during the summer of 1981 to seal the compartment to avoid 
pollution of the ocean with radioactive products. This work was performed by the Severodvinsk shipyard No. 893 


Then K-27 was towed to a special training area in the eastern Kara Sea, and it was scuttled there on 6 September 
1982 near the location 72 0 31'28"N., 55°30'09"E. off the northeastern coast ofNovaya Zemlya (at Stepovoy Bay), 
in a fjord at a depth of just 33 meters (108 feet). It was necessary for a naval salvage tug to ram the stem of K-27 to 
pierce its aft ballast tanks and sink it, because K-27's bow had impacted the seafloor while its stem was still afloat. 
This scuttling was performed contrary to the International Atomic Energy Agency's requirement that nuclear- 
powered submarines and surface ships must be scuttled at depths not less than 3,000 meters. 

The last scientific expedition of the "Russian Ministry of Emergencies" to the Kara Sea examined the site of the 
scuttling in September 2006. Numerous samples of the seawater, the seafloor, and the sealife were gathered and 
then analyzed. The final report stated that the radiation levels of the area were stable. Lessons in nuclear submarine 
construction and safety learned from Projekt 645 were applied in Projects 705 and 705K - that produced the Soviet 
Alfa class submarines. These were equipped with similar liquid-metal-cooled reactors. 

In September 2012 it was reported that the submarine needed to be lifted from its shallow bed in the Kara Sea. The 
vessel was said to be a "nuclear time bomb", and that the rusting and decaying vessel may be reaching a critical 
level leading to an "uncontrolled chain reaction". Although a joint Russian and Norwegian mission in 2012 did not 
find alarming levels of radioactivity in the water and soil surrounding the submarine, an urgent consideration 
pertains to the dismantling of the nuclear reactors should the submarine be raised. Because the reactors were cooled 
by liquid metals, the nuclear rods became fused with the coolant when the reactors were stopped and conventional 
methods cannot be used for disassembling the reactors. However, France's Commissariat a l'energie atomique et 
aux energies alternatives designed and donated special equipment for a dedicated dry-dock (SD-10) in Gremikha, 
which was used to dismantle the Alfa-class submarines that shared this design feature. However, since the last Alfa 
reactor was dismantled in 2011, this equipment is at risk. In 2017, plans were again mooted to raise the submarine, 
by 2022. The Krylov State Research Center of St Petersburg announced that it was working on plans for a 
catamaran floating dock, capable of such heavy lifts from the seabed. 


Fernald Feed Materials Production Center gained notoriety when it was learned that the plant was releasing 
millions of pounds of uranium dust into the atmosphere, causing major radioactive contamination of the 
surrounding areas. 


On Friday 3 October 1986, while on an otherwise routine Cold War nuclear deterrence patrol in the North Atlantic 
680 miles (1,090 km) northeast of Bermuda, the 15-year-old K-219 Russian submarine suffered an explosion and 
fire in a missile tube. The seal in a missile hatch cover failed, allowing saltwater to leak into the missile tube and 
react with residue from the missile's liquid fuel. Though there was no official announcement, a published source 
(citing no sources) said the Soviet Union claimed that the leak was caused by a collision with the submarine USS 
Augusta. Augusta was certainly operating in proximity, but both the United States Navy and the commander of K- 
219, Captain Second Rank Igor Britanov, deny that a collision took place. K-219 had previously experienced a 
similar casualty; one of her missile tubes was already disabled and welded shut, having been permanently sealed 
after an explosion caused by reaction between seawater leaking into the silo and missile fuel residue. 

Shortly after 0530 Moscow time, seawater leaking into silo six of K-219 reacted with missile fuel, producing 
chlorine and nitrogen dioxide gases and sufficient heat to explosively decompose additional fuming nitric acid to 
produce more nitrogen dioxide gas. K-219 weapons officer Alexander Petrachkov attempted to cope with this by 
disengaging the hatch cover and venting the missile tube to the sea. Shortly after 0532, an explosion occurred in 
silo six. The remains of the RSM-25 rocket and its two warheads were ejected from silo six into the sea. 

An article in Undersea warfare by Captain First Rank (Ret.) Igor Kurdin, Russian Navy - K-219's XO (executive 
officer) at the time of the incident - and Lieutenant Commander Wayne Grasdock, USN described the explosion 
occurrence as follows: 

At 0514, the BCh-2 officer and the hold machinist/engineer in compartment IV (the forward missile compartment) 
discovered water dripping from under the plug of missile tube No. 6 (the third tube from the bow on the port side). 
During precompression of the plug, the drips turned into a stream. The BCh-2 officer reported water in missile tube 
No. 6, and at 0525, the captain ordered an ascent to a safe depth (46 meters) while a pump was started in an attempt 
to dry out missile tube No. 6. At 0532, brown clouds of oxidant began issuing from under the missile-tube plug, 
and the BCh-2 officer declared an accident alert in the compartment and reported the situation to the GKP (main 
control post). Although personnel assigned to other compartments left the space, nine people remained in 
compartment IV. The captain declared an accident alert. It took the crew no more than one minute to carry out 
initial damage control measures, which included hermetically sealing all compartments. Five minutes later, at 

0538, an explosion occurred in missile tube No. 6. Lieutenant Commander Wayne Grasdock, USN 

Two sailors were killed outright in the explosion, and a third died soon afterward from toxic gas poisoning. 

Through a breach in the hull, the vessel immediately started taking on sea water, quickly sinking from its original 

depth of 40 metres (130 ft) to eventually reach a depth in excess of 300 metres (980 ft). Sealing of all of the 
compartments and full engagement of the sea water pumps in the stricken compartments enabled the depth to be 

25 sailors were trapped in a sealed section, and it was only after a conference with his incident specialists that the 
Captain allowed the Chief Engineer to open the hatch and save the 25 lives. It could be seen from instruments that 
although the nuclear reactor should have automatically shut down, it was not. Twenty-year-old enlisted seaman 
Sergei Preminin volunteered to shut down the reactor, to be enabled by operating under instruction from the Chief 
Engineer. Working with a full-face gas mask, he successfully shut down the reactor. A large fire had developed 
within the compartment, raising the pressure. When Preminin tried to reach his comrades on the other side of a 
door, the pressure difference prevented him from opening it, and he subsequently died of asphyxiation in the 
reactor compartment. 

In a nuclear safe condition, and with sufficient stability to allow it to surface, Captain Britanov surfaced K-219 on 
battery power alone. He was then ordered to have the ship towed by a Soviet freighter back to her home port of 
Gadzhievo, 7,000 kilometres (4,300 mi) away. Although a towline was attached, towing attempts were 
unsuccessful, and after subsequent poison gas leaks into the final aft compartments and against orders, Britanov 
ordered the crew to evacuate onto the towing ship, but remained aboard K-219 himself. 

Displeased with Britanov's inability to repair his submarine and continue his patrol, Moscow ordered Valery 
Pshenichny, K-219’s security officer, to assume command, transfer the surviving crew back to the submarine, and 
return to duty. Before those orders could be carried out the flooding reached a point beyond recovery and on 6 
October 1986 the K-219 sank to the bottom of the Hatteras Abyssal Plain[10][ll] at a depth of about 6,000 m 
(18,000 ft). Britanov abandoned ship shortly before the sinking. K-219's full complement of nuclear weapons was 
lost along with the vessel. 

April 1986 

Chernobyl disaster which occurred in 1986 in Ukraine. The accident killed 31 people directly and damaged 
approximately $7 billion of property. A study published in 2005 estimates that there will eventually be up to 4,000 
additional cancer deaths related to the accident among those exposed to significant radiation levels. Radioactive 
fallout from the accident was concentrated in areas of Belarus, Ukraine and Russia. Approximately 350,000 people 
were forcibly resettled away from these areas soon after the accident. Ukrainian officials estimate the area will not 
be safe for human life again for another 20,000 years. If the forests that have been contaminated by radioactive 
material catch on fire, they will spread the radioactive material further outwards in the smoke. Liquidators were the 
civil and military personnel who were called upon to deal with consequences of the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear 
disaster in the Soviet Union on the site of the event. The liquidators are widely credited with limiting both the 
immediate and long-term damage from the disaster. According to Vyacheslav Grishin of the Chernobyl Union, the 
main organization of liquidators, "25,000 of the Russian liquidators are dead and 70,000 disabled, about the same 
in Ukraine, and 10,000 dead in Belarus and 25,000 disabled", which makes a total of 60,000 dead (10% of the 600 
000, liquidators) and 165,000 disabled. 

September 1987 

Goiania accident. Four fatalities, and following radiological screening of more than 100,000 people, it was 
ascertained that 249 people received serious radiation contamination from exposure to caesium-137. In the cleanup 
operation, topsoil had to be removed from several sites, and several houses were demolished. 

April 1993 

Accident at the Tomsk-7 Reprocessing Complex, when a tank exploded while being cleaned with nitric acid. The 
explosion released a cloud of radioactive gas. 

May 1998 

The Acerinox accident was an incident of radioactive contamination in Southern Spain. A caesium-137 source 
managed to pass through the monitoring equipment in an Acerinox scrap metal reprocessing plant. When melted, 
the caesium-137 caused the release of a radioactive cloud. 

May 2005 

A Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant in the UK suffered a large leak of a highly radioactive solution, which first 
started in July 2004. British Nuclear Group’s board of inquiry determined that a design error led to the leak, while 
a complacent culture at the plant delayed detection for nine months. Operations staff did not discover the leak until 
safeguards staff reported major fluid accountancy discrepancies. 

March 2011 

Fukushima I nuclear accidents occurred after an earthquake caused a tsunami and damaged the reactor. The 
Fukushima site remains highly radioactive, with some 160,000 evacuees still living in temporary housing, and 
some land will be unfarmable for centuries. The difficult cleanup job will take 40 or more years, and cost tens of 
billions of dollars. Caesium-134 and caesium-137 were released into the environment during nearly all nuclear 
weapon tests and some nuclear accidents, most notably the Chernobyl disaster and the Fukushima Daiichi disaster. 
Caesium-137 in the environment is substantially anthropogenic (human-made). Unlike most other radioisotopes, 
caesium-137 is not produced from the same element's nonradioactive isotopes but as a byproduct of the nuclear 
fission of much heavier elements; until the building of the first artificial nuclear reactor, the Chicago Pile-1, in late 
1942, caesium-137 had not occurred on Earth in significant amounts for about 1.7 billion years 

SOURCE: Wikipedia (with some corrections, additions, and other edits) 

As of 2013, there were 434 nuclear power plants operating worldwide, and 100 of these were in the United 
States. (89) More than 2,200,000 tons of uranium has been produced worldwide with around 40,000 tons still 
being produced each year. (466) Nuclear power plants worldwide have produced more than 200,000 tonnes of 
spent fuel since the 1960s, with around 10,000 tonnes being added each year. (467) With all the accidents listed 
above, and given the toxic waste produced and its half-life, is nuclear power really an energy source which 
should be used? Why would anyone support an energy source which produces toxic waste that takes so many 
thousands of years to decay? Will there ever be a Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository, or will radioactive 
waste continue to be stored on-site at nuclear power plants? Is this on-site storage of toxic radioactive waste an 
accident waiting to happen? Why hasn’t it all been properly stored in the past? The United States, Russia, Japan, 
Italy, South Korea, Switzerland, United Kingdom, and a few other nations have all dumped radioactive waste 
into the ocean. In 1992, the New York Times reported that, 

"In the early years of the American nuclear submarine program, captains would at times flush the radioactive coolant waters 
from their reactor plants directly into the ocean, but the practice ended early in the 1960's, a fonner submarine commander 

In July 1957, when the Navy was disposing of drums containing radioactive sodium at sea, two drums would not sink, a 
history of the Atomic Energy Commission says. Naval aircraft were summoned to strafe them with machine-gun fire until 
they sank." 

"Between 1946 and 1970, the Atomic Energy Commission supervised the disposal of about 107,000 drums of low-level 
radioactive wastes at sites off the Atlantic and Pacific coasts, according to the history of the commission and a report by 
Daniel P. Finn for the Senate Intelligence Committee. 

Some radioactive waste containers were dumped in the 1950's in 300 feet of water 12 miles from Boston Harbor, and other 
containers were dumped around the Farallon Islands off San Francisco. 

Ocean dumping of low-level radioactive wastes by the United States ended about 1970 with the passage of the Marine 
Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act, referred to as the ocean dumping act. Because of safety concerns, the Navy decided 
in the 1980's that it would not scuttle the empty reactor chambers or hull sections from nuclear submarines in the ocean. They 
are now being stored at Hanford, Wash." (518) 

Chernobyl has been sitting since 1986, a toxic heap waiting to be cleaned up, and according to the Ukrainian 
Government the reactors will be dismantled by 2065. Scientists estimate the area will not be safe for human life 
again for another 20,000 years, but until then Chernobyl has become a frequently visited tourist area. The 
lingering effects from this nuclear disaster on wildlife still continue 30 years later. Die Welt reported that of the 
440,350 wild boar killed in the 2010 hunting season in Germany, over 1,000 were found to be contaminated with 
levels of radiation above the permitted limits, and this was due to residual radioactivity from Chernobyl. In 2009, 
the Norwegian Agricultural Authority reported that a total of 18,000 livestock in Norway needed to be given 
uncontaminated feed before slaughter to ensure that the meat was safe for human consumption, as there is 
residual radioactivity from Chernobyl in the plants they graze on in the wild. By 2000, some 3,500,000 citizens 
of Ukraine received state benefits for being radiation sufferers. Surrounding forests that have been contaminated 
by radiation also have the potential to catch fire and spread radiation even further to surrounding areas through 
the atmosphere via the smoke. Why are 'normal' accidents or 'system accidents' like the Three Mile Island, 
Chernobyl, and Fukushima disasters accepted and justified as being an inevitability consequence of using 
nuclear power because it is an extremely complex system? If there is even the slightest chance of an accident or 
major catastrophe from something so toxic, should not that technology be abandoned, especially when so many 
safer alternatives exist? 

Other Scars 

As of 2017, there were more than 2,000,000 miles of pipeline covering the Earth’s surface, (213) with an 
additional 118,623 miles of pipeline planned or under construction. (214) These pipelines carry oil, natural gas, 
water, and sewage, and often there are small leaks which occur polluting the Earth. 

Argo float deployments began in 2000 and continue at the rate of about 800 per year. When the battery runs out 

most of these will drift around in the deep ocean and eventually fall to the sea bed. These floats contain battery, 
hydraulic fluid, and plastic parts which now pollute the ocean floor. (107) How many thousands more of these 
floats will be deployed? Why can't these floats be designed to either be recovered when they die or in a more 
eco-friendly manner? 

There are 580,000 miles of telecommunications cables which cross the globe on the ocean floors, if satellites or 
other future technology renders these cables obsolete, much like terrestrial phone lines are now with the rise of 
cell phone use, will these cables be left to contaminate the ocean ecosystems? Worldwide there are millions of 
miles of electrical, fiber optic, telephone, and other cables stretching across the terrestrial surface of the Earth. 
How many millions of birds, squirrels, and other faunae have been electrocuted on above ground electrical 
cables? How many millions of trees and other florae are pruned or killed each year to maintain above ground 
cables? Would it not be more logical to bury all cables to protect nature from these cables and vice versa? 

Gas Transmission and Hazardous Liquid Pipelines 

Pipeline data as of 12/09/2016 


NPMS Pipelines 

Gas Transmission 
Hazardous Liquid 

Map created December. 2016 
Projection: Albers Equal Area, NAD 83 

SOURCE: National Pipeline Mapping System - 

When concrete and cement are manufactured, large amounts of carbon dioxide are emitted directly from the 
manufacturing process, as well as indirectly from the use of fossil fuels to create the energy for production. 
Depending on the origin and composition of the raw materials used to make the concrete or cement, heavy 
metals like thallium, cadmium, mercury, and selenium are also released into the atmosphere during the 
manufacturing process. Will the construction industry and other relevant industry sectors eventually replace 
traditional concrete and cement with innovative technologies which are eco-friendly? Low Temperature 
Solidification (LTS) by Solidia Technologies, not only sequesters carbon dioxide during the processing phase, is 
stronger and more versatile, costs less to produce, uses less water and energy to create, but also cures in less than 
24 hours. Other bio-composite materials like hempcrete also sequester carbon dioxide in addition to acting as an 

insulator and moisture regulator. What would the world look like if organic architecture was used more instead 
of traditional urban design and other types which do not incorporate any nature whatsoever? 

There have most likely been millions of high altitude balloons launched since the first balloon was released more 
than 230 years ago. Today thousands of high altitude balloons are still launched each year, not only by scientists 
to make atmospheric observations, but by students and balloon enthusiast with no intention of scientific research, 
but more for entertainment and replication purposes. Sometimes an effort to recover only the data and not the 
balloon is made, but with most modem-day balloons utilizing inexpensive technology, data is now transmitting 
directly to the observer and thus the balloons are now considered even more expendable so little to no effort is 
ever made to recover the balloon. Many of the balloons land in remote ecosystems or in the ocean and create 
balloon waste which pollutes an ecosystem. Research done in 2014 to assess the impacts of weather balloons in 
the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area, found that between 65% and 70% of weather balloons land in the 
ocean, and further analysis of beach cleanup data found that there were 2,460 weather balloon fragments 
recovered from 24 sites within the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area. (509) Must antiquated balloons be 
launched to make scientific observations, can they not be made with an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), 
satellites, or other innovative technology? 

In 2017, around 2,626,418 Homo sapiens died in the United States, and nearly 50% of these bodies were 
embalmed using a mixture of formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, methanol, and other solvents, and then buried in the 
ground allowing these toxic chemicals to slowly seep out contaminating the soil and groundwater. For each 
501bs of body weight 1 gallon of embalming fluid is used, each year in the United States alone, an estimated 
4,500,000 gallons of embalming fluid are put into the ground. How many millions of gallons of this toxic 
concoction have been put into the soils of Earth over the last 50 years? Can Homo sapiens not simply be buried 
naturally in the soil of Earth with no chemicals, and allow nature to do its processes through the insects, bacteria, 
fungi, and other natural elements, recycling the body as it does so well with all dead organic life? 

Before desecrating Mount Rushmore, Gutzon Borglum first destroyed Stone Mountain when he was 
commissioned to design a Confederate Memorial Carving, which would eventually become the largest bas-relief 
sculpture in the world. In 1941, Mount Rushmore National Memorial was completed, the sculpture is carved into 
the face of Mount Rushmore and features the heads of four United States presidents. Begun in 1948, the Crazy 
Horse Memorial was commissioned in response to the Mount Rushmore monument not including an indigenous 
Homo sapiens. Is it really art when another piece of beautiful art, the mountain sculpted by nature over millions 
of years, is desecrated and permanently altered? 

An estimated 4,000,000 to 5,000,000 birds are killed each year when they collide with man-made obstructions, 
(e.g. buildings, wind turbines, power lines, communications towers, etc.) (465) Will there ever be more research 
done to find a way to prevent these millions of senseless deaths, which are nothing more than another side effect 
of civilization not coexisting with nature? 


Homo sapiens Depredation of Earth 

Earth's Equilibrium Formula 

Some foolishly think the Earth is so big that it can take any depredation Homo sapiens do to it, that somehow 
things will just work out, that Homo sapiens and technology can and will fix anything, but this assumption is an 
erroneous and often fatal mistake. Along with trees and a small percentage of other flora and fauna, Homo 
sapiens are one of the longest living species which inhabit Earth, and yet this is still a very brief time, 876,000 
hours if one were to live to the age of 100. But when Homo sapiens die, their depredations and the scars that they 
leave behind on Earth from careless and thoughtless actions will last many years into the future, and some of 
these scars will last forever. J. Eric S. Thompson wrote, 

“Maya history underlines the universal truth that good ends can never justify evil means for the simple reason that evil means 

can only destroy and contaminate the end. The evil that men do lives after them.” (31) 

The entire planet of Earth has what could be termed an ‘equilibrium formula chaotic it may seem at times, this 
formula is a perfectly balanced system of processes and naturally made chemical elements which make Earth 
able to sustain organic lifeforms, among other amazing things. The Earth has a variety of different ecosystems 
which in essence compose one huge ecosystem which is the Earth itself. Four major systems on Earth work in 
conjunction with one another to make these ecosystems possible, the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and 
lithosphere. All of Earth's systems are interconnected, and things which happen in one sphere can affect the other 
spheres, and ultimately the entire system. A devastating change to the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, or 
lithosphere could cause irreversible negative impacts making all life on Earth extinct. The advent of technology 
has only exacerbated depredations done by Homo sapiens and helped to negatively impact these fragile spheres 
at a more rapid rate than in the past. Nature is resilient, withstanding and even reversing most negative impacts 
which are inflicted upon it, both naturally occurring and those peipetrated by Homo sapiens. This resilience can 
be seen in all aspects of nature and even in the simple processes which nature displays when healing itself, from 
the purification of water being filtered through the Earth itself, to sunlight UV degradation of most any 
substance. Nature can do amazing things if given time, but many of these healing processes could take hundreds, 
even thousands of years, and Homo sapiens depredations are not ceasing, they are continuing ever more rapidly 
and have far outpaced Earth’s ability to naturally heal itself. 

No species can continue to thrive and depredate its environment as Homo sapiens have done without severe 
negative consequences, and this is becoming ever more apparent with each day that passes. The current ecocide 
which is occurring in ecosystems throughout the world is expanding each year, and no square inch of Earth 
seems to not have been affected by anthropogenic activities, and every day more depredations continue to 
happen. Is a toxic Earth really what future generations should inherit? Will future generations feel as though their 
ancestors robbed them of something, as some already feel today? Will they ask why their ancestors destroyed the 
Earth without even thinking of the future? If Homo sapiens continue altering this equilibrium formula by 
destroying ecosystems, adding new ingredients, and influencing the processes, is the formula then broken 
forever, or can nature counteract these alterations with other processes possibly unknown to science? How many 
additional ingredients can be added by Homo sapiens, and how much more manipulation can the formula that 
balances all of Earth take before it no longer works, and the Earth is permanently changed? How much longer 
can Earth's biogeochemical cycle handle the stress and additional elements Homo sapiens are adding to it? How 
much more pollution can Earth take? How many more millions of gallons of toxic chemicals can Earth absorb? 
How much more anthropogenic impact can the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems of Earth withstand? How much 
more destruction can Earth endure before nature begins to collapse irreversibility? Have Homo sapiens already 
crossed the point of no return and another mass extinction is now inevitable? Can Homo sapiens coexist with this 
equilibrium formula and stop trying to modify and control it? Homo sapiens walk around an art museum or other 
delicate place created by Homo sapiens, and they do it with such care as so not to hurt the beauty which 
surrounds them, does the Earth itself deserve any less? Is Earth not as beautiful as the art creations of Homo 
sapiens ? Can Homo sapiens not treat the Earth with a delicate hand instead of a manipulative and destructive 
one? Why do only a minority of Homo sapiens see the destruction of the many? 

Toxic Unnatural Chemicals 

An irony commonly pointed out, is that the chemist Thomas Midgley, Jr., developed tetraethyllead (TEL), a 
gasoline additive which resulted in the release of large quantities of lead into the atmosphere, and that he also 
developed chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), the ozone-depleting greenhouse gas. Thus, it could be said that 
Midgley's work helped destroy the atmosphere of Earth more than any other single Homo sapiens. Although, it 
should be noted that since Midgley's time there have been many other deadly chemicals that have been invented 
and used, so this statement may not hold true for much longer. Synthetic chemicals are most often invented, little 
tested, and then manufactured in vast quantities, many are not even regulated, and the public has access to a wide 
range of highly toxic substances which they are often encouraged to use. It should also be remembered, that 
often synthetic chemicals which are first deemed safe are later found not to be. (e.g. CFCs which were said to 
have been tested and safe were a replacement for previous chemicals that were harmful on contact, CFCs were 
later linked to the destruction of the Ozone layer) Should not these chemicals be more rigorously tested and 

Synthetic chemicals are not found naturally anywhere on Earth, nature has no need for them and does not make 
them, they are only created by Homo sapiens in a laboratory, and most are toxic to all lifeforms. Since the 
chemical revolution of the 1930's, Homo sapiens have been exposed to unnatural and even toxic chemicals 
before they are bom until the moment they die, simply by breathing the air, drinking water, eating food, 
absorption through their skin by daily use of synthetic products, and even from the synthetically made clothes 
they wear. All of Homo sapiens depredations affect every living organism on Earth, there is potential exposure 
through breathing the air, ingesting water and food, or absorption into the skin or shell. Over time all living 
organisms on Earth can accumulate toxins from fertilizers, pesticides, metals, and other toxic chemicals. As 
excretion of these toxins is slow, bioaccumulation can occur over long periods of exposure, and the toxins can 
remain in the species indefinitely throughout the species lifespan causing negative health issues. This 
bioaccumulation can also potentially cause a biomagnification which can affect everything in the food chain. 
When the toxic organism is consumed, the toxicity can be passed up the food chain to the organisms feeding on 
each other sometimes also amplifying the levels of accumulation, (e.g. an insect has adsorbed a toxic chemical 
from a water source which was runoff from an herbicide that is used on a nearby farm, a bird eats a vast quantity 
of these toxic insects resulting in higher concentrations of the toxic chemical.) Bioaccumulation and 
biomagnification pose serious problems to Homo sapiens in the future as they are at the top of the food chain and 
consume many florae and faunae that could potentially biomagnify many of the toxic chemicals Homo sapiens 
are polluting the Earth with. A prime example of this can be seen in a 1987 study, which discovered the breast 
milk of Inuit women contained high levels of polybrominated biphenyls (PCBs) that were subsequently being 
passed to Inuit infants. It was concluded that it was a result of the mothers consuming fish which contained 
PCBs, and that the Inuit mothers breast milk had the highest concentration levels of PCB's of any women’s 
breast milk in the world. (661) 

There have only been a few major industrial disasters in the past which claimed a relatively small number of 
victims, and this has in part led to more public acceptance of these toxic chemicals being used in such vast 
quantities. But what most do not realize, is that pollution is a slow and silent killer which when persistent in the 
environment, be it the air, water, or soil, it will bioaccumulate and lead to premature death from cancer, 
cardiovascular, respiratory, or other ailments. And as these diseases are so commonplace and even accepted in 
society as being just a part of life, the source often is never truly identified as being environmental. 

Today the Earth is more unbalanced than it has ever been during its history. This imbalance is caused by 
anthropogenic activities, which have resulted in the highest concentrations of toxic chemicals in the air, water, 
and soil more so now than during any point of Homo sapiens brief time on Earth. How much more can the Earth 
take? Has too much pollution already been released? What long-term and possibly even irreversible 
consequences will these toxic chemicals have on Earth? How many thousands of synthetically created toxic 
chemicals that are not a natural part of Earth have been introduced into ecosystems? Why does the government 
set maximum limits and tolerable amounts of chemical exposure? Why are toxic chemicals accepted as just 

another part of life in the food, air, and water, with the Environmental Protection Agency setting contaminant 
standards? If a chemical is unnatural and possibly toxic, why is the use even tolerated? If the chemical being 
used is toxic to life and is not bio-degradable shouldn’t it be abandoned, no exceptions? What long term affects 
will all these toxic synthetic chemicals ultimately have on the Earth? 

These synthetically made unnatural toxic chemicals are relatively new additions to the world which did not exist 
until around 100 years ago, so there is no way to know what long-term effects they will perhaps have on Homo 
sapiens or Earth in the future. Rachel Carson’s stem warning in ‘Silent Spring’ more than 50 years ago has been 
ignored and forgotten by most, with newer and even deadlier chemicals becoming even more commonplace 
today. Is this the accepted norm now, that toxicity is just a part of life and few want to truly discuss or address 
the issue? Using science, Homo sapiens have created chemicals that are not naturally found anywhere on Earth, 
they are not a part of any natural process on Earth, and are not needed by nature for any reason. They are also 
usually very toxic to most forms of life and negatively impact the environment. Have not enough organisms died 
as a result of these chemicals to know that using these chemicals will only bring more death? Is there not a less 
toxic more natural way to produce food, manufacture commercial goods, and meet the needs of Homo sapiens to 
sustain life? If a chemical, element, or other source material, be it natural or synthetically made causes harm to 
any living organism on Earth, be it in the manufacturing or consumption process, why would one ever even 
attempt to utilize it? 

Some of the toxic chemicals being used have a short half-life of a few months to a few years, others are longer, 
and some even as long as several thousand years. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are resistant to 
environmental degradation and can bioaccumulate impacting the health of all living organisms. Compounds that 
make up POPs are classed as Persistent Bio-accumulative and Toxic (PBTs) or Toxic Organic Micro Pollutants 
(TOMPs). In 2001, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) adopted The Stockholm Convention in 
an attempt to regulate POPs, 180 countries have since ratified the convention except the United States and a few 
other countries. 

A 2016 study found 45 toxic chemicals present in household dust. (200) Persistent organic pollutants have even 
reached the most remote and inaccessible regions of Earth 10,000 meters below the ocean surface. A study 
released in 2017 of multiple endemic and ecologically equivalent lysianassoid amphipod Crustacea from the 
Mariana and Kermadec trenches, found polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers 
(PBDEs) present in all samples across all species at all depths in both trenches. (541) In November 2017, a 
fisherwoman from Grand Manan Island, Canada retrieved a lobster with a Pepsi logo embedded into its shell, 
which was most likely embedded during a molting stage. (634) 

Persistent Organic Pollutant 



Insecticide used in soils to kill termites, grasshoppers, western corn rootworm, and others, is also 
known to kill birds, fish, and humans. Humans are primarily exposed to Aldrin through dairy products 
and animal meats. 


Insecticide used to control tennites and on a range of agricultural crops, is known to be lethal in 
various species of birds, including mallard ducks, bobwhite quail, and pink shrimp; Chlordane has 
been postulated to affect the human immune system and is classified as a possible human carcinogen. 
Chlordane air pollution is believed the primary route of humane exposure. 


Insecticide used to control termites, textile pests, insect-borne diseases and insects living in 
agricultural soils. In soil and insects, Aldrin can be oxidized, resulting in rapid conversion to dieldrin. 
Dicldrin is highly toxic to fish and other aquatic animals, particularly frogs, whose embryos can 
develop spinal defonnities after exposure to low levels. Dieldrin has been linked to Parkinson’s 
disease, breast cancer, and classified as an immunotoxin, neurotoxic, with endocrine disrupting 
capacity. Dieldrin residues have been found in air, water, soil, fish, birds, and mammals. Human 
exposure to dieldrin primarily derives from food. 


Insecticide sprayed on the leaves of crops, and used to control rodents. Animals can metabolize 

Endrin, so fatty tissue accumulation is not an issue, however the chemical has a long half-life in soil 
for up to 12 years. Endrin is highly toxic to aquatic animals and humans as a neurotoxin. Human 

exposure results primarily through food. 


Pesticide primarily used to kill soil insects and tennites, along with cotton insects, grasshoppers, other 
crop pests, and malaria-carrying mosquitoes. Heptachlor, even at every low doses has been associated 
with the decline of several wild bird populations - Canada geese and American kestrels. In laboratory 
tests have shown high-dose heptachlor as lethal, with adverse behavioral changes and reduced 
reproductive success at low-doses, and is classified as a possible human carcinogen. Human exposure 
primarily results from food. 


First introduced in 1945-1959 to treat seeds because it can kill fungi on food crops. HCB-treated seed 
grain consumption is associated with photosensitive skin lesions, colic, debilitation, and a metabolic 
disorder called porphyria turcica, which can be lethal. Mothers who pass HCB to their infants through 
the placenta and breast milk had limited reproductive success including infant death. Human exposure 
is primarily from food. 


Insecticide used against ants and termites or as a flame retardant in plastics, rubber, and electrical 
goods. Mirex is one of the most stable and persistent pesticides, with a half-life of up to 10 years. 

Mirex is toxic to several plant, fish and crustacean species, with suggested carcinogenic capacity in 
humans. Humans are exposed primarily through animal meat, fish, and wild game. 


Insecticide used on cotton, cereal, grain, fruits, nuts, and vegetables, as well as for tick and mite 
control in livestock. Widespread Toxaphene use in the US and chemical persistence, with a half-life of 
up to 12 years in soil, results in residual Toxaphene in the environment. Toxaphene is highly toxic to 
fish, inducing dramatic weight loss and reduced egg viability. Human exposure primarily results from 
food. The compound is classified as a possible human carcinogen. 

Polychlorinated biphenyls 

One estimate (2006) suggested that 1 million tons of PCBs had been produced. 40% of this material 
was thought to remain in use. Another estimate put the total global production of PCBs on the order of 

1.5 million tons. The United States was the single largest producer with over 600,000 tons produced 
between 1930 and 1977. The European region follows with nearly 450,000 tons through 1984. It is 
unlikely that a full inventory of global PCB production will ever be accurately tallied, as there were 
factories in Poland, East Germany, and Austria that produced unknown amounts of PCBs. PCB's 
utility was based largely on their chemical stability, including low flammability, and high dielectric 
constant. In an electric arc, PCBs generate incombustible gases. Use of PCBs is commonly divided 
into closed and open applications. Examples of closed applications include coolants and insulating 
fluids (transformer oil) for transformers and capacitors, such as those used in old fluorescent light 
ballasts, hydraulic fluids, lubricating and cutting oils, etc. In contrast, the major open application of 
PCBs was in carbonless copy ("NCR") paper, which even nowadays results in paper contamination. 
Other open applications were as plasticizers in paints and cements, stabilizing additives in flexible 

PVC coatings of electrical cables and electronic components, pesticide extenders, reactive flame 
retardants and sealants for caulking, adhesives, wood floor finishes, such as Fabulon and other 
products of Halowax in the U.S., de-dusting agents, waterproofing compounds, casting agents. 

Through the 1960s Monsanto Chemical Company knew increasingly more about PCB's harmful 
effects on humans and the environment, per internal leaked documents released in 2002, yet PCB 
manufacture and use continued with few restraints until the 1970s. PCBs have been detected in the air, 
water, and soil as well as in fish and other aquatic life, PCBs can also biomagnify. As early as 1937 
Monsanto knew about the systemic toxic effects of PCBs from tests conducted on animals. And in 

1969 thy stated, “There is too much customer/market need and selfishly too much Monsanto profit to 
go out.” (234) How can a company be allowed to inflict such permanent damage to the planet and all 
the inhabitants for money and get away with it? How can the government regulators and even the 
public turn a blind eye to this type of behavior? 



Widely used as insecticide during WWII to protect against malaria and typhus. After the war, DDT 
was used as an agricultural insecticide. DDT’s persistence in the soil for up to 10-15 years after 
application has resulted in widespread and persistent DDT residues throughout the world including 
the arctic, even though it has been banned or severely restricted in most of the world. DDT is toxic to 
many organisms including birds where it is detrimental to reproduction due to eggshell thinning. DDT 
can be detected in foods from all over the world and food-borne DDT remains the greatest source of 
human exposure. Short-term acute effects of DDT on humans are limited, however long-term 
exposure has been associated with chronic health effects such as diabetes, carcinogenic, reduced 
reproductive success, and has been linked to neurological disease. 

Bolivian hemorrhagic fever was first encountered in 1962, in the Bolivian village of San Joachim, 
hence the name "Bolivian" Hemorrhagic Fever. When initial investigations failed to find an arthropod 
carrier, other sources were sought before finally determining that the disease was carried by infected 
mice. Although mosquitoes were not the cause as originally suspected, the extennination of 
mosquitoes using DDT to prevent malaria proved to be indirectly responsible for the outbreak in that 

the accumulation of DDT in various animals along the food chain led to a shortage of cats in the 
village; subsequently, a mouse plague erupted in the village, leading to an epidemic 

Once a common sight in much of the continent, the bald eagle was severely affected in the mid-20th 
century by a variety of factors, among them the thinning of egg shells attributed to use of the pesticide 
DDT. Bald eagles, like many birds of prey, were especially affected by DDT due to biomagnification. 
DDT itself was not lethal to the adult bird, but it interfered with the bird's calcium metabolism, 
making the bird either sterile or unable to lay healthy eggs. Female eagles laid eggs that were too 
brittle to withstand the weight of a brooding adult, making it nearly impossible for the eggs to hatch. 

It is estimated that in the early 18th century, the bald eagle population was 300,000-500,000, but by 
the 1950s there were only 412 nesting pairs in the 48 contiguous states of the US. With regulations in 
place and DDT banned, the eagle population rebounded. The bald eagle can be found in growing 
concentrations throughout the United States and Canada, particularly near large bodies of water. In the 
early 1980s, the estimated total population was 100,000 individuals, with 110,000-115,000 by 1992; 
the U.S. state with the largest resident population is Alaska, with about 40,000-50,000, with the next 
highest population the Canadian province of British Columbia with 20,000-30,000 in 1992. 


The chemical compound trichloroethylene is a halocarbon commonly used as an industrial solvent. 
When it was first widely produced in the 1920s, trichloroethylene's major use was to extract vegetable 
oils from plant materials such as soy, coconut, and palm. Other uses in the food industry included 
coffee decaffeination and the preparation of flavoring extracts from hops and spices. Perhaps the 
greatest use of TCE has been as a degreaser for metal parts. The first known report of TCE in 
groundwater was given in 1949 by two English public chemists who described two separate instances 
of well contamination by industrial releases of TCE. Based on available federal and state surveys, 
between 9% to 34% of the drinking water supply sources tested in the U.S. may have some TCE 
contamination, though EPA has reported that most water supplies are in compliance with the 
maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 5 ppb. Trichloroethylene has been detected in 852 Superfund 
sites across the United States, according to the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry 
(ATSDR). Under the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974, and as amended annual water quality testing is 
required for all public drinking water distributors. The EPA'S current guidelines for TCE are online. It 
should be noted that the EPA's table of "TCE Releases to Ground" is dated 1987 to 1993, thereby 
omitting one of the largest Superfund cleanup sites in the nation, the North IBW in Scottsdale, 

Arizona. Earlier, TCE was dumped here, and was subsequently detected in the municipal drinking 
water wells in 1982, prior to the study period. In 1988, the EPA discovered tons of TCE that had been 
leaked or dumped into the ground by the United States military and semiconductor industry 
(companies including Fairchild Semiconductor, Intel Corporation, and Raytheon Company) just 
outside NASA Ames in Moffett Field, Mountain View, California. The DoD has about 1,400 military 
properties nationwide that are contaminated with trichloroethylene. Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune 
in North Carolina may be the largest TCE contamination site in the country. Legislation could force 
the EPA to establish a health advisory and a national public drinking water regulation to limit 
trichloroethylene. For over twenty years of operation, RCA Corporation had been pouring toxic 
wastewater into a well in its Taoyuan City, Taiwan facility. The pollution from the plant was not 
revealed until 1994, when former workers brought it to light. Investigation by the Taiwan 
Environmental Protection Administration confirmed that RCA had been dumping chlorinated organic 
solvents into a secret well and caused contamination to the soil and groundwater surrounding the plant 
site. High levels of TCE and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) can be found in groundwater drawn as far as 
two kilometers from the site. An organization of former RCA employees reports 1375 cancer cases, 

216 cancer deaths, and 102 cases of various tumors among its members. The CDC states, 
"Trichloroethylene breaks down slowly in surface water and is removed mostly through evaporation 
to air. Trichloroethylene can slowly enter groundwater from contaminated surface water. 
Trichloroethylene is expected to remain in groundwater for long periods of time since it is not able to 
readily evaporate from groundwater." 


By-product of high temperature processes, such as incomplete combustion and pesticide production. 
Dioxins are typically emitted from the burning of hospital waste, municipal waste, and hazardous 
waste, along with automobile emissions, peat, coal, and wood. Dioxins have been associated with 
several adverse effects in humans, including immune and enzyme disorders, chloracne, and are 
classified as a possible human carcinogen. In laboratory studies of dioxin effects an increase in birth 
defects and stillbirths, and lethal exposure have been associated with the substances. Food, 
particularly from animals, is the principal source of human exposure to dioxins. 

Polychlorinated dibenzofurans 

By-product of high-temperature processes, such as incomplete combustion after waste incineration or 
in automobiles, pesticide production, and polychlorinated biphenyl production. Structurally similar to 
dioxins, the two compounds share toxic effects. Furans persist in the environment and classified as 
possible human carcinogens. Human exposure to furans primarily results from food, particularly 
animal products. 


Primarily used as an agricultural pesticide, related to DDT and Mirex. Chlordecone is toxic to aquatic 
organisms, and classified as a possible human carcinogen. Many countries have banned chlordecone 
sale and use, or intend to phase out stockpiles and wastes. 

(a-HCH) and 

Insecticides as well as by-products in the production of lindane. Large stockpiles of HCH isomers 
exist in the environment. a-HCH and 13-HCH are highly persistent in the water of colder regions, a- 
HCH and 13-HCH has been linked Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease. 

Hexabromodiphenyl ether 
(hexaBDE) and 
heptabromodiphenyl ether 

Main components of commercial octabromodiphenyl ether (octaBDE). Commercial octaBDE is 
highly persistent in the environment, whose only degradation pathway is through debromination and 
the production of bromodiphenyl ethers, which can increase toxicity. 


Pesticide used as a broad spectrum insecticide for seed, soil, leaf, tree and wood treatment, and 
against ectoparasites in animals and humans (head lice and scabies). Lindane rapidly bioconcentrates. 

It is immunotoxic, neurotoxic, carcinogenic, linked to liver and kidney damage as well as adverse 
reproductive and developmental effects in laboratory animals and aquatic organisms. Production of 
lindane produces as a by-product two other POPs a-HCH and 13-HCH. 

Pentachlorobenzene (PeCB) 

Pesticide and unintentional byproduct. PeCB has also been used in PCB products, dyestuff carriers, as 
a fungicide, a flame retardant, and a chemical intermediate. PeCB is moderately toxic to humans, 
while highly toxic to aquatic organisms. 

Tetrabromodiphenyl ether 
(tetraBDE) and 
pentabromodiphenyl ether 

Industrial chemicals and the main components of commercial pentabromodiphenyl ether (pentaBDE). 
PentaBDE has been detected in humans in all regions of the world. 

Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid 

Used in the production of fluoropolymers. PFOS and related compounds are extremely persistent, 
bioaccumulating and biomagnifying. The negative effects of trace levels of PFOS have not been 


Insecticides to control pests on crops such coffee, cotton, rice and sorghum and soybeans, tsetse flies, 
ectoparasites of cattle. They are used as a wood preservative. Toxic to humans and aquatic and 
terrestrial organisms, linked to congenital physical disorders, mental retardation, and death. 
Endosulfans’ negative health effects are primarily liked to its endocrine disrupting capacity acting as 
an antiandrogen. 



A brominated flame retardant primarily used in thermal insulation in the building industry. HBCD is 
persistent, toxic and ecotoxic, with bioaccumulative and long-range transport properties. 

Polycyclic aromatic 
hydrocarbons (PAEls) 

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of more than 100 different chemicals that are 
released from burning coal, oil, gasoline, trash, tobacco, wood, or other organic substances such as 
charcoal-broiled meat. They are also called polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. They can occur 
naturally when they are released from wildfires and volcanoes and can be manufactured. Other 
activities that release PAHs include driving, agricultural burning, roofing or working with coal tar 
products, sound- and water-proofing, coating pipes, steelmaking, and paving with asphalt. PAHs are 
persistent organic pollutants (POPs). 

Manufactured PAHs are colorless, white, or pale yellow solids. Some can take the form of needles, 
plates, crystals, or prisms. PAHs are found in the asphalt that covers roads and parking lots and in 
smoke and soot. They are also found in coal tar, coal tar pitch, and creosotes, which are by-products 
of distilling and heating coal and some woods. Coal tar products are used in medicines for skin 
diseases, such as psoriasis, and in insecticides, fungicides, and pesticides. Coal tar creosote is widely 
used for wood preservation. Coal tar and coal tar pitch are used for roofing, road paving, aluminum 
smelting, and production of coke, a coal residue used as fuel. Some PAHs are used to make 
medicines, dyes, plastics, and pesticides. 

(PFTBA), or FC43 

This compound is produced by the electronic industry, along with other perfluoroalkyl amines. It is 
used as an ingredient in Fluosol and in some Fluorinert coolant liquids. In 2013, this liquid was shown 
by researchers at the University of Toronto to be a greenhouse gas, with warming properties more 
than 7,000 times that of carbon dioxide over a 100 year period, and that, as such, it is the most potent 
greenhouse gas ever discovered. The researchers also reported that the gas can persist in the 
atmosphere for up to 500 years. 

Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) 
or C8 

Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), also known as C8, is a synthetic perfluorinated carboxylic acid and 
fluorosurfactant. One industrial application is as a surfactant in the emulsion polymerization of 
fluoropolymers. It has been used in the manufacture of such prominent consumer goods as 

polytetrafluoroethylene (commercially known as Teflon). PFOA has been manufactured since the 

1940s in industrial quantities. PFOA persists indefinitely in the environment. It is a toxicant and 
carcinogen in animals. PFOA has been detected in the blood of more than 98% of the general US 
population in the low and sub-parts per billion range, and levels are higher in chemical plant 
employees and surrounding subpopulations. How general populations are exposed to PFOA is not 
completely understood. PFOA has been detected in industrial waste, stain resistant carpets, carpet 
cleaning liquids, house dust, microwave popcorn bags, water, food, some cookware and PTFE such as 
Teflon. As a result of a class-action lawsuit and community settlement with DuPont, three 
epidemiologists conducted studies on the population surrounding a chemical plant that was exposed to 
PFOA at levels greater than in the general population. The studies concluded that there was probably 
an association between PFOA exposure and six health outcomes: kidney cancer, testicular cancer, 
ulcerative colitis, thyroid disease, hypercholesterolemia (high cholesterol), and pregnancy-induced 
hypertension. The primary manufacturer of PFOs - 3M (known as Minnesota Mining and 
Manufacturing Company from 1902 to 2002) - began a production phase-out in 2002 in response to 
concerns by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Eight other companies agreed to 
gradually phase them out by 2015. 

PFOA contaminates every continent. PFOA has been detected in the central Pacific Ocean at low parts 
per quadrillion ranges, and at low parts per trillion levels in coastal waters. Due to the surfactant 
nature of PFOA, it has been found to concentrate in the top layers of ocean water. PFOA is detected 
widely in surface waters, and is present in numerous mammals, fish, and bird species. PFOA is in the 
blood or vital organs of Atlantic salmon, swordfish, striped mullet, gray seals, common cormorants, 
Alaskan polar bears, brown pelicans, sea turtles, sea eagles, Midwestern bald eagles, California sea 
lions and Laysan albatrosses on Sand Island, a wildlife refuge on Midway Atoll, in the middle of the 
North Pacific Ocean, about halfway between North America and Asia. However, wildlife has much 
less PFOA than humans, unlike PFOS and other longer perfluorinated carboxylic acids; in wildlife, 
PFOA is not as bioaccumulative as longer perfluorinated carboxylic acids. 

Most industrialized nations have average PFOA blood serum levels ranging from 2 to 8 parts per 
billion; the highest consumer sub-population identified was in Korea—with about 60 parts per billion. 
In Peru, Vietnam, and Afghanistan blood serum levels have been recorded to be below one part per 
billion. In 2003-2004 99.7% of Americans had detectable PFOA in their serum with an average of 
about 4 parts per billion, and concentrations of PFOA in US serum have declined by 25% in recent 
years. Despite a decrease in PFOA, the longer perfluorinated carboxylic acid PFNA is increasing in 
the blood of US consumers. 

PFOA is a carcinogen, a liver toxicant, a developmental toxicant, and an immune system toxicant, and 
also exerts hormonal effects including alteration of thyroid hormone levels. Animal studies show 
developmental toxicity from reduced birth size, physical developmental delays, endocrine disruption, 
and neonatal mortality. PFOA alters lipid metabolism. It is an agonist of PPARa and is a peroxisome 
proliferator in rodents contributing to a well understood form of oxidative stress. Humans are 
considered less susceptible to peroxisome proliferation than rodents. However, PFOA has been found 
to be a liver carcinogen in rainbow trout via a potential estrogenic mechanism, which may be more 
relevant to humans. 



Fertilizers and the Nitrogen and Phosphorus Cycles 

Many of the indigenous Homo sapiens around the world practiced, and some still do practice, a type of 
permaculture, which is a very different method of agriculture working with nature instead of against it. Their 
methods do not involve the use of fertilizers or pesticides, and when they practice monoculture it is done in a 
responsible manner as not to overtax the land. Shade grown coffee which provides a habitat for species diversity 
for plants, insects, birds, and mammals as well as biotic processes such as pest control and pollination while also 
helping in abiotic processes with soil erosion and water retention is a good example of a permaculture or 
agroforestry alternative to monoculture. Many past societies did not practice monoculture, they worked with 
nature using it to their advantage. Theodora Kroeber described the agricultural method of the California 
indigenous as, 

“The Indians did no planting, being, hunters, gatherers, and harvesters of grains and seeds and fruits and roots which grew 

wild in their natural habitat and uncultivated state-diggers if you will...but like the people of ancient Egypt, by dropping the 

seeds of com and beans and squash into the red ooze exposed by the seasonal flooding and retreat of the river, and allowing 
the crops to grow under the blazing sun with a minimum of attention from the planters.” (95) 

And J. Eric S. Thompson in describing the Maya process for agriculture as, 

‘‘Early in the year the Maya makes a clearing of about ten acres with axe and machete. Burning off the felled trees as soon as 
they are dry, he plants the seeds in holes dug with a pointed pole in the ash-covered soil just before the rains in early May. 

Milpas are allowed to revert to forest usually after two seasons (the Maya say that they get too weed-ridden after that to work 
again and the yield also drops), and a new section of forest is cleared.” (3) 

As a result of modern-day monoculture, many of the soils used for agriculture have been over-exploited and now 
require fertilizer inputs to offset nutrient exports in harvested food products. The nitrogen and phosphorus 
cycles of Earth have become unbalanced from anthropogenic activities, mainly from the use of fertilizers in 
agriculture. In an attempt to correct this, the Haber-Bosch process is employed to produce fertilizers, and it has 
been used for more than 100 years. It has led to not only a heavy dependence on fertilizers, but increased use, 
and also resulted in enormous environmental damage as well. Semoka wrote, 

“The yield of intensive agriculture is virtually always limited by the availability of the nitrogen needed to produce the proteins 
in living cells. Natural sources provide only about half the global N requirement in agriculture, and we are completely reliant 
on inorganic nitrogen fertilizers for the rest. Smil (1999) points out that of all the technological inventions of the 20th century, 
the Haber-Bosch process has made the most difference to the survival of humanity. This is the industrial technique that is used 
to synthesize nitrogen fertilizer using the atmosphere as nitrogen source. Smil (2001) claims that approximately 40% of the 
world’s dietary protein supply in the mid-1990s originated from fertilizer produced in this way. The Haber-Bosch technique, 
though improved and more energy efficient nowadays, is still recognizably the process that first went into commercial 
production to convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia, just before the First World War began. 

Without the Haber-Bosch synthesis of ammonia, almost two-fifths of the world’s population would not be here - and our 
dependence will only increase as the global count moves from six to nine or ten billion people. 

A major problem arises from the fact that the efficiency with which organisms pick up nitrogen in the soil is low (generally in 
the range 25 to 50%), with the excess leached and washed from the soil predominantly as nitrate. The resulting massive 
introduction of nitrogen into the natural system creates problems in a wide variety of terrestrial and marine ecosystems. 
Eutrophication, recognized as an endemic problem in the surface waters of agricultural areas of the developed world in the 
1960s and 1970s, has now extended to the marine environment, causing hypoxia (so called “dead zones”) in near shore 
waters. The most notorious extends for about 500 kilometers along the shore of the Gulf of Mexico, where the Mississippi 
brings nitrates and phosphates from the agricultural hinterland to fertilize algal growth (Figure N7). Decomposition of the 
algae deoxygenates the water and leads to the death of aquatic species. 

Excess nitrate may also contaminate groundwater. In southern Ontario, Canada, for example a third of the rural drinking water 
resource is contaminated in this way, and potentially threatens the occurrence of methaemoglobinaemia or blue baby 
syndrome. This is a rare condition that prevents red blood corpuscles from transporting in an affected child. 

Finally, nitrogen in oxidized fonn may remain in the atmosphere to cause smog, or, by dissolving in atmospheric 
precipitation, to produce acid rain.” (13) 

Most of this phosphorus ends up as waste and ultimately ends up polluting the rivers and oceans, Soon states 

“The bulk of P removed from agricultural production systems eventually ends up as waste products, which are discharged into 
the environment. The concentration of human population in urban centers, and of livestock production, aggravates the waste 
recycling problem. There are opportunities, not unlimited however, for recycling waste product P by land utilization and for 
its proper stewardship.” 

“Superimposed on the natural cycle is human influence such as the mining and consumption of phosphates by society, and the 
release of P in domestic and industrial effluents. It has been estimated that globally about half of the 17 Tg P yr-1 carried to 
the oceans is derived from natural sources and the other half is dumped into rivers from human activities. The benefits of 
human influence on the P cycle to agriculture are obvious and the drawbacks to some aquatic ecosystems may be equally 
obvious.” (14) 

Through science and technology Homo sapiens have expanded irrigated croplands, and thus the use of fresh 
water for agriculture has also increased. A 2015 United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization report stated, 

"The area of irrigated croplands has doubled in the last 50 years and irrigation now accounts for 70 percent of all water 
diversions on the planet. Irrigated areas account for 34 percent of crop production, yet only cover 24 percent of all cropland 
area." (472) 

With this increase in irrigated croplands, there has also been even more contamination of the Earth’s 
hydrosphere from the excessive use of fertilizers and pesticides. All the excess fertilizer used in agriculture 
which is not consumed by the plant eventually ends up as runoff into streams and rivers, and ultimately flows 
into the ocean. Nitrogen and phosphorus used in fertilizers creates cyanobacteria or algal blooms, which then 
deplete oxygen levels in the water and leads to ‘dead zones ’ in which no life can live. Sewage runoff and 
industrial dumping of toxic chemicals also contribute to the eutrophication. Since at least the middle of the 20 th 
century, deoxygenation has been occurring in both the open ocean and coastal waters. Globally, there were less 
than 50 waterbodies in the 1960's which had recorded and published accounts of hypoxia, by 2008 this number 
increased to about 400. In the United States, 307 of 647 estuarine ecosystems have hypoxia. (542) Research in 
2011 done by the World Resources Institute and the Virginia Institute of Marine Science identified more than 
530 dead zones worldwide and found 228 other areas that exhibited signs of marine eutrophication. (469) In some 
countries around the world there are a variety of toxic chemicals that are purposefully dumped into the rivers or 
streams, with the erroneous notion that they will simply wash away into the ocean and that the large amount of 
water will dilute the toxic chemical enough so that it poses no further direct danger. But initially, these chemicals 
can affect the aquatic ecosystems they pass through destroying florae and faunae which inhabit these ecosystems 
including the shoreline, and eventually these toxic chemicals reach the Earth's oceans polluting coastal areas and 
even the ocean depths. Would there not be less water and soil pollution and less soil erosion if hydroculture, 
greenhouses, roof-top gardens, and terrariums were used for agriculture, instead of the predominant land-based 


Particulate Organic Carbon (mg/m ! ) 

20 50 100 200 500 1.000 

Population Density (persons/km 2 ) 
10 100 1,000 

Dead Zone Size (km-) 

unknown • * * # 0 0 

0.1 I 10 100 Ik 10k 

SOURCE: NASA - Ocean dead zones highlighted in red. - 

Weeds and Pests 

Homo sapiens classify some florae as weeds or undesirable for one reason or another, and then attempt to 

eradicate them by playing God purely for aesthetic reasons. Take the edible dandelion for instance, a beautiful 
species of florae with a yellow flower which feeds many different species of insects, yet when some Homo 
sapiens see this flora species growing on the land surrounding their dwelling they barbarically rip it from the 
ground by the roots or spray it with a toxic herbicide. Other Homo sapiens attempt to control florae by killing 
aphids or other insects which naturally either coexist with or feed on the flora. Many Homo sapiens view ants, 
cockroaches, rodents, and other faunae which clean up the waste left behind by Homo sapiens as pests, spraying 
unnatural toxic chemicals to rid themselves of these so-called pests. Perhaps if one would simply change their 
living habits and become more organized and clean, pests would not be as much of an issue, or one could choose 
to simply coexist with nature and accept the fact that they are a sloven type individual and allow nature to help 

Building owners now fumigate entire buildings using tents in an effort to suffocate and poison faunae deemed as 
pests. Some of the chemicals that have been used to fumigate buildings are: Methyl bromide, 1,3- 
dichloropropene, dazomet (methyl isothiocyanate precursor), chloropicrin, DBCP (banned worldwide), 
formaldehyde, hydrogen cyanide, iodoform, methyl isocyanate, phosphine, and sulfuryl fluoride. Americans 
spent $14,000,000,000 in 2016 on professional pest control services in a futile attempt to mainly control ants, 
cockroaches, and termites. (157) How many millions of gallons of insecticides are sprayed on residential and 
commercial buildings? How much of these insecticides are washed away into the water supply when it rains or 
when a building is cleaned? How much remains to potentially harm the human inhabitants of the building? How 
many other insects are killed unintentionally as a result of these pesticides? Do Homo sapiens have such severe 
entomophobia that they are willing subject their living area and personal belongings to such toxic chemicals? 

Pesticides (fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, algicides, molluscicides, miticides and rodenticides) 

In 2007, the world dumped 5,200,000,000 pounds of pesticides onto the Earth’s surface, and between 1970 and 
2007 the United States alone used 36,244,000,000 pounds of pesticides. (228) In the United States, the EPAhas 
registered more than 18,000 pesticides which also kill an estimated 72,000,000 birds each year. (371) Pesticides 
are not selective in their extermination and kill not only the unwanted flora or fauna species, but also many other 
non-target species during the process. How many trillions of insects have been killed by electric bug zappers 
since they were invented around 1911? How many billions of gallons of synthetically created pesticides have 
been dumped onto the Earth’s surface over the last 100 years? How many trillions of flora and fauna species 
have perished as a result of these toxic chemicals? How many pesticides were used not for agriculture, but for an 
aesthetically pleasing space around a dwelling? Pesticide residue has also been found on a large amount of fresh 
produce and can be ingested when the food is consumed. The Environmental Working Group states that, 

“...EWG's analysis of tests by the U.S. Department of Agriculture found that nearly 70 percent of samples of 48 types of 
conventionally grown produce were contaminated with pesticide residues. The USDA found a total of 178 different 
pesticides and pesticide breakdown products on the thousands of produce samples it analyzed. The pesticides persisted on 
fruits and vegetables even when they were washed and, in some cases, peeled.” (253) 

World and U.S. Amount of Pesticide Active Ingredient Used 
by Pesticide Type, 2006 and 2007 Estimates 

Year and 
Pesticide Type 

World Market 

U.S. Market 

U.S. Percentage 

of World Market 

Mil lbs 


Mil lbs 



Herbicides 1 


















Other 2 













Herbicides 1 


















Other 2 












Note: Totals may not add due to rounding. Does not include wood preservatives, specialty biocides, and chlorine/ 

Source: EPA estimates based on Cropnosis Limited (, USDA/NASS (, and 
EPA proprietary data. 

1. “Herbicides"' include herbicides and plant growth regulators. 

2. “Other'* includes nematicides, fumigants, and other miscellaneous conventional pesticides, and other chemicals used 
as pesticides such as sulfur, petroleum oil, and sulfuric acid. 

SOURCE: EPA - Pesticides Industry Sales and Usage 2006 and 2007 Market Estimates 

In June 2013, Oregon landscapers sprayed blooming linden trees with a pesticide named Safari in an attempt to 
kill aphids, but resulted in the death of more than 25,000 bees. (154) The use of pesticides is a self-destructive 
and pointless effort made in an attempt to attain the unachievable goal of dominating nature. Pesticides are not 
selective in what they kill, every organism on Earth which is susceptible to them will be negatively impacted and 
many will die. Monoculture is one of the main reason why pesticides even need to be used, and if agricultural 
methods were to change by simply planting a diverse group of florae following nature’s example, perhaps there 
would be no need for toxic pesticides Could more organic natural alternatives be used instead? Instead of using 
toxic pesticides, would it not be more natural and logical to allow and encourage native dragonflies, damselflies, 
robberflies, bats, arachnids, frogs, and other natural predators of the unwanted faunae? Rachel Carson wrote, 

“They should not be called ‘insecticides’, but ‘biocides’. The whole process of spraying seems caught up in an endless spiral. 

Since DDT was released for civilian use, a process of escalation has been going on in which ever more toxic materials must 
be found. This has happened because insects, in a triumphant vindication of Darwin’s principle of the survival of the fittest, 
have evolved super races immune to the particular insecticide used, hence a deadlier one has always to be developed—and 
then a deadlier one than that. It has happened also because, for reasons to be described later, destructive insects often undergo 
a ‘flareback’, or resurgence, after spraying, in numbers greater than before. Thus the chemical war is never won, and all life is 
caught in its violent crossfire. 

Future historians may well be amazed by our distorted sense of proportion. How could intelligent beings seek to control a few 
unwanted species by a method that contaminated the entire environment and brought the threat of disease and death even to 
their own kind? 

It is a sobering fact, however, as we shall presently see, that the method of massive chemical control has had only limited 
success, and also threatens to worsen the very conditions it is intended to curb. 

Under primitive agricultural conditions the farmer had few insect problems. These arose with the intensification of 
agriculture—the devotion of immense acreages to a single crop. Such a system set the stage for explosive increases in specific 
insect populations. Single-crop farming does not take advantage of the principles by which nature works; it is agriculture as 

an engineer might conceive it to be. Nature has introduced great variety into the landscape, but man has displayed a passion 
for simplifying it. Thus he undoes the built-in checks and balances by which nature holds the species within bounds. One 
important natural check is a limit on the amount of suitable habitat for each species. Obviously then, an insect that lives on 
wheat can build up its population to much higher levels on a farm devoted to wheat than on one in which wheat is 
intermingled with other crops to which the insect is not adapted. The same thing happens in other situations. A generation or 
more ago, the towns of large areas of the United States lined their streets with the noble elm tree. Now the beauty they 
hopefully created is threatened with complete destruction as disease sweeps through the elms, carried by a beetle that would 
have only limited chance to build up large populations and to spread from tree to tree if the elms were only occasional trees in 
a richly diversified planting.” (16) 

Over the last 75 years, there have been thousands of pesticides created from various synthetic chemical 
combinations which were tested or used and deemed to be too lethal for direct environmental use and were 
subsequently abandoned or used for another purpose. Nature has many natural pesticides which some thi nk 
could possibly be used instead of the synthetically toxic ones which are made in a lab. Glenn King at the 
University of Queensland has been studying spider venom to isolate the specific compounds which are lethal to 
insects. The spider venom has hundreds of compounds, many of which are not toxic to vertebrates but are lethal 
to insects. These natural compounds could potentially be the basis for very effective natural insecticides. But is a 
natural insecticide the solution, or is simply not using any pesticides at all and the answer is simply working with 
nature instead of against it? A pesticide, whether created synthetically in a lab or from something made within 
nature will always have the potential to disrupt the balance of an ecosystem by attempting to influence and 
control it. 

There is much scientific debate about the negative effects of pesticides, and most have been proven to cause 
some sort of negative impacts to either Homo sapiens health or the environment. When monoculture is practiced 
combined with the overuse of fertilizers, it creates an environment where specific species can and do thrive, and 
in response Homo sapiens solution is to use more pesticides in an attempt to counteract this. If conditions are 
right for a specific species it will thrive and dominate an ecosystem, this is something that usually does not 
happen too often or for an extended period of time in the natural world, as nature keeps everything balanced. 
Although there are often large colonies or clusters of florae, nature does not grow just a single flora species 
anywhere on Earth, there is always biodiversity and this biodiversity helps to keep a balance in the ecosystems. 
Given enough time the florae and faunae which have been deemed pests, will usually adapt and become immune 
to the toxic chemicals being used to exterminate them. There are currently over 125 known mosquito species 
which have a documented resistance to one or more insecticides, demonstrating once again that nature can and 
will evolve around Homo sapiens attempts to control it using toxic chemicals. (431) This is evolution through the 
process of adaptation, and it will occur until the species is either extinct or has adapted to the negative changes in 
the environment. This is precisely why nature will always elude anthropogenic efforts to control it, either 
through adaptation or even extinction. Not only is it barbaric and irresponsible to use pesticides, it is idiotic to 
think that nature will ever be controlled by Homo sapiens. Rachel Carson wrote, 

"Life is a miracle beyond our comprehension, and we should reverence it even where we have to struggle against it...The 
resort to weapons such as insecticides to control it is a proof of insufficient knowledge and of an incapacity so to guide the 
processes of nature that brute force becomes unnecessary. Humbleness is in order; there is no excuse for scientific conceit 

"Through all these new, imaginative, and creative approaches to the problem of sharing our earth with other creatures there 
runs a constant theme, the awareness that we are dealing with life—with living populations and all their pressures and 
counter-pressures, their surges and recessions. Only by taking account of such life forces and by cautiously seeking to guide 
them into channels favorable to ourselves can we hope to achieve a reasonable accommodation between the insect hordes and 

The current vogue for poisons has failed utterly to take into account these most fundamental considerations. As crude a 
weapon as the cave man’s club, the chemical barrage has been hurled against the fabric of life—a fabric on the one hand 
delicate and destructible, on the other miraculously tough and resilient, and capable of striking back in unexpected ways. 

These extraordinary capacities of life have been ignored by the practitioners of chemical control who have brought to their 
task no ‘high-minded orientation’, no humility before the vast forces with which they tamper. The ‘control of nature’ is a 
phrase conceived in arrogance, bom of the Neanderthal age of biology and philosophy, when it was supposed that nature 
exists for the convenience of man. The concepts and practices of applied entomology for the most part date from that Stone 
Age of science. It is our alanning misfortune that so primitive a science has anned itself with the most modern and terrible 

weapons, and that in turning them against the insects it has also turned them against the earth." (618) 

Some of the Pesticides Invented 




A broadleaf herbicide in the phenoxy group used in turf and no-till field crop production. Now, it is 
mainly used in a blend with other herbicides to allow lower rates of herbicides to be used; it is the 
most widely used herbicide in the world, and third most commonly used in the United States. It is an 
example of synthetic auxin (plant hormone). 


A broadleaf herbicide in the pyridine group, used to control weeds on grassland, such as docks, 
thistles and nettles. It is notorious for its ability to persist in compost. 


A triazine herbicide, is used in corn and sorghum for control of broadleaf weeds and grasses. Still used 
because of its low cost and because it works well on a broad spectrum of weeds common in the US 
corn belt, atrazine is commonly used with other herbicides to reduce the overall rate of atrazine and to 
lower the potential for groundwater contamination; it is a photosystem II inhibitor. 


Chlorpyrifos (CPS), sold under many brandnames, is an organophosphate pesticide used to kill a 
number of pests including insects and wonns. It is used on crops, animals, and buildings. It was 
introduced in 1965 by Dow Chemical Company. It acts on the nervous system of insects by inhibiting 
acetylcholinesterase. Toxicity results in more than 10,000 human deaths a year. Chlorpyrifos is 
considered moderately hazardous to humans by the World Health Organization. Exposure surpassing 
recommended levels has been linked to neurological effects, persistent developmental disorders and 
autoimmune disorders. Exposure during pregnancy may harm the mental development of children, 
and most home use was banned in 2001 in the U.S. In agriculture, it is "one of the most widely used 
organophosphate insecticides" in the United States, and before being phased out for residential use 
was one of the most used residential insecticides. On March 29, 2017, EPA Administrator Scott Pruitt 
denied a petition to ban chlorpyrifos. 

Chlorpyrifos is used around the world to control insects in agricultural, residential and commercial 
settings. Its use in residential applications is restricted in multiple countries. According to Dow, 
chlorpyrifos is registered for use in nearly 100 countries and is annually applied to approximately 8.5 
million crop acres. The crops with the most use are cotton, corn, almonds and fruit trees including 
oranges, bananas and apples. Chlorpyrifos was first registered for use in the United States in 1965 for 
control of foliage and soil-bom insects. The chemical became widely used in residential settings, on 
golf course turf, as a structural tennite control agent, and in agricultural use. Most residential use has 
been phased out in the United States; however it remains a common agricultural insecticide. 

EPA estimated that between 1987 and 1998 about 21 million pounds of chlorpyrifos were annually 
used in the US. In 2007, chlorpyrifos was the most commonly used organophosphate pesticide in the 
United States, with an estimated 8 to 11 million pounds applied, and the 14th most common 
agricultural pesticide ingredient overall in 2007 in the United States. Acute poisoning is probably most 
common in agricultural areas in Asia, where many small farmers are affected. Poisoning may be due 
to occupational or accidental exposure or intentional self-harm. Precise numbers of chlorpyrifos 
poisonings globally are not available. Pesticides are used in an estimated 200,000+ suicides annually 
with 10s of thousands due to chlorpyrifos. Organophosphates are thought to constitute two thirds of 
ingested pesticides in rural Asia. Chlorpyrifos is among the commonly used pesticides used for self- 
harm. In the US, the number of incidents of chlorpyrifos exposure reported to the US National 

Pesticide Information Center shrank sharply from over 200 in the year 2000 to less than 50 in 2003, 
following the residential ban. 

In 2011, EPA estimated that, in the general US population, people consume 0.009 micrograms of 
chlorpyrifos per kilogram of their body weight per day directly from food residue. Children are 
estimated to consume a greater quantity of chlorpyrifos per unit of body weight from food residue, 
with toddlers the highest at 0.025 micrograms of chlorpyrifos per kilogram of their body weight per 
day. People may also ingest chlorpyrifos from drinking water or from residue in food handling 
establishments. The EPA’s acceptable daily dose is 0.3 micrograms/kg/day. Before residential use was 
restricted in the US, data from 1999-2000 in the national NHANES study detected the metabolite 

TCPy in 91% of human urine samples tested. In samples collected between 2007 and 2009 from 
families living in Northern California, TCPy was found in 98.7% of floor wipes tested and in 65% of 
urine samples tested. For both children and adults, the average concentrations of TCPy in urine were 
lower in the later study. A 2008 study found dramatic drops in the urinary levels of chlorpyrifos 
metabolites when children in the general population switched from conventional to organic diets. 

Certain populations with higher likely exposure to chlorpyrifos, such as people who apply pesticides, 
work on farms, or live in agricultural communities, have been measured in the US to excrete TCPy in 
their urine that are 5 to 10 times greater than levels in the general population. Air monitoring studies 
conducted by the California Air Resources Board (CARB) documented chlorpyrifos in the air of 
California communities. Analyses indicate that children living in areas of high chlorpyrifos use are 
often exposed to levels that exceed EPA dosages. Advocacy groups monitored air samples in 
Washington and Lindsay, California, in 2006 with comparable results. Grower and pesticide industry 
groups argued that the air levels documented in these studies are not high enough to cause significant 
exposure or adverse effects, but a follow-up biomonitoring study in Lindsay showed that people there 
display above-normal chlorpyrifos levels. 


A broadleaf herbicide in the pyridine group, used mainly in turf, rangeland, and for control of noxious 
thistles. Notorious for its ability to persist in compost, it is another example of synthetic auxin. 


A postemergent broadleaf herbicide with some soil activity, is used on turf and field com. It is another 
example of a synthetic auxin. 

Glufosinate ammonium 

A broad-spectrum contact herbicide, is used to control weeds after the crop emerges or for total 
vegetation control on land not used for cultivation. 

Fluazifop (Fuselade Forte) 

A post emergence, foliar absorbed, translocated grass-selective herbicide with little residual action. It 
is used on a very wide range of broad leaved crops for control of annual and perennial grasses. 


A systemic, selective herbicide, is used for the control of broad-leaved weeds in small grain cereals, 
maize, pastures, rangeland and turf. It is a synthetic auxin. In cereal growing, fluroxypyr’s key 
importance is control of cleavers, Galium aparine. Other key broadleaf weeds are also controlled. 


A systemic nonselective herbicide, is used in no-till bumdown and for weed control in crops 
genetically modified to resist its effects. It is an example of an EPSPs inhibitor. 


A nonselective herbicide, is used for the control of a broad range of weeds, including terrestrial annual 
and perennial grasses and broadleaf herbs, woody species, and riparian and emergent aquatic species. 


A selective herbicide for both the pre- and postemergent control of some annual and perennial grasses 
and some broadleaf weeds, kills plants by inhibiting the production of branched chain amino acids 
(valine, leucine, and isoleucine), which are necessary for protein synthesis and cell growth. 


An imidazolinone manufactured by BASF for postemergence application that is an acetolactate 
synthase (ALS) inhibitor. Sold under trade names Raptor, Beyond, and Clearcast. 


A nonselective herbicide used in the control of grasses and broadleaf weeds. It works by inhibiting 

MCPA (2-methyl-4- 
chlorophenoxyacetic acid) 

Aphenoxy herbicide selective for broadleaf plants and widely used in cereals and pasture. 


A pre-emergent herbicide widely used for control of annual grasses in com and sorghum; it has 
displaced some of the atrazine in these uses. 


A nonselective contact herbicide used for no-till bumdown and in aerial destruction of marijuana and 
coca plantings. It is more acutely toxic to people than any other herbicide in widespread commercial 


A pre-emergent herbicide, is widely used to control annual grasses and some broad-leaf weeds in a 
wide range of crops, including corn, soybeans, wheat, cotton, many tree and vine crops, and many 
turfgrass species. 


A pyridine herbicide, mainly is used to control unwanted trees in pastures and edges of fields. It is 
another synthetic auxin. 

Sodium chlorate 

A nonselective herbicide, is considered phytotoxic to all green plant parts. It can also kill through root 
absorption. (disusecLbanned in some countries) 


A systemic, foliar herbicide in the pyridine group, is used to control broadleaf weeds while leaving 
grasses and conifers unaffected. 


Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD) is an organochlorine insecticide that is slightly irritating to 
the skin. DDD is a metabolite of DDT. DDD is colorless and crystalline; it is closely related 
chemically and is similar in properties to DDT, but it is considered to be less toxic to animals than 

DDT. DDD is in the “Group B2” classification, meaning that it is a probable human carcinogen. This 
is based on an increased incidence of lung tumors in male and female mice, liver tumors in male mice, 

and thyroid tumors in male rats. Further basis is that DDD is so similar to and is a metabolite of DDT, 
another probable human carcinogen. DDD is no longer registered for agricultural use in the United 
States, but the general population continues to be exposed to it due to its long persistence time. The 
primary source of exposure is oral ingestion of food. 

Clear Lake is well-known among entomologists for the Clear Lake gnat (Chaoborus astictopus) and 
historical control efforts. This species of "phantom midge" (so called because the larvae are 
transparent and very difficult to see) measures less than 1/4" long and resembles a tiny mosquito, but 
is non-biting. Clear Lake gnat hatches start anytime from March through June, depending on weather. 
Before pesticide use began in the 1940s (Refer to Rachel Carson's book Silent Spring, chapter 4), the 
gnat was so abundant around the lake in the summer that large piles of dead gnats appeared beneath 
streetlights, looking like dirty snow. The gnat swarms were so thick that people driving along the edge 
of the lake reported stopping every 1/4 mile to clean off the gnats off the windshields and headlights 
of their cars so they could see, and pedestrians tied kerchiefs over their faces to avoid inhaling the 
gnats. In 1949, as part of an effort to boost tourism and improve the local economy, DDD 
(dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane) was applied to the lake in heavy doses to eradicate the gnats that 
were driving summer tourists away from the lake. The treatment succeeded in controlling the gnats 
that year and for the following year, however in 1953 the gnat population rebounded, prompting 
another application in 1954. The final application of DDD to Clear Lake was made in 1957 (Cook 
1963). Numbers of western grebe were found dead, their tissues containing high concentrations of 
DDD. The effects were devastating to the local ecology. From 1962 to 1975 carefully planned 
applications of methyl parathion were made for Clear Lake gnat control. The gnat still occurs in Clear 
Lake, but at much lower numbers than in the 1940s-1970s. The Clear Lake gnat's population is 
believed to be kept in check now by two introduced fish species (the threadfin shad and the inland 
silverside) that compete with the Clear Lake gnat for its preferred zooplankton for food. 


Several sulfonylureas, including Flazasulfuron and Metsulfuron-methyl, which act as ALS inhibitors 
and in some cases are taken up from the soil via the roots. 

acid (2,4,5-T) 

Was a widely used broadleaf herbicide until being phased out starting in the late 1970s. While 2,4,5-T 
itself is of only moderate toxicity, the manufacturing process for 2,4,5-T contaminates this chemical 
with trace amounts of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzop-dioxin (TCDD). TCDD is extremely toxic to 
humans. With proper temperature control during production of 2,4,5-T, TCDD levels can be held to 
about .005 ppm. Before the TCDD risk was well understood, early production facilities lacked proper 
temperature controls. Individual batches tested later were found to have as much as 60 ppm of TCDD. 
2,4,5-T was withdrawn from use in the USA in 1983, at a time of heightened public sensitivity about 
chemical hazards in the environment. Public concern about dioxins was high, and production and use 
of other (non-herbicide) chemicals potentially containing TCDD contamination was also withdrawn. 
These included pentachlorophenol (a wood preservative) and PCBs (mainly used as stabilizing agents 
in transformer oil). Some feel that the 2,4,5-T withdrawal was not based on sound science. 2,4,5-T has 
since largely been replaced by dicamba and triclopyr. 

Agent Orange 

In 1951, biological warfare scientists at Fort Detrick, Maryland began investigating defoliants based 
upon Galston's Ph.D. discoveries with TIB A. They eventually produced the toxic defoliant Agent 
Orange used by the British Air Force during the Malayan Emergency and the U.S. Air Force during 
the Vietnam War. 

Galston was deeply affected by this development of his research. In 1972, he described his viewpoint: 

"I used to think that one could avoid involvement in the antisocial consequences of science simply by 
not working on any project that might be turned to evil or destructive ends. I have learned that things 
are not all that simple, and that almost any scientific finding can be perverted or twisted under 
appropriate societal pressures. In my view, the only recourse for a scientist concerned about the social 
consequences of his work is to remain involved with it to the end. His responsibility to society does 
not cease with publication of a definitive scientific paper. Rather, if his discovery is translated into 
some impact on the world outside the laboratory, he will, in most instances, want to follow through to 
see that it is used for constructive rather than anti-human purposes.... Science is now too potent in 
transforming our world to pennit random fallout of the social consequences of scientific discoveries. 
Some scrutiny and regulation are required, and I believe that scientists must play an important role in 
any bodies devised to carry out such tasks." 

While the United States government argued that herbicides like Agent Orange did not qualify as 
chemical weapons, Galston asserted that their use was a violation of the United Nations Resolution of 
December 5, 1966 against the wartime use of “asphyxiating, poisonous or other gases” and 
“analogous liquids, materials or devices”. He was clear about the devastating impact of their use on 
the environment, and warned of the likelihood that they were harmful to animals and humans as well 
as plants. Galston visited Vietnam and China, viewing the environmental damage in Vietnam first- 

hand: "The complex mangrove community lining the estuaries is virtually completely killed by a 
single spray with agent Orange and regeneration takes several decades, at least... The complete killing 
of the mangroves is certain to have a major effect on the ecology of the estuarine zone... The 
ecological and social effects of our massive use of herbicides have not been properly evaluated, and it 
is doubtful that they ever will be." 

Beginning in 1965, Galston lobbied both his scientific colleagues and the government to stop using 
Agent Orange. Galston and U.S. geneticist Matthew S. Meselson appealed to the U. S. Department of 
Defense to investigate the human toxicology of Agent Orange. The research conducted by the 
Department of Defense led to the discovery that Agent Orange caused birth defects in laboratory rats. 

In 1971 this information led to U.S. President Richard M. Nixon banning the use of the substance. 

Later research showed that Agent Orange contained high levels of teratogenic dioxins. 

A herbicide blend used by the British military during the Malayan Emergency and the U.S. military 
during the Vietnam War between January 1965 and April 1970 as a defoliant. It was a 50/50 mixture 
of the n-butyl esters of 2,4,5-T and 2,4-D. Because of TCDD contamination in the 2,4,5-T component, 
it has been blamed for serious illnesses in many people who were exposed to it. Part of the "Rainbow 
Herbicides" used during the Vietnam War, others were, Agent Pink, Agent Green, Agent Purple, Agent 
Blue, and Agent White. Agent Orange was manufactured for the U.S. Department of Defense 
primarily by Monsanto Corporation and Dow Chemical. Between 1961 and 1967, the U.S. Air Force 
sprayed 20,000,000 U.S. gallons of concentrated herbicides over 6 million acres of crops and trees, 
affecting an estimated 13% of South Vietnam's land. In 1965, 42% of all herbicide was sprayed over 
food crops. Not only was the vegetation affected, but also the wildlife: “a mid-1980s study by 
Vietnamese ecologists documented just 24 species of birds and 5 species of mammals present in 
sprayed forests and converted areas, compared to 145-170 bird species and 30-55 kinds of mammals 
in intact forest.” 

In 1965, members of the U.S. Congress were told ‘‘crop destruction is understood to be the more 
important purpose ... but the emphasis is usually given to the jungle defoliation in public mention of 
the program.” Military personnel were told they were destroying crops because they were going to be 
used to feed guerrillas. They later discovered nearly all of the food they had been destroying was not 
being produced for guerrillas; it was, in reality, only being grown to support the local civilian 
population. For example, in Quang Ngai province, 85% of the crop lands were scheduled to be 
destroyed in 1970 alone. This contributed to widespread famine, leaving hundreds of thousands of 
people malnourished or starving. Military film footage of U.S. troops spraying Agent Orange from a 
riverboat in Vietnam. U.S. Air Force records show at least 6,542 spraying missions took place over the 
course of Operation Ranch Hand. By 1971, 12 percent of the total area of South Vietnam had been 
sprayed with defoliating chemicals, at an average concentration of 13 times the recommended U.S. 
Department of Agriculture application rate for domestic use. In South Vietnam alone, an estimated 10 
million hectares of agricultural land was ultimately destroyed. In some areas, TCD Dconcentrations in 
soil and water were hundreds of times greater than the levels considered safe by the U.S. 

Environmental Protection Agency. The campaign destroyed 5 million acres (20,000 km2) of upland 
and mangrove forests and millions of acres The U.S. military began targeting food crops in October 
1962, primarily using Agent Blue; the American public was not made aware of the crop destruction 
programs until 1965 (and it was then believed that crop spraying had begun that spring). In 1965, 42 
percent of all herbicide spraying was dedicated to food crops. The first official acknowledgement of 
the programs came from the State Department in March 1966. 

Vietnamese victims affected by Agent Orange attempted a class action lawsuit against Dow Chemical 
and other US chemical manufacturers, but District Court Judge Jack B. Weinstein dismissed their 
case. They appealed, but the dismissal was cemented in February 2008 by the Court of Appeals for the 
Second Circuit. As of 2006, the Vietnamese government estimates that there are over 4,000,000 
victims of dioxin poisoning in Vietnam, although the United States government denies any conclusive 
scientific links between Agent Orange and the Vietnamese victims of dioxin poisoning. In some areas 
of southern Vietnam, dioxin levels remain at over 100 times the accepted international standard. The 
U.S. Veterans Administration has listed prostate cancer, respiratory cancers, multiple myeloma, 

Diabetes mellitus type 2, B-cell lymphomas, soft-tissue sarcoma, chloracne, porphyria cutanea tarda, 
peripheral neuropathy, and spina bifida in children of veterans exposed to Agent Orange. On the 9th of 
August 2012, the United States and Vietnam began a cooperative cleaning up of the toxic chemical on 
part of Danang International Airport, marking the first time Washington has been involved in cleaning 
up Agent Orange in Vietnam. 


Warfarin first came into commercial use in 1948 as a rat poison. In 1954 it was approved for medical 
use in the United States. Coumarins (4-hydroxycoumarin derivatives) are used as rodenticides for 
controlling rats and mice in residential, industrial, and agricultural areas. Warfarin is both odorless and 

tasteless, and is effective when mixed with food bait, because the rodents will return to the bait and 
continue to feed over a period of days until a lethal dose is accumulated (considered to be 1 mg/kg/day 
over about six days). It may also be mixed with talc and used as a tracking powder, which accumulates 
on the animal's skin and fur, and is subsequently consumed during grooming. The LD50 is 50-500 
mg/kg. The IDLH value is 100 mg/m3 (warfarin; various species). 

The use of warfarin itself as a rat poison is now declining, because many rat populations have 
developed resistance to it, and poisons of considerably greater potency are now available. Other 4- 
hydroxycoumarins used as rodenticides include coumatetralyl and brodifacoum, which is sometimes 
referred to as "super-warfarin", because it is more potent, longer-acting, and effective even in rat and 
mouse populations that are resistant to warfarin. Unlike warfarin, which is readily excreted, newer 
anticoagulant poisons also accumulate in the liver and kidneys after ingestion. However, such 
rodenticides may also accumulate in birds of prey and other animals that eat the poisoned rodents or 

Warfarin is used to cull vampire bat populations in areas where human-wildlife conflict is a concern. 
Vampire bats are captured with mist nets and coated with a combination of petroleum jelly and 
warfarin. The bat returns to its roost and other members of the roost become poisoned as well by 
ingesting the warfarin after reciprocal grooming. Suspected vampire bat roosts may also be coated in 
the warfarin solution, though this kills other bat species and remains in the environment for years. The 
efficacy of killing vampire bats to reduce rabies transmission is questionable, however; a study in Peru 
showed that culling programs did not lead to lower transmission rates of rabies to livestock and 


Diesel, and other heavy oil derivatives, are known to be informally used at times, but are usually 
banned for this purpose. Many individuals use gasoline and used oil to kill weeds by pouring it 
directly onto the unwanted flora, this not only kills the flora but also contaminates the soil. 


Daminozide — also known as Alar, Kylar, B-NINE, DMASA, SADH, or B 995 — is a plant growth 
regulator, a chemical sprayed on fruit to regulate their growth, make their harvest easier, and keep 
apples from falling off the trees before they are ripe. This makes sure they are red and firm for storage. 
Alar was first approved for use in the U.S. in 1963, it was primarily used on apples until 1989 when it 
was voluntarily withdrawn by the manufacturer after the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 
proposed banning it based on concerns about cancer risks to consumers. 


An avicide is any substance (normally, a chemical) which can be used to kill birds. Commonly used 
avicides include strychnine, DRC-1339 (3-chloro-4-methylaniline hydrochloride, Starlicide) and 

CPTH (3-chloro-p-toluidine, the free base of Starlicide), and Avitrol (4-aminopyridine). Chloralose is 
also used as an avicide. In the past, highly concentrated fonnulations of parathion in diesel oil were 
also used, applied by aircraft spraying over the nesting colonies of the birds. It is impossible to 
minimize risk from avicides for non-targets species. 

Starlicide is lethal to starlings with an acute oral LD50 of 3.8 milligrams per kilogram body weight, 
but it is less toxic to most other birds. Grain-eating game birds such as bobwhite quail, pheasants 
(Phasianus colchicus) and rooks (Corvus frugilegus) are also vulnerable. Hawks and mammals are 
resistant to the poison. Starlings are killed in a slow, "nonviolent" death by uremic poisoning and 
congestion of major organs. The effect is described as "a grayish white, frost-like material of uric acid 
overlaying the serosal surfaces of the various organs, accompanied by sterile inflammation and 
necrosis in the affected and adjacent tissues" akin to avian visceral gout. The site of action is believed 
to be in the kidney. 

Uses for CPTH include killing blackbirds on sprouting rice and on com and soybean fields. For these 
and other uses the poison is often given with brown rice. Research continues to improve the 
effectiveness of delivery on brown rice by causing the poison to be retained on the bait longer and 
resist degradation by sunlight. The effect of the poison is believed to be cumulative: for example, the 
LC50 for starlings was 4.7 ppm over 30 days, but only 1.0 ppm when fed for 90 days. 

In 2009, a culling with starlicide received national attention after USDA employees dispensed the 
poison in Griggstown, New Jersey, to kill an estimated 5,000 starlings that plagued feed lots and 
dairies on local farms. When "it began raining birds", community members became alarmed, unsure 
whether a toxin or disease was at work. Two property owners in the area reported collecting more than 
150 birds each from their land. 

In January 2011, there was another incident in Yankton, South Dakota, causing public alann. The 
USDA had poisoned the birds in Nebraska to protect farmers’ feeds. 

Starlicide can and does kill nontarget species of birds that eat at feedlots and other places it is used. 
However, this rarely occurs because of the places that Starlicide is used. Rusty blackbirds (Euphagus 
carolinus), once an abundant species that is declining precipitously, have been theorized to be 
declining as a result of the use of Starlicide. However, this issue has been analyzed and found to be 
non-significant and not discussed by Avery (2013). Rusty blackbirds primarily feed on invertebrates in 
wet woodlands and near streams throughout the year. Even though they roost with other blackbirds, 
Rusty Blackbirds usually will not feed with them. It should be noted that rusty blackbirds are a species 
not likely to be taken protecting crops because they mostly feed in wet woodland bottoms on acorns, 
pine seeds, fruits, and animal matter during winter, but sometimes will be found in feedlots (Avery 
2013). Even at the highest potential nontarget take with Starlicide, few, if any, would be taken and not 
a cause a decline in their population. Habitat issues, possibly on their Canadian breeding habitat and 
on wintering grounds in the southeastern United States such as the decline of wetlands, is likely the 
primary reason for their decline. 

SOURCE: Wikipedia (with some corrections, additions, and other edits) 

SOURCE: National Museum of the U.S. Air Force - This image taken in the 1960s shows 4 U.S. Air Force C-123s spraying herbicides in 
Vietnam during operation Ranch Hand, part of the herbicidal warfare program during the Vietnema War called 'Operation Trail Dust', 
around 20% of the forests of South Vietnam were sprayed at least once with an herbicide, mostly Agent Orange. 

In response to the 2016 Florida Zika outbreak, Miami-Dade County officials began to use naled, a highly toxic 
pesticide which has been banned in the European Union. Repeated exposure in humans can cause adult health 
issues as well as issues with neurodevelopment, growth, and respiratory health in children. It is highly toxic to 
bees, birds, butterflies, other insects, and aquatic life. It was recently linked to the precipitous decline of the 
butterfly in South Florida. (153) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency states, 

"Naled is currently being applied by aerial spraying to about 16 million acres within the mainland United States as part of 
routine mosquito control, but it can also be used following natural disasters such as hurricanes and floods: In 2004, it was 
used extensively to treat eight million acres across Florida as part of the emergency responses to hurricanes. In 2005 after 
Hurricane Katrina, five million acres of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas were treated with naled to kill mosquitoes. Naled 
has been used in highly populated major metropolitan areas as well as other areas. Historically, naled has been used in Puerto 
Rico in attempts to control dengue. In 1987, the CDC carried out aerial spraying of naled across 177,000 acres of 
metropolitan San Juan.” (152) 

If the Florida bonneted bat Eumops floridanus was not near extinction, would the initial rapid spreading of the 
Zika virus have been slower and the invasion possibly even contained? If toxic pesticides and other 
anthropogenic activities had not decimated native dragonflies, damselflies, robberflies, bats, arachnids, frogs, 
and other natural predators of the mosquito, would this Zika outbreak have ever even occurred? 

Atmospheric Pollution 

Inversion increases atmospheric pollution in Delhi, Los Angeles, Lahore, Beijing, Mexico City, Tehran, and 
other cities. The air quality in many cities around the world is so bad that some citizens are forced to wear a 
mask. The World Health Organization (WHO) reported, that in 2012 an estimated 3,700,000 Homo sapiens died 
worldwide as a result of urban and rural air pollutions sources in addition to 4,300,000 Homo sapiens who died 
as a result of exposure when cooking indoors with coal, wood, and biomass stoves. (260) Excessive air pollution, 
mainly nitrogen dioxide, is often the by-product of poor or even non-existent regulations for transport, energy, 
waste management, and industry. 

The 1997, 2005, 2006, 2009, 2013, and 2015 Southeast Asian hazes were all a result of slash-and-bum activities 
in the nearby rainforests of Indonesia. Stubble burning of wheat and other grain harvest areas which causes loss 
of soil nutrients, creates atmospheric pollution, and kills native florae and faunae, is still fairly common in the 
United States, France, India, and China. And every year, from December to April, anthropogenic pollution from 
automobiles, factories, and coal power plants creates a brown haze which engulfs the North Indian Ocean, South 
Asia, and Southeast Asia. This Indo-Asian haze aka Atmospheric Brown Cloud or Asian Brown Cloud, has been 
occurring for more than 25 years and has killed millions of Homo sapiens while also leaving millions more with 
permanent respiratory or other health issues. Since the early coal burning days in 1750, a similar event called 
Arctic Haze has been observed in the Arctic where pollution gets trapped during the winter months. (254) The 
Asian Dust storms which are a natural occurrence and have been for thousands of years, are now not only 
increasing in longevity and frequency, but have also become toxic from industrial pollutants like: sulfur, carbon 
monoxide, mercury, cadmium, chromium, arsenic, lead, zinc, copper, asbestos, and microscopic plastic. 
Although the film was censored by the Chinese government a few days after being released and viewed by more 
than 100,000,000 million Chinese, Chai Jing's 2015 documentary 'Under the Dome', for the first time, showed 
the severity of the air pollution in China. Fortunately, the power and freedom of the Internet have again allowed 
the truth to overcome censorship and ultimately prevail, as the film is still available on YouTube and through 
other social media sites. 

Each day, thousands of businesses around the world, from restaurants to factories, release a variety of toxic 
fumes into the atmosphere from their activities. Anytime chemicals are used, manufactured, or disposed of 
through incineration they can pollute the atmosphere. These chemicals, when released into the atmosphere, then 
have the potential to contaminate the soil and water through rain exposure. How many millions of air fresheners 
and other sprays are used every day toxifying the atmosphere with unnatural chemicals in an attempt to mask 
other odors, many of which are natural and could be simply eliminated by cleaning? 

SOURCE: National Library of Medicine / TOXMAP - Total United States Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) between 1998 and 2015 as 
well as the Canadian National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) between 1994 and 2013. - 


Some cities around the world bum garbage which is collected from the inhabitants of the city. This plastic and 
other synthetically based debris is released into the atmosphere in the form of a toxic smoke and into the soils 
and water as a toxic ash. In addition, millions of individuals around the world dispose of their personal rubbish 
in this manner also. As a combined result of firewood burning, vehicle emissions, crop residue burning in 
agricultural fields, and factory emissions, India has the worst air quality in the world. A recent WHO report 
found that of the top 50 cities with the worst air quality 22 of them were in India. (258) This atmospheric 
pollution has also resulted in events like the Great smog of Delhi in 2016, which had a major impact on all areas 
of the city and led to a shutdown of schools, businesses, government services, and forced many residents to stay 
home for days. On November 8, 2017 at 4pm, the United States Embassy in New Delhi reported the AQI 
reached 1,110. By comparison on the same day the maximum AQI reached in Los Angeles was 82, New York 
63, Mexico City 164, Shanghai 221, London 82, Sydney 30, Hong Kong 156, and Tokyo 191. (592) A recent 
analysis by WHO found that between 2008 and 2013 global urban air pollution levels increased by 8%, with far 
more low- and middle-income countries having toxic air. The WHO report stated, 

"More than 80% of people living in urban areas that monitor air pollution are exposed to air quality levels that exceed WHO 
limits. While all regions of the world are affected, populations in low-income cities are the most impacted. 

According to the latest urban air quality database, 98% of cities in low- and middle income countries with more than 100 000 
inhabitants do not meet WHO air quality guidelines. However, in high-income countries, that percentage decreases to 56%.” 


Scientist speculate that the excessive amount of Carbon Dioxide caused by Homo sapiens could remain in the 
atmosphere for 50 to 400 years. Some chemicals and the by-products which have been produced, like carbon 

tetrafluoride, are expected to remain in the atmosphere for an estimated 50,000 years. Nitrogen dioxide 
emissions have since decreased dramatically between 2005 and 2014, as new regulations have been implemented 
in many countries, but too much is still emitted. In December 2015, Steve Cole and Ellen Gray of NASA 
reported that, 

"These changes in air quality patterns aren't random," said Bryan Duncan, an atmospheric scientist at NASA's Goddard Space 
Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, who led the research. "When governments step in and say we're going to build 
something here or we're going to regulate this pollutant, you see the impact in the data." 

"The United States and Europe are among the largest emitters of nitrogen dioxide. Both regions also showed the most 
dramatic reductions between 2005 and 2014. Nitrogen dioxide has decreased from 20 to 50 percent in the United States, and 
by as much as 50 percent in Western Europe. Researchers concluded that the reductions are largely due to the effects of 
environmental regulations that require technological improvements to reduce pollution emissions from cars and power 

China, the world's growing manufacturing hub, saw an increase of 20 to 50 percent in nitrogen dioxide, much of it occurring 
over the North China Plain. Three major Chinese metropolitan areas — Beijing, Shanghai, and the Pearl River Delta — saw 
nitrogen dioxide reductions of as much as 40 percent." 

"In the Middle East, increased nitrogen dioxide levels since 2005 in Iraq, Kuwait and Iran likely correspond to economic 
growth in those countries. However, in Syria, nitrogen dioxide levels decreased since 2011, most likely because of the civil 
war, which has interrupted economic activity and displaced millions of people." (84) 

SOURCE: NASA - This global map shows the concentration of nitrogen dioxide in the atmosphere as detected by the Ozone 
Monitoring Instrument aboard the Aura satellite, averaged over 2014. - 

- 0.3 - 0.2 - 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 

ANH 3 rate (ppbv yr 1 ) 

SOURCE: NASA - Global ammonia concentrations in the atmosphere have steadily increased over the last 15 years, mainly from 
widespread use of fertilizers for agriculture and vast amounts of animal waste produced from livestock. Global atmospheric ammonia 
trends measured from space from 2002 to 2016. Hot colors represent increases from a combination of increased fertilizer application, 
reduced scavenging by acid aerosols and climate warming. Cool colors show decreases due to reduced agricultural burning or fewer 
wildfires. Credit: Juying Warner/GRL. 

Some Major Air Pollutants 

Air Pollutant 


Carbon dioxide (CCb) 

The current episode of global warming is attributed primarily to increasing industrial CO 2 emissions into 
Earth’s atmosphere. The global annual mean concentration of CO 2 in the atmosphere has increased markedly 
since the Industrial Revolution, from 280 ppm to 409 ppm as of 2017. The present concentration is the 
highest in the past 800,000 years and likely the highest in the past 20 million years. The increase has been 
caused by anthropogenic sources, particularly the burning of fossil fuels and deforestation. 

Sulfur dioxide (S02) 

Produced as a by-product of the burning of coal and petroleum. It is a major factor in causing Acid Rain. 

Ammonia (NH3) 

Ammonia (NH3) - emitted from agricultural processes. Ammonia is a compound with the formula NH3. It is 
normally encountered as a gas with a characteristic pungent odor. Ammonia contributes significantly to the 
nutritional needs of terrestrial organisms by serving as a precursor to foodstuffs and fertilizers. Ammonia, 
either directly or indirectly, is also a building block for the synthesis of many pharmaceuticals. Although in 
wide use, ammonia is both caustic and hazardous. In the atmosphere, ammonia reacts with oxides of nitrogen 
and sulfur to form secondary particles. 

chloro fluorocarbons 
(CFCs) and 



These toxic chemicals are a potent greenhouse gas most famous for the depletion the ozone layer which 
allows harmful ultraviolet rays to reach the earth’s surface. This can lead to skin cancer, disease to eye and 
can even cause damage to plants. Used in a wide range of applications like pharmaceuticals, agrichemicals, 
fluoropolymers, refrigerants, surfactants, anesthetics, oil-repellents, catalysis, and water-repellents. Banned 
by many countries but still used in some areas of the world in limited quantities. CFCs have largely been 
replaced by Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) which do not harm the ozone layer as much; however, they do 
contribute to global warming. Their atmospheric concentrations and contribution to anthropogenic 
greenhouse gas emissions are rapidly increasing, causing international concern about their radiative forcing. 

Sulfur fluorides 

Sulfur hexafluoride an extremely potent greenhouse gas with an estimated atmospheric lifetime of 800-3200 

years. It is mainly used in the electrical industry for semiconductor manufacturing. It was also used to fill 

Nike Air bags in all of their shoes from 1992-2006. How many millions of these shoes were made and how 
much of this gas used to make a gimmick for a consumer product? It is used as a filler gas in tennis balls, is 
there not another substance that could be used? How many millions of tennis balls are made every year? 

Carbon Monoxide 

Carbon monoxide is present in small amounts in the atmosphere, chiefly as a product of volcanic activity but 
also from natural and man-made fires (such as forest and bushfires, burning of crop residues, and sugarcane 
fire-cleaning). The burning of fossil fuels also contributes to carbon monoxide production. Carbon monoxide 
is a short-lived greenhouse gas and also has an indirect radiative forcing effect by elevating concentrations of 
methane and tropospheric ozone through chemical reactions with other atmospheric constituents (e.g., the 
hydroxyl radical, OH.) that would otherwise destroy them. Through natural processes in the atmosphere, it is 
eventually oxidized to carbon dioxide. Carbon monoxide is both short-lived in the atmosphere (on average 
about two months) and spatially variable in concentration. Carbon monoxide is a temporary atmospheric 
pollutant in some urban areas, chiefly from the exhaust of internal combustion engines (including vehicles, 
portable and back-up generators, lawn mowers, power washers, etc.), but also from incomplete combustion of 
various other fuels (including wood, coal, charcoal, oil, paraffin, propane, natural gas, and trash). Large CO 
pollution events can be observed from space over cities. 

Sulfur hexafluoride 

Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is an inorganic, colorless, odorless, non-flammable, extremely potent greenhouse 
gas, which is an excellent electrical insulator. More than 10,000 tons of SF 6 are produced per year, most of 
which (over 8,000 tons) is used as a gaseous dielectric medium in the electrical industry. Other main uses 
include an inert gas for the casting of magnesium, and as an inert filling for insulated glazing windows. Was 
used to fill Nike Air bags in all of their shoes from 1992-2006. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on 
Climate Change, SF6 is the most potent greenhouse gas that it has evaluated, with a global warming potential 
of 23,900 times that of CO 2 when compared over a 100-year period. Measurements of SF6 show that its 
global average mixing ratio has increased by about 0.2 ppt (parts per trillion) per year to over 7 ppt. Sulfur 
hexafluoride is also extremely long-lived, is inert in the troposphere and stratosphere and has an estimated 
atmospheric lifetime of 800-3200 years. Average global SF6 concentrations increased by about seven percent 
per year during the 1980s and 1990s, mostly as the result of its use in the magnesium production industry, and 
by electrical utilities and electronics manufacturers. 


Tetrafluoromethane is sometimes used as a low temperature refrigerant. It is used in electronics 
micro fabrication alone or in combination with oxygen as a plasma etchant for silicon, silicon dioxide, and 
silicon nitride. Main industrial emissions of tetrafluoromethane besides hexafluoroethane are produced during 
production of aluminum using Hall-Heroult process. It is very stable, has an atmospheric lifetime of 50,000 


Produced as a by-product from the livestock industry and from landfills. Also known as natural gas, it is 
extracted from the Earth and used as an energy source. Emitting less carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and